Soursop

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Soursop, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy276 kJ (66 kcal)
Carbohydrates16.84 g
- Sugars13.54 g
- Dietary fiber3.3 g
Fat0.3 g
Protein1 g
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.07 mg (6%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.05 mg (4%)
Niacin (vit. B3)0.9 mg (6%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.253 mg (5%)
Vitamin B60.059 mg (5%)
Folate (vit. B9)14 μg (4%)
Choline7.6 mg (2%)
Vitamin C20.6 mg (25%)
Calcium14 mg (1%)
Iron0.6 mg (5%)
Magnesium21 mg (6%)
Phosphorus27 mg (4%)
Potassium278 mg (6%)
Sodium14 mg (1%)
Zinc0.1 mg (1%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
 
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Annona muricata var. subonica
Soursop fruit, whole and in longitudinal section
Soursop, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy276 kJ (66 kcal)
Carbohydrates16.84 g
- Sugars13.54 g
- Dietary fiber3.3 g
Fat0.3 g
Protein1 g
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.07 mg (6%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.05 mg (4%)
Niacin (vit. B3)0.9 mg (6%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.253 mg (5%)
Vitamin B60.059 mg (5%)
Folate (vit. B9)14 μg (4%)
Choline7.6 mg (2%)
Vitamin C20.6 mg (25%)
Calcium14 mg (1%)
Iron0.6 mg (5%)
Magnesium21 mg (6%)
Phosphorus27 mg (4%)
Potassium278 mg (6%)
Sodium14 mg (1%)
Zinc0.1 mg (1%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
A. muricata flower

Soursop is the fruit of Annona muricata, a broadleaf, flowering, evergreen tree native to Mexico, Cuba, Central America, the Caribbean, and northern South America, primarily Colombia, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Soursop is also produced in Mozambique, Somalia and Uganda. Today, it is also grown in some areas of Southeast Asia, as well as in some Pacific islands. It was most likely brought from Mexico to the Philippines by way of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade.[citation needed] It is in the same genus as the chirimoya and the same family as the pawpaw.

The soursop is adapted to areas of high humidity and relatively warm winters; temperatures below 5 °C (41 °F) will cause damage to leaves and small branches, and temperatures below 3 °C (37 °F) can be fatal. The fruit becomes dry and is no longer good for concentrate.

Other common names include: "Coração de Boi" Mozambique, Evo (Ewe, Volta Region, Ghana),"Ekitafeeli", Uganda, Aluguntugui (Ga, Greater Accra Region, Ghana) guanábana (Spanish), graviola (Brazilian Portuguese, pronounced: [gɾɐviˈɔlɐ]), anona (European Portuguese), corossol (French),කටු අනෝදා (Sinhalese), sorsaka (Papiamento), adunu (Acholi), Brazilian pawpaw, guyabano, guanavana, toge-banreisi, durian benggala, durian belanda, nangka blanda, thu-rian khack (Thai), sirsak, zuurzak (Dutch) and nangka londa.[1] In Malayalam, it is called mullaatha, literally thorny custard apple. The other lesser-known Indian names are shul-ram-fal and Lakshmana Phala. and in Harar (Ethiopia) in Harari language known for centuries as Amba Shoukh (Thorny Mango or Thorny Fruit).

The flavour has been described as a combination of strawberry and pineapple, with sour citrus flavour notes contrasting with an underlying creamy flavour reminiscent of coconut or banana.

Contents

Cultivation and uses[edit]

The plant is grown as a commercial herb crop for its 20–30 cm (7.9–12 in) long, prickly, green fruit, which can have a mass of up to 15 lb (6.8 kg),[2] making it probably the second biggest annona after the junglesop.

Fruit and leaves of Annona muricata

Away from its native area, some limited production occurs as far north as southern Florida within USDA Zone 10; however, these are mostly garden plantings for local consumption. It is also grown in parts of Southeast Asia and abundant on the Island of Mauritius. The soursop will reportedly fruit as a container specimen, even in temperate climates, if protected from cool temperatures.[citation needed]

The flesh of the fruit consists of an edible, white pulp, some fiber, and a core of indigestible, black seeds. The species is the only member of its genus suitable for processing and preservation.[citation needed] The sweet pulp is used to make juice, as well as candies, sorbets, and ice cream flavorings.

In Mexico, Colombia and Harar (Ethiopia), it is a common fruit, often used for dessert as the only ingredient, or as an agua fresca beverage; in Colombia, it is a fruit for juices, mixed with milk. Ice cream and fruit bars made of soursop are also very popular. The seeds are normally left in the preparation, and removed while consuming, unless a blender is used for processing.

In Indonesia, dodol sirsak, a sweetmeat, is made by boiling soursop pulp in water and adding sugar until the mixture hardens. Soursop is also a common ingredient for making fresh fruit juices that are sold by street food vendors. In the Philippines, it is called guyabano, obviously derived from the Spanish guanabana, and is eaten ripe, or used to make juices, smoothies, or ice cream. Sometimes, they use the leaf in tenderizing meat. In Vietnam, this fruit is called mãng cầu Xiêm in the south, or mãng cầu in the north, and is used to make smoothies, or eaten as is. In Cambodia, this fruit is called tearb barung, literally "western custard-apple fruit." In Malaysia, it is known in Malay as durian belanda and in East Malaysia, specifically among the Dusun people of Sabah, it is locally known as lampun. Popularly, it is eaten raw when it ripens, or used as one of the ingredients in Ais Kacang or Ais Batu Campur. Usually the fruits are taken from the tree when they mature and left to ripen in a dark corner, whereby they will be eaten when they are fully ripe. It has a white flower with a very pleasing scent, especially in the morning. While for people in Brunei Darussalam this fruit is popularly known as "Durian Salat", widely available and easily planted.

In the United States, soursop has been used by the New Belgium Brewing Company in their Rolle Bolle summer seasonal beer.[3]

Health[edit]

The fruit contains significant amounts of vitamin C, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2.[4]

Preliminary in vitro laboratory research suggests that soursop may have potential to treat some infections.[5][6][7][8][9] Research carried out in the Caribbean has suggested a connection between consumption of soursop and atypical forms of Parkinson's disease due to the very high concentration of annonacin.[10][11][12][13]

Cancer treatment[edit]

Many sites on the internet advertise and promote soursop/graviola capsules as a cancer cure.[14]

According to Cancer Research UK, "there is no evidence to show that graviola works as a cure for cancer" and consequently they do not support its use as a treatment for cancer.[14] A court case relating to the sale in the UK of Triamazon, a soursop product, resulted in convictions on four counts related to selling an unlicensed medical product. The judge said that the drug had not been tested on human beings, was not licenced for use in UK markets and could cause symptoms similar to Parkinson’s Disease.[15]

The Federal Trade Commission in the United States determined that there was "no credible scientific evidence" that the extract of soursop sold by Bioque Technologies "can prevent, cure, or treat cancer of any kind."[16]

Toxicology[edit]

Annonacin is a neurotoxin found in soursop seeds

The compound annonacin contained in the seeds of soursop is a neurotoxin and it seems to be the cause of a neurodegenerative disease. The only group of people known to be affected live on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe and the problem presumably occurs with the excessive consumption of plants containing annonacin. The disorder is a so-called tauopathy associated with a pathologic accumulation of tau protein in the brain. Experimental results demonstrated for the first time that the plant neurotoxin annonacin is responsible for this accumulation.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Graviola (Soursop)". Blackherbals. Retrieved 30 January 2012. [unreliable source?]
  2. ^ http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/soursop.html
  3. ^ "Rolle Bolle Ale - Seasonal". New Belgium Brewing Company. 
  4. ^ Morton, Julia F. (1987). "Soursop (Annona muricata)". Fruits of warm climates. Purdue University. pp. 75–80. Retrieved 28 October 2012. 
  5. ^ Oberlies, NH; Chang, CJ; McLaughlin, JL (1997). "Structure-activity relationships of diverse Annonaceous acetogenins against multidrug resistant human mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7/Adr) cells". Journal of Medical Chemistry 40 (13): 2102–6. doi:10.1021/jm9700169. PMID 9207950. 
  6. ^ Jaramillo, MC; Arango, GJ; González, MC; Robledo, SM; Velez, ID (2000). "Cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of Annona muricata pericarp". Fitoterapia 71 (2): 183–6. doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(99)00138-0. PMID 10727816. 
  7. ^ Padma, P; Pramod, NP; Thyagarajan, SP; Khosa, RL (1998). "Effect of the extract of Annona muricata and Petunia nyctaginiflora on Herpes simplex virus". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 61 (1): 81–3. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00013-0. PMID 9687085. 
  8. ^ Dai, Y; Hogan, S; Schmelz, EM; Ju, YH; Canning, C; Zhou, K (2011). "Selective growth inhibition of human breast cancer cells by soursop fruit extract in vitro and in vivo involving downregulation of EGFR expression". Nutrition and cancer 63 (5): 795–801. doi:10.1080/01635581.2011.563027. PMID 21767082. 
  9. ^ Liaw, CC; Chang, FR; Lin, CY; Chou, CJ; Chiu, HF; Wu, MJ; Wu, YC (2002). "New cytotoxic monotetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata". Journal of Natural Products 65 (4): 470–5. PMID 11975482. 
  10. ^ Lannuzel, A; Michel, P.P; Höglinger, G.U; Champy, P; Jousset, A; Medja, F; Lombès, A; Darios, F et al. (2003). "The mitochondrial complex I inhibitor annonacin is toxic to mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons by impairment of energy metabolism". Neuroscience 121 (2): 287–96. doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(03)00441-X. PMID 14521988. 
  11. ^ Champy, Pierre; Melot, Alice; Guérineau Eng, Vincent; Gleye, Christophe; Fall, Djibril; Höglinger, Gunter U.; Ruberg, Merle; Lannuzel, Annie et al. (2005). "Quantification of acetogenins inAnnona muricata linked to atypical parkinsonism in guadeloupe". Movement Disorders 20 (12): 1629–33. doi:10.1002/mds.20632. PMID 16078200. 
  12. ^ Lannuzel, A.; Höglinger, G. U.; Champy, P.; Michel, P. P.; Hirsch, E. C.; Ruberg, M. (2006). "Is atypical parkinsonism in the Caribbean caused by the consumption of Annonacae?". Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementa 70 (70): 153–7. doi:10.1007/978-3-211-45295-0_24. ISBN 978-3-211-28927-3. PMID 17017523. 
  13. ^ Caparros-Lefebvre, Dominique; Elbaz, Alexis (1999). "Possible relation of atypical parkinsonism in the French West Indies with consumption of tropical plants: A case-control study". The Lancet 354 (9175): 281–6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)10166-6. PMID 10440304. 
  14. ^ a b "Can graviola cure cancer?". Cancer Research UK. 
  15. ^ Bell, Jessica (September 29, 2010). "Suspended sentence for 'miracle cure' cancer drug man Andrew Harris from Partington". Messenger. 
  16. ^ "FTC Sweep Stops Peddlers of Bogus Cancer Cures". FTC. 18 september 2008. 
  17. ^ "Tauopathie durch pflanzliches Nervengift: Junior Award für Marburger Doktorandin" (Press release) (in German). Thilo Körkel. May 4, 2007. Retrieved October 29, 2012. 

External links[edit]