Groton, Massachusetts

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Groton, Massachusetts
Town
Town Hall
Town Hall
Official seal of Groton, Massachusetts
Seal
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°36′40″N 71°34′30″W / 42.61111°N 71.57500°W / 42.61111; -71.57500Coordinates: 42°36′40″N 71°34′30″W / 42.61111°N 71.57500°W / 42.61111; -71.57500
CountryUnited States
StateMassachusetts
CountyMiddlesex
Settled1655
Incorporated1655
Government
 • TypeOpen town meeting
Area
 • Total33.7 sq mi (87.3 km2)
 • Land32.8 sq mi (84.9 km2)
 • Water0.9 sq mi (2.4 km2)
Elevation320 ft (98 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total10,646
 • Density320/sq mi (120/km2)
Time zoneEastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code01450
Area code(s)351 / 978
FIPS code25-27480
GNIS feature ID0619399
Websitewww.townofgroton.org
 
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Groton, Massachusetts
Town
Town Hall
Town Hall
Official seal of Groton, Massachusetts
Seal
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°36′40″N 71°34′30″W / 42.61111°N 71.57500°W / 42.61111; -71.57500Coordinates: 42°36′40″N 71°34′30″W / 42.61111°N 71.57500°W / 42.61111; -71.57500
CountryUnited States
StateMassachusetts
CountyMiddlesex
Settled1655
Incorporated1655
Government
 • TypeOpen town meeting
Area
 • Total33.7 sq mi (87.3 km2)
 • Land32.8 sq mi (84.9 km2)
 • Water0.9 sq mi (2.4 km2)
Elevation320 ft (98 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total10,646
 • Density320/sq mi (120/km2)
Time zoneEastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code01450
Area code(s)351 / 978
FIPS code25-27480
GNIS feature ID0619399
Websitewww.townofgroton.org

Groton is a town in northwestern Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 10,873 at the 2012 town census.[1] It is home to two prep schools: Groton School, founded in 1884, and Lawrence Academy at Groton, founded in 1793. The historic town was a battlefield in King Philip's War and Queen Anne's War, experienced incidents of insurrection during Shays's Rebellion, and was the birthplace of William Prescott, who commanded the rebel forces at the Battle of Bunker Hill.

History[edit]

The area had for thousands of years been the territory of various cultures of indigenous peoples. They settled along the rivers for fishing and transportation. Historic tribes were Algonquian-speaking Nipmuc and Nashaway Indians.[2]

The Anglo-American Groton started with the trading post of John Tinker, who conducted business there with the Nashaway at the confluence of Nod Brook and the Nashua River. The Nashaway called the area Petapawag, meaning "swampy land." Other pioneers followed the Algonquian trails from Massachusetts Bay, as Tinker had. They found the region productive for fishing and farming.[2]

The town was officially settled and incorporated in 1655, named for Groton in Suffolk, England. Called The Plantation of Groton, it included all of present-day Groton and Ayer, almost all of Pepperell and Shirley, large parts of Dunstable, Littleton, and Tyngsborough plus smaller parts of Harvard and Westford, as well as Nashua, New Hampshire and Hollis, New Hampshire.[2]

During King Philip's War, on March 13, 1676, Indians burned all buildings except for four Groton garrisons. One of those killed was John Nutting, a Selectman at Groton. Survivors fled to Concord and other safe havens, but two years later returned to rebuild.[2] Native Americans attacked the town again during the Raid on Groton (King William's War). In 1704 a French-Abenaki people raid captured three Tarbell children among others, taking them to Kahnesetake near Montreal for ransom during Queen Anne's War. The two younger boys were adopted by Mohawk families and became fully assimilated. Their sister was ransomed by a French family, converted to Catholicism and joined a Catholic order.

In 1775, the common in front of the First Parish Church was an assembly area for Minutemen, who fought in the Battle of Lexington and Concord.[2]

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, Groton has a total area of 33.7 square miles (87.3 km²), of which 32.8 square miles (84.9 km²) is land and 0.9 square miles (2.4 km²) (2.79%) is water. Groton is the largest town in Middlesex County in terms of square mileage. The town is drained by the Nashua River and Squannacook River. The center of the town is dominated mainly by Gibbet Hill, with several other large hills throughout the town.

Groton is served by state routes 40, 111, 119 and 225. It borders the towns of Pepperell, Dunstable, Tyngsborough, Westford, Littleton, Ayer, Shirley and Townsend.

Demographics[edit]

See also: Groton (CDP), Massachusetts

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1676300—    
17651,408+369.3%
17761,639+16.4%
17901,840+12.3%
18001,802−2.1%
18101,886+4.7%
18201,897+0.6%
18301,925+1.5%
18402,139+11.1%
18502,515+17.6%
18603,193+27.0%
18703,584+12.2%
18801,862−48.0%
18902,057+10.5%
19002,052−0.2%
19102,155+5.0%
19202,185+1.4%
19302,434+11.4%
19402,550+4.8%
19502,889+13.3%
19603,904+35.1%
19705,109+30.9%
19806,154+20.5%
19907,511+22.1%
20009,547+27.1%
201010,646+11.5%
* = population estimate.
Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

As of the census[13] of 2000, there were 9,547 people, 3,268 households, and 2,568 families residing in the town. The population density was 291.3 people per square mile (112.5/km²). There were 3,393 housing units at an average density of 103.5 per square mile (40.0/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 97.22% White, 0.35% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.97% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.27% from other races, and 1.04% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.14% of the population.

There were 3,268 households out of which 46.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.0% were married couples living together, 6.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 21.4% were non-families. 17.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.90 and the average family size was 3.31.

The age distribution of the town's population was 32.6% under the age of 18, 4.2% from 18 to 24, 32.7% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, and 7.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 98.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.5 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $118,041, and the median income for a family was $136,653. Males had a median income of $101,117 versus $60,402 for females. The per capita income for the town was $44,756. About 1.1% of families and 1.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.0% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over.[14]

Sports[edit]

Groton resident Shelley Olds is a professional cyclist who represented the United States in the 2012 Summer Olympics.[15]

Groton annually hosts the National Shepley Hill Horse Trials, an equestrian competition.

Government[edit]

The town is governed by an open Town Meeting and administered by an elected Board of Selectmen and appointed Town Manager.[16]

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of February 15, 2012[17]
PartyNumber of VotersPercentage
 Democratic1,65922.30%
 Republican1,23916.66%
 Unaffiliated4,50860.60%
 Green-Rainbow40.05%
Total7,439100%

Education[edit]

Public schools[edit]

District schools[edit]

Other public schools[edit]

Private schools[edit]

Points of interest[edit]

First Parish Church
1831 map of Groton
Gibbet Hill

Buildings and structures[edit]

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Groton town, Middlesex County, Massachusetts". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved April 6, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "Town of Groton, Massachusetts". Retrieved May 30, 2006. 
  3. ^ "TOTAL POPULATION (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010. 
  4. ^ "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  5. ^ "1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics: Massachusetts". US Census Bureau. December 1990. Table 76: General Characteristics of Persons, Households, and Families: 1990. 1990 CP-1-23. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  6. ^ "1980 Census of the Population, Number of Inhabitants: Massachusetts". US Census Bureau. December 1981. Table 4. Populations of County Subdivisions: 1960 to 1980. PC80-1-A23. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  7. ^ "1950 Census of Population". 1: Number of Inhabitants. Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  8. ^ "1920 Census of Population". Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  9. ^ "1890 Census of the Population". Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  10. ^ "1870 Census of the Population". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  11. ^ "1860 Census". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  12. ^ "1850 Census". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  13. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  14. ^ http://www.factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=06000US2501727480&-qr_name=ACS_2009_5YR_G00_DP5YR3&-ds_name=ACS_2009_5YR_G00_&-_lang=en&-_sse=on
  15. ^ http://www.thegrotonline.com/2012/06/17/shelley-olds-picked-for-us-olympic-cycling-team/
  16. ^ http://www.townofgroton.org/Town/AboutGroton.aspx
  17. ^ "Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of February 15, 2012" (PDF). Massachusetts Elections Division. Retrieved December 8, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Country Day School of the Holy Union". Country Day. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  19. ^ Knight, An Examination of the Lowthorpe School of Landscape Architecture for Women, Groton, Massachusetts, 1901-1945
  20. ^ "Groton Historical Society". Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  21. ^ "Groton Wood". Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  22. ^ "Old Groton Inn". Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  23. ^ "Groton Public Library". Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  24. ^ Nelson, Laura J. "Boston Globe Correspondent". Boston.com (NY Times Co.). Retrieved 13 August 2011. [dead link]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]