Greyhound

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Greyhound
GraceTheGreyhound.jpg
Greyhound
Other namesEnglish greyhound
Country of originSee History section
Traits
WeightMale27 to 40 kilograms (60 to 88 lb)
Female27 to 34 kilograms (60 to 75 lb)
HeightMale71 to 76 centimetres (28 to 30 in)
Female68 to 71 centimetres (27 to 28 in)
CoatFine, smooth
ColourAny
Litter size1-12 pups
Life span10 - 15 years
Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)
 
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Greyhound
GraceTheGreyhound.jpg
Greyhound
Other namesEnglish greyhound
Country of originSee History section
Traits
WeightMale27 to 40 kilograms (60 to 88 lb)
Female27 to 34 kilograms (60 to 75 lb)
HeightMale71 to 76 centimetres (28 to 30 in)
Female68 to 71 centimetres (27 to 28 in)
CoatFine, smooth
ColourAny
Litter size1-12 pups
Life span10 - 15 years
Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)

The Greyhound is a very old European breed of dog, a sighthound which has been historically bred for coursing game and latterly Greyhound racing. Since the rise in large scale adoption of retired racing Greyhounds, particularly in North America from the end of the 20th century, it has seen a resurgence in popularity as a family pet.

It is a gentle and intelligent breed whose combination of long, powerful legs, deep chest, flexible spine and slim build allows it to reach average race speeds in excess of 18 metres per second (59 feet per second, or 63 kilometres per hour (39 mph)).[1][2][3] The greyhound can reach a full speed of 70 kilometres per hour (43 mph) within 30 metres or six strides from the boxes, traveling at almost 20 metres per second for the first 250 metres of a race. There are few mammals that can accelerate faster over a short distance, such as the cheetah, which can reach speeds of 109 kilometres per hour (68 mph) over 3-4 strides from a standing start.[4], and pronghorn with an alleged top speed of 93 km/h (58mph) [5]

Description[edit]

Appearance[edit]

Males are usually 71 to 76 centimetres (28 to 30 in) tall at the withers and weigh around 27 to 40 kilograms (60 to 88 lb). Females tend to be smaller with shoulder heights ranging from 68 to 71 centimetres (27 to 28 in) and weights from less than 27 to 34 kilograms (60 to 75 lb). Greyhounds have very short fur, which is easy to maintain. There are approximately thirty recognized colour forms, of which variations of white, brindle, fawn, black, red and blue (gray) can appear uniquely or in combination.[6] Greyhounds are dolichocephalic, with a skull which is relatively long in comparison to its breadth, and an elongated muzzle.

Anatomy[edit]

Illustration of the greyhound skeleton

The key to the speed of a Greyhound can be found in its light but muscular build, large heart, and highest percentage of fast-twitch muscle of any breed,[7][8] the double suspension gallop and the extreme flexibility of the spine. "Double suspension rotary gallop" describes the fastest running gait of the Greyhound in which all four feet are free from the ground in two phases, contracted and extended, during each full stride.[9]

Temperament[edit]

The Greyhound is not an aggressive dog, as some may believe due to muzzles worn during racing. Muzzles are worn to prevent injuries resulting from dogs nipping one another during or immediately after a race, when the 'hare' has disappeared out of sight and the dogs are no longer racing but still excited. The thin skin of the Greyhound can tear easily from a small nick from teeth, so even a minor skirmish can result in stitches and time out from racing. Greyhounds with a high prey drive occasionally wear muzzles outside the racetrack; owners aware that their Greyhound has a high tendency to chase small prey will protect the prey by applying the muzzle.

Contrary to popular belief, adult Greyhounds do not need extended periods of daily exercise, as they are bred for sprinting rather than endurance. Greyhound puppies that have not been taught how to utilize their energy, however, can be hyperactive and destructive if not given an outlet, and they require more experienced handlers.[10]

Greyhounds as pets[edit]

Greyhound owners and adoption groups consider Greyhounds to be wonderful pets.[11]

Greyhounds are quiet, gentle, and loyal to owners. They are very loving creatures, and they enjoy the company of their humans and other dogs. Whether a Greyhound enjoys the company of other small animals or cats depends on the individual dog's personality. Greyhounds will typically chase small animals; those lacking a high 'prey drive' will be able to coexist happily with toy dog breeds and/or cats. Many owners describe their Greyhounds as "45 mile per hour couch potatoes".[12]

Greyhounds live most happily as pets in quiet environments[citation needed]. They do well in families with children as long as the children are taught to treat the dog properly and with politeness and appropriate respect[citation needed]. Greyhounds have a sensitive nature, and gentle commands work best as training methods[citation needed].

Greyhounds occasionally develop separation anxiety when re-housed or when their owners have to leave them alone for a period of time. The addition of a second Greyhound often solves this problem.[13]

Margaret Gorman with her pet Greyhound, "Long Goodie", in April 1925

Occasionally, a Greyhound may bark; however, Greyhounds are generally not barkers, which is beneficial in suburban environments, and they are usually as friendly to strangers as they are with their own family.[14]

A very common misconception regarding Greyhounds is that they are hyperactive. In retired racing Greyhounds, this is usually not the case.[15] Greyhounds can live comfortably as apartment dogs, as they do not require much space and sleep close to 18 hours per day. In fact, due to their calm temperament, Greyhounds can make better "apartment dogs" than smaller, more active breeds.

At some race tracks, Greyhounds are housed in large spacious crates for sleeping in, most know of no other way of life than to remain in a crate the majority of the day. Crate training a retired greyhound in a home is therefore generally extremely easy.

Many Greyhound adoption groups recommend that owners keep their Greyhounds on a leash whenever outdoors, except in fully enclosed areas.[16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23] This is due to their prey-drive, their speed, and the assertion that Greyhounds have no road sense.[24] In some jurisdictions, it is illegal for Greyhounds to be allowed off-lead[citation needed], even in off-lead dog parks, so it is important to be familiar with the relevant local laws and regulations. However, a good run at least once a week is important, especially for younger greyhounds, and suitable areas can usually be found. Due to their size and strength, adoption groups recommend that fences be between 4 and 6 feet, to prevent them from jumping out.[16]

Roles of the breed[edit]

Coursing[edit]

The original primary use of Greyhounds, both in the British Isles and on the Continent of Europe, was in the coursing of deer. Later, they specialized in competition hare coursing.[25] Some Greyhounds today are still used for coursing, although artificial lure sports like lure coursing and racing are far more common and popular.

However, many breeders of racing Greyhounds argue that coursing is still important. This is the case particularly in Ireland, where many of the world’s leading breeders are based. A bloodline that has produced a champion on the live hare coursing field is often crossed with track lines in order to keep the early pace (e.g. speed over first 100 yards) that Greyhounds are renowned for prominent in the line. Many of the leading sprinters over 300 yards to 550 yards have bloodlines traceable back through Irish sires within a few generations that won events such as the Irish Coursing Derby or the Irish Cup.[26][27] The majority of pure-bred Greyhounds are whelped in Ireland. Researching via Greyhound data websites will note coursing champions within a few generations in the pedigree of track racing champions.

Racing[edit]

A racing greyhound at full extension

Until the early twentieth century, Greyhounds were principally bred and trained for hunting and coursing. During the 1920s, modern Greyhound racing was introduced into the United States and England (Belle Vue Stadium, Manchester, July 1926), as well as Northern Ireland (Celtic Park (Belfast), April 1927) and the Republic of Ireland (Shelbourne Park, Dublin).[citation needed] Aside from professional racing, many Greyhounds enjoy success on the amateur race track. Organizations like the Large Gazehound Racing Association (LGRA) and the National Oval Track Racing Association (NOTRA) provide opportunities for Greyhounds and other sighthound breeds to compete in amateur racing events all over the United States[28][29]

Companion[edit]

Historically, the Greyhound has, since its first appearance as a hunting type and breed, enjoyed a specific degree of fame and definition in Western literature, heraldry and art as the most elegant or noble companion and hunter of the canine world. In modern times, the professional racing industry with its large numbers of track bred Greyhounds, as well as the international adoption programs aimed at rescuing and re-homing dogs surplus to the industry, have redefined the breed in their almost mutually dependent pursuit of its welfare, as a sporting dog that will supply friendly companionship in its retirement.[30] Outside the racing industry and coursing community, the Kennel Clubs' registered breed still enjoys a modest following as a show dog and pet. There is an emerging pattern visible in recent years (2009–2010) of a significant decline in track betting and multiple track closures in the US, which will have consequences for the origin of future companion Greyhounds and the re-homing of current ex-racers.[31][32]

Health and physiology[edit]

Greyhounds are typically a healthy and long-lived breed, and hereditary illness is rare. Some Greyhounds have been known to develop esophageal achalasia, bloat (gastric torsion), and osteosarcoma. Because the Greyhound's lean physique makes it ill-suited to sleeping on hard surfaces, owners of both racing and companion Greyhounds generally provide soft bedding; without bedding, Greyhounds are prone to develop painful skin sores. The typical Greyhound lifespan is 10 to 13 years.[33]

Due to the Greyhound's unique physiology and anatomy, a veterinarian who understands the issues relevant to the breed is generally needed when the dogs need treatment, particularly when anesthesia is required. Greyhounds cannot metabolize barbiturate-based anesthesia as other breeds can because they have lower amounts of oxidative enzymes in their livers.[34] Greyhounds demonstrate unusual blood chemistry, which can be misread by veterinarians not familiar with the breed; this can result in an incorrect diagnosis.

Greyhounds are very sensitive to insecticides.[35] Many vets do not recommend the use of flea collars or flea spray on Greyhounds if it is a pyrethrin-based product. (See Dog fleas.) Products like Advantage, Frontline, Lufenuron, and Amitraz are safe for use on Greyhounds and are very effective in controlling fleas and ticks.[36]

Greyhounds also have higher levels of red blood cells than other breeds. Since red blood cells carry oxygen to the muscles, this higher level allows the hound to move larger quantities of oxygen faster from the lungs to the muscles.[37] Conversely, Greyhounds have lower levels of platelets than other breeds.[38] Veterinary blood services often use Greyhounds as universal blood donors.[39]

Greyhounds do not have undercoats and thus are less likely to trigger dog allergies in humans (they are sometimes incorrectly referred to as "hypoallergenic"). The lack of an undercoat, coupled with a general lack of body fat, also makes Greyhounds more susceptible to extreme temperatures (both hot and cold); because of this, they must be housed inside.[40]

History[edit]

Sighthounds unleashed in Paolo Uccello's Night hunt (Ashmolean Museum)

The breed's origin is romantically reputed to be connected to Ancient Egypt, where depictions of smooth-coated sighthound types have been found which are typical of Saluki (Persian greyhound) or Sloughi (tombs at Beni Hassan c. 2000 BCE). However, analyses of DNA reported in 2004 suggest that the Greyhound is not closely related to these breeds, but is a close relative to herding dogs.[41][42] Historical literature on the first sighthound in Europe (Arrian), the vertragus, the probable antecedent of the Greyhound, suggests that the origin is with the ancient Celts from Eastern Europe or Eurasia. Greyhound-type dogs of small, medium, and large size, would appear to have been bred across Europe since that time. All modern, pure-bred pedigree Greyhounds are derived from the Greyhound stock recorded and registered, firstly in the private 18th century, then public 19th century studbooks, which ultimately were registered with coursing, racing, and kennel club authorities of the United Kingdom.

Historically, these sighthounds were used primarily for hunting in the open where their keen eyesight is valuable. It is believed that they (or at least similarly named dogs) were introduced to the area now known as the United Kingdom in the 5th and 6th century BCE from Celtic mainland Europe although the Picts and other peoples of the northern area now known as Scotland were believed to have had large hounds similar to that of the deerhound before the 6th century BCE.[citation needed]

"Gray-Hound" in a 1658 English woodcut

The name "Greyhound" is generally believed to come from the Old English grighund. "Hund" is the antecedent of the modern "hound", but the meaning of "grig" is undetermined, other than in reference to dogs in Old English and Old Norse. Its origin does not appear to have any common root with the modern word "grey" for color, and indeed the Greyhound is seen with a wide variety of coat colors. The lighter colors, patch-like markings and white appeared in the breed that was once ordinarily grey in color. The Greyhound is the only dog mentioned by name in the Bible; many versions, including the King James version, name the Greyhound as one of the "four things stately" in the Proverbs.[43] However, some newer biblical translations, including The New International Version, have changed this to strutting rooster, which appears to be an alternative translation of the Hebrew term mothen zarzir. But also the Douay–Rheims Bible translation from the late 4th-century Latin Vulgate into English translates "a cock girded about the loins" rather than the Greyhound.

According to Pokorny[44] the English name "Greyhound" does not mean "grey dog/hound", but simply "fair dog". Subsequent words have been derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *g'her- "shine, twinkle": English grey, Old High German gris "grey, old", Old Icelandic griss "piglet, pig", Old Icelandic gryja "to dawn", gryjandi "morning twilight", Old Irish grian "sun", Old Church Slavonic zorja "morning twilight, brightness". The common sense of these words is "to shine; bright".

In 1928, the very first winner of Best in Show at Crufts was Primeley Sceptre, a Greyhound owned by H. Whitley.[45]

Further reading[edit]

In culture[edit]

As mascot[edit]

The Greyhound is often used as a mascot by sports teams, both professional and amateur, as well as many college and high school teams.

Professional[edit]

College[edit]

Other[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gunnar von Boehn. "Shepparton (VIC) Track Records". Greyhound-data.com. Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  2. ^ Gunnar von Boehn. "Singleton (NSW) Track Records". Greyhound-data.com. Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  3. ^ Gunnar von Boehn. "Capalaba (QLD) Track Records". Greyhound-data.com. Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  4. ^ Kohnke, John. BVSc RDA. "GREYHOUND ATHLETE". Greyhound Racing Betting. Retrieved 2012-01-06. 
  5. ^ Sharp, N.C. Craig. Animal athletes: a performance review. Veterinary Record Vol 171 (4) 87-94 2012
  6. ^ "American Kennel Club - Breed Colors and Markings". Akc.org. Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  7. ^ Snow, D.H. and Harris R.C. "Thoroughbreds and Greyhounds: Biochemical Adaptations in Creatures of Nature and of Man" Circulation, Respiration, and Metabolism Berlin: Springer Verlag 1985
  8. ^ Snow, D.H. "The horse and dog, elite athletes - why and how?" Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 44 267 1985
  9. ^ Curtis M Brown. Dog Locomotion and Gait Analysis. Wheat Ridge, Colorado: Hoflin 1986 ISBN 0-86667-061-0
  10. ^ "Greyhound Rescue and Greyhound Adoption in South Florida FAQ". Friends of Greyhounds. Accessed April 15, 2008[dead link]
  11. ^ "Breed Standard - Greyhound - Hound". NZKC. Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  12. ^ Chucksters Greyhounds
  13. ^ Livinggood, Lee (2000). Retired Racing Greyhounds for Dummies, p. 143-144. IDG Books Worldwide, Inc., Foster City, CA. ISBN 0-7645-5276-7.
  14. ^ Branigan, Cynthia A. (1998). Adopting the Racing Greyhound, p. 17-18. Howell Book House, New York. ISBN 0-87605-193-X.
  15. ^ "The Greyhound Adoption Program (GAP) in Australia and New Zealand: A survey of owners' experiences with their greyhounds one month after adoption" Applied Animal Behaviour Science Elliott, 2010 vol:124 iss:3-4 pg:121 -135.
  16. ^ a b "Greyhound Adoption League of Texas, Inc. - About the Athletes". Greyhoundadoptiontx.org. Retrieved 2011-05-31. [dead link]
  17. ^ "SEGA_Foster_Manual_V7_FINAL_JUne_2006.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  18. ^ "FAQ". Psgreyhounds.org. Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  19. ^ "Greyhound Adoption Program - Is a Greyhound Right for You?"
  20. ^ How Safe is an Off-Lead Run?, Adopt a Greyhound[dead link]
  21. ^ Peanut. "View topic - Leash Rules". CompassionforGreyhounds.org. Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  22. ^ "Greyhound Angels Adoption". Greyhound Angels Adoption. Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  23. ^ Mid-South Greyhound Adoption Option[dead link]
  24. ^ "GRV Clubs - GAP". Gap.grv.org.au. Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  25. ^ see p.246 Turbervile: A short observation ... concerning coursing http://www.archive.org/details/turbervilesbooke00turb
  26. ^ Irish Greyhound Stud Book
  27. ^ Gunnar von Boehn. "The Greyhound Breeding and Racing Database". Greyhound-data.com. Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  28. ^ "Large Gazehound Racing Association". Lgra.org. Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  29. ^ "National Oval Track Racing Association". Notra.org. Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  30. ^ Madden, Raymond (2010) 'Imagining the greyhound: 'Racing' and 'rescue' narratives in a human and dog relationship', Continuum, 24: 4, 503 — 515 .
  31. ^ Flaim, Denise (2010) 'Forward Thinking', Sighthound Review, Vol 1 Issue 1.
  32. ^ "As Dog Racetracks Close, Where Do All the Greyhounds Go?". BlogHer. Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  33. ^ Coile, Caroline, Ph. D., Encyclopedia of Dog Breeds, Barron's Educational Series, 2005, p. 77.
  34. ^ Blythe, Linda, Gannon, James, Craig, A. Morrie, and Fegan, Desmond P. (2007). Care of the Racing and Retired Greyhound, p. 416. American Greyhound Council, Inc., Kansas. ISBN 0-9641456-3-4.
  35. ^ Branigan, Cynthia A. (1998). Adopting the Racing Greyhound, p. 99-101. Howell Book House, New York. ISBN 0-87605-193-X.
  36. ^ Branigan, Cynthia A. (1998). Adopting the Racing Greyhound, p. 101-103. Howell Book House, New York. ISBN 0-87605-193-X.
  37. ^ Blythe, Linda, Gannon, James, Craig, A. Morrie, and Fegan, Desmond P. (2007). Care of the Racing and Retired Greyhound, p. 82. American Greyhound Council, Inc., Kansas. ISBN 0-9641456-3-4.
  38. ^ [1][dead link]
  39. ^ United Blood Services article about Greyhounds as blood donors.
  40. ^ Blythe, Linda, Gannon, James, Craig, A. Morrie, and Fegan, Desmond P. (2007). Care of the Racing and Retired Greyhound, p. 394. American Greyhound Council, Kansas. ISBN 0-9641456-3-4.
  41. ^ Mark Derr (May 21, 2004). "Collie or Pug? Study Finds the Genetic Code". The New York Times.
  42. ^ Parker et al. (May 21, 2004). "Genetic Structure of the Purebred Domestic Dog". Science volume 304, pp. 1160–1164.
  43. ^ Proverbs 30:29–31 King James version.
  44. ^ Pokorny, Indogermanisches Woerterbuch, pp. 441–442.
  45. ^ "Besti hundur sýningar á Crufts, frá árunum 1928-2002" (in Icelandic). Hvuttar.net. Retrieved 2009-12-28. 

External links[edit]