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A reservoir glass filled with a naturally coloured verte absinthe, next to an absinthe spoon
Albert Maignan's "Green Muse" (1895): A poet succumbs to the Green Fairy.

Absinthe (Listeni/ˈæbsɪnθ/ or /ˈæbsænθ/; French: [apsɛ̃t]) is historically described as a distilled, highly alcoholic (45–74% ABV / 90-148 proof) beverage.[1][2][3][4] It is an anise-flavoured spirit derived from botanicals, including the flowers and leaves of Artemisia absinthium (a.k.a. "grand wormwood"), together with green anise, sweet fennel, and other medicinal and culinary herbs. Absinthe traditionally has a natural green colour but may also be colourless. It is commonly referred to in historical literature as "la fée verte" (the green fairy). Although it is sometimes mistakenly referred to as a liqueur, absinthe is not traditionally bottled with added sugar, and is therefore classified as a spirit.[5] Absinthe is traditionally bottled at a high level of alcohol by volume, but is normally diluted with water prior to being consumed.

Absinthe originated in the canton of Neuchâtel in Switzerland in the late 18th century. It rose to great popularity as an alcoholic drink in late 19th- and early 20th-century France, particularly among Parisian artists and writers. Owing in part to its association with bohemian culture, the consumption of absinthe was opposed by social conservatives and prohibitionists. Ernest Hemingway, Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Amedeo Modigliani, Vincent van Gogh, Oscar Wilde, Aleister Crowley, Erik Satie and Alfred Jarry were all known absinthe drinkers.[6]

Absinthe has often been portrayed as a dangerously addictive psychoactive drug.[7] The chemical compound thujone, although present in the spirit in only trace amounts, was blamed for its alleged harmful effects. By 1915, absinthe had been banned in the United States and in much of Europe, including France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Although absinthe was vilified, it has not been demonstrated to be any more dangerous than ordinary spirits. Any psychoactive properties attributed to absinthe, apart from that of the alcohol, have been much exaggerated.[7] A revival of absinthe began in the 1990s, following the adoption of modern European Union food and beverage laws that removed longstanding barriers to its production and sale. By the early 21st century, nearly 200 brands of absinthe were being produced in a dozen countries, most notably in France, Switzerland, USA, Spain, and the Czech Republic.

Etymology[edit source | edit]

The French word absinthe can refer either to the alcoholic beverage or, less commonly, to the actual wormwood plant, with grande absinthe being Artemisia absinthium, and petite absinthe being Artemisia pontica. The Latin name artemisia comes from Artemis, the ancient Greek goddess of the hunt. Absinthe is derived from the Latin absinthium, which in turn is the latinisation of the ancient Greek ἀψίνθιον apsínthion, "wormwood".[8] The use of Artemisia absinthium in a drink is attested in Lucretius' De Rerum Natura (I 936–950), where Lucretius indicates that a drink containing wormwood is given as medicine to children in a cup with honey on the brim to make it drinkable. This was a metaphor for the presentation of complex ideas in poetic form.[9]

Some claim that the word means "undrinkable" in Greek, but it may instead be linked to the Persian root spand or aspand, or the variant esfand, which meant Peganum harmala, also called Syrian Rue—although it is not actually a variety of rue, another famously bitter herb. That Artemisia absinthium was commonly burned as a protective offering may suggest that its origins lie in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European root *spend, meaning "to perform a ritual" or "make an offering". Whether the word was a borrowing from Persian into Greek, or from a common ancestor of both, is unclear.[10] Alternatively, the Greek word may originate in a pre-Greek Pelasgian word, marked by the non-Indoeuropean consonant complex νθ.

Alternate spellings for absinthe include absinth, absynthe, and absenta. Absinth (without the final e) is a spelling variant most commonly applied to absinthes produced in central and eastern Europe, and is specifically associated with Bohemian-style absinthes.[11]

History[edit source | edit]

Henri Privat-Livemont's 1896 poster

The precise origin of absinthe is unclear. The medical use of wormwood dates back to ancient Egypt, and is mentioned in the Ebers Papyrus, c. 1550 BC. Wormwood extracts and wine-soaked wormwood leaves were used as remedies by the ancient Greeks. Moreover, there is evidence of the existence of a wormwood-flavoured wine, absinthites oinos, in ancient Greece.[12]

The first clear evidence of absinthe in the modern sense of a distilled spirit containing green anise and fennel, however, dates to the 18th century. According to popular legend, absinthe began as an all-purpose patent remedy created by Dr. Pierre Ordinaire, a French doctor living in Couvet, Switzerland, around 1792 (the exact date varies by account). Ordinaire's recipe was passed on to the Henriod sisters of Couvet, who sold absinthe as a medicinal elixir. By other accounts, the Henriod sisters may have been making the elixir before Ordinaire's arrival. In either case, a certain Major Dubied acquired the formula from the sisters and in 1797, and with his son Marcellin and son-in-law Henry-Louis Pernod, opened the first absinthe distillery, Dubied Père et Fils, in Couvet. In 1805, they built a second distillery in Pontarlier, France, under the new company name Maison Pernod Fils.[13] Pernod Fils remained one of the most popular brands of absinthe up until the drink was banned in France in 1914.

Rapid growth of French consumption[edit source | edit]

An advertising poster for Absinthe Beucler

Absinthe's popularity grew steadily through the 1840s, when absinthe was given to French troops as a malaria preventive.[14] When the troops returned home, they brought their taste for absinthe home with them. The custom of drinking absinthe gradually became so popular in bars, bistros, cafés, and cabarets that, by the 1860s, the hour of 5 p.m. was called l'heure verte ("the green hour"). Absinthe was favoured by all social classes, from the wealthy bourgeoisie, to poor artists and ordinary working-class people. By the 1880s, mass production had caused the price of absinthe to drop sharply. By 1910, the French were drinking 36 million litres of absinthe per year, as compared to their annual consumption of almost 5 billion litres of wine.[15][16]

International consumption[edit source | edit]

Absinthe was exported widely from its native France and Switzerland, and attained some degree of popularity in other countries, including Spain, Great Britain, USA, and the Czech Republic. Absinthe was never banned in Spain or Portugal, and its production and consumption have never ceased. It gained a temporary spike in popularity there during the early 20th century, corresponding with the French influenced Art Nouveau and Modernism aesthetic movements.[17]

New Orleans has a profound cultural association with absinthe, and is credited as the birthplace of the Sazerac, perhaps the earliest absinthe cocktail. The Old Absinthe House bar, located on Bourbon Street, serves as a prominent historical landmark. Originally named The Absinthe Room, it was opened in 1874 by a Catalan bartender named Cayetano Ferrer. The building was frequented by many famous people, including Mark Twain, Oscar Wilde, Franklin Roosevelt, Aleister Crowley and Frank Sinatra.[18][19]

Absinthe has been consumed in the Czech Republic (then part of Austria–Hungary) since at least 1888, notably by Czech artists, some of whom had an affinity for Paris, frequenting Prague's famous Cafe Slavia. Its wider appeal in Bohemia itself is uncertain, though it was sold in and around Prague. It is claimed that at least one local liquor distillery in Bohemia was producing absinthe at the turn of the 20th century.[unreliable source?][20]

Bans[edit source | edit]

Spurred by the temperance movement and the winemakers' associations, absinthe was publicly associated with violent crimes and social disorder.

One critic claimed:[21]

Absinthe makes you crazy and criminal, provokes epilepsy and tuberculosis, and has killed thousands of French people. It makes a ferocious beast of man, a martyr of woman, and a degenerate of the infant, it disorganizes and ruins the family and menaces the future of the country.

Edgar Degas' 1876 painting L'Absinthe, which can be seen at the Musée d'Orsay, epitomized the popular view of absinthe addicts as sodden and benumbed. Although Émile Zola mentioned absinthe only once by name, he described its effects in his novel L'Assommoir.[22]

L'Absinthe, by Edgar Degas, 1876
A poster criticizes the ban on absinthe in Switzerland (by Albert Gantner, 1910)

In 1905, it was reported that Jean Lanfray, a Swiss farmer, murdered his family and attempted to take his own life after drinking absinthe. The fact that Lanfray was an alcoholic who had consumed considerable quantities of wine and brandy prior to drinking two glasses of absinthe was conveniently overlooked or ignored, therefore placing the blame for the murders solely on absinthe.[23] The Lanfray murders would prove to be the tipping point in this hotly debated topic, and a subsequent petition to ban absinthe in Switzerland collected more than 82,000 signatures. A referendum was subsequently held on banning the drink on 5 July 1908.[24] After it was approved by voters,[24] the prohibition of absinthe was then written into the Swiss constitution.

In 1906, both Belgium and Brazil banned the sale and distribution of absinthe, although these were not the first countries to take such action. Absinthe had been banned as early as 1898 in the colony of the Congo Free State.[25] The Netherlands banned absinthe in 1909, Switzerland in 1910,[26] the United States in 1912, and France in 1914.[26]

The prohibition of absinthe in France would eventually lead to the popularity of pastis, and to a lesser extent, ouzo, and other anise-flavoured spirits that do not contain wormwood. Following the conclusion of the First World War, production of the Pernod Fils brand was resumed at the Banus distillery in Catalonia, Spain (where absinthe was still legal),[27][28] but gradually declining sales saw the cessation of production in the 1960s.[29] In Switzerland, the ban served only to drive the production of absinthe underground. Clandestine home distillers produced colourless absinthe (la Bleue), which was easier to conceal from the authorities. Many countries never banned absinthe, notably Britain, where it had never been as popular as in continental Europe.

Modern revival[edit source | edit]

In the 1990s, upon realizing the UK had never formally banned absinthe, British importer BBH Spirits began to import Hill's Absinth from the Czech Republic, which sparked a modern resurgence in absinthe's popularity. It is in these countries, where absinthe was never banned or truly popular, where absinthe first began to reappear during the revival in the 1990s. The absinthes that were available during that time consisted almost exclusively of Czech, Spanish, and Portuguese brands that were of recent origin, typically consisting of Bohemian-style products, and considered by absinthe connoisseurs to be of inferior quality and not representative of the 19th century spirit.[30][31][32][33]

In 2000, La Fée Absinthe became the first commercial absinthe distilled and bottled in France since the 1914 ban.[34][35][36][37][38] Originally produced for export, it is now one of dozens of French absinthes that are produced and sold within France.

Modern absinthes. Vertes at left; blanches at right. A prepared glass is in front of each.

In the Netherlands, the restrictions on the manufacture and sale of absinthe were successfully challenged by the Amsterdam wine seller Menno Boorsma in July 2004, thus confirming the legality of absinthe once again. Similarly, Belgium lifted its longstanding absinthe ban on January 1, 2005, citing (as did the Dutch judge) a conflict with the adopted food and beverage regulations of the Single European Market. In Switzerland, the constitutional ban on absinthe was repealed in 2000 during an overhaul of the national constitution, although the prohibition was simultaneously rewritten into ordinary law instead. That law was later repealed such that as of March 1, 2005, absinthe was made again legal in its country of origin. Absinthe is once again distilled and sold in its Val-de-Travers birthplace, with Kübler and La Clandestine Absinthe among the first new brands to re-emerge.

Absinthe has a deep history in the Northern Catalan region of Spain that encompasses Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida, and the region of the Pyrenees mountains. While the drink was never officially banned in Spain, it began to fall out of favour in the 1940s, and almost vanished into obscurity. The Catalan region has seen significant resurgence since 2007, when one producer established operations there.

Absinthe has never been illegal to import or manufacture in Australia.[citation needed] Importation requires a permit under the Customs (Prohibited Imports) Regulation 1956 due to a restriction on importing any product containing "oil of wormwood".[39] In 2000, an amendment proposed by Foods Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) as part of a new consolidation of the Food Code across Australia and New Zealand, made all wormwood species prohibited herbs for food purposes under Food Standard 1.4.4. Prohibited and Restricted Plants and Fungi. However, this amendment was found to be inconsistent with other parts of the preexisting Food Code.[40][41] The proposed amendment was withdrawn in 2002 during the transition between the two codes, thereby continuing to allow absinthe manufacture and importation through the existing permit-based system. These events were erroneously reported by the media as Australia having reclassified it from a prohibited product to a restricted product.[42] There is now an Australian-produced brand of absinthe called Moulin Rooz.

In 2007, the French Lucid brand became the first genuine absinthe to receive a COLA (Certificate of Label Approval) for importation into the United States since 1912,[43][44] following independent efforts by representatives from Lucid and Kübler to topple the long-standing U.S. ban.[45] In December 2007, St. George Absinthe Verte, produced by St. George Spirits of Alameda, California, became the first brand of American-made absinthe produced in the United States since the ban.[46][47] Since that time, other micro-distilleries have started producing small batch artisanal absinthes in the US.

The 21st Century has seen new modalities for absinthe, including various frozen preparations, which have become increasingly popular.[48][49][50][51]

In May 2011 the French Absinthe Ban of 1915 was repealed[52] following petitions by the Fédération Française des Spiritueux, who represent French distillers.

Production[edit source | edit]

Green anise, one of three main herbs used in production of absinthe
Grande wormwood, one of three main herbs used in production of absinthe
Sweet fennel, one of three main herbs used in production of absinthe

Most countries have no legal definition for absinthe, whereas the method of production and content of spirits such as Scotch whisky, brandy, and gin are globally defined and regulated. As such, producers are at liberty to label a product as "absinthe" or "absinth" without regard to any specific legal definition or quality standards.

Producers of legitimate absinthes employ one of two historically defined processes to create the finished spirit: distillation, or cold mixing. In the sole country (Switzerland) that does possess a legal definition of absinthe, distillation is the only permitted method of production.[53]

Distilled absinthe[edit source | edit]

Distilled absinthe employs a method of production similar to that of high quality gin. Botanicals are initially macerated in distilled base alcohol before being redistilled to exclude bitter principles, and impart the desired complexity and texture to the spirit.

Absinthe distillation, ca. 1904

The distillation of absinthe first yields a colourless distillate that leaves the alembic at around 72% ABV. The distillate may be reduced and bottled clear, to produce a Blanche or la Bleue absinthe, or it may be coloured to create a verte using natural or artificial colouring.

Traditional absinthes obtain their green colour strictly from the chlorophyll of whole herbs, which is extracted from the plants during the secondary maceration. This step involves steeping plants such as petite wormwood, hyssop, and melissa (among other herbs) in the distillate. Chlorophyll from these herbs is extracted in the process, giving the drink its famous green colour. This step also provides a herbal complexity that is typical of high quality absinthe. The natural colouring process is considered critical for absinthe aging, since the chlorophyll remains chemically active. The chlorophyll serves a similar role in absinthe that tannins do in wine or brown liquors.[unreliable source?][54] After the colouring process, the resulting product is diluted with water to the desired percentage of alcohol. The flavour of absinthe is said to improve materially with storage, and many preban distilleries aged their absinthe in settling tanks before bottling.

Cold mixed absinthe[edit source | edit]

Many modern absinthes are produced using a cold mix process. This method of production is much less costly than distillation, and is regarded as inferior in the same way that compound gin is regarded as inferior to distilled gin. The cold mixing process involves the simple blending of flavouring essences and artificial colouring in strong alcohol, in similar fashion to most flavoured vodkas and inexpensive liqueurs. The lack of a formal legal definition of absinthe in most countries enables some cold mixing producers to falsely claim their products as "distilled", since the base alcohol itself was created through distillation. This is used as justification to sell these inexpensively produced absinthes at prices comparable to more authentic absinthes that are distilled directly from whole herbs. In the only country that possesses a formal legal definition of absinthe (Switzerland), anything made via the cold mixed process cannot be sold as absinthe.

Ingredients[edit source | edit]

Anise seeds

Absinthe is traditionally prepared from a distillation of neutral alcohol, various herbs, spices and water. Traditional absinthes were redistilled from a white grape spirit (or eau de vie), while lesser absinthes were more commonly made from alcohol from grain, beets, or potatoes.[55] The principal botanicals are grande wormwood, green anise, and florence fennel, which are often called "the holy trinity."[56] Many other herbs may be used as well, such as petite wormwood (Artemisia pontica or Roman wormwood), hyssop, melissa, star anise, angelica, peppermint, coriander, and veronica.[57]

Alternative colouring[edit source | edit]

Adding to absinthe's negative reputation in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, unscrupulous makers of the drink omitted the traditional colouring phase of production in favour of adding toxic copper salts to artificially induce a green tint. This practice may be responsible for some of the alleged toxicity historically associated with this beverage. Many modern day producers resort to similar shortcuts, including the use of artificial food colouring to create the green colour. Additionally, at least some cheaply made preban absinthes were reported to be adulterated with poisonous antimony trichloride, which was reputedly added to enhance the louching effect.[58]

Absinthe may also be naturally coloured red using hibiscus flowers. This was referred to as a rouge or rose absinthe. Only one historical rouge brand is reported to have existed.[unreliable source?][59]

Bottled strength[edit source | edit]

Absinthe was historically bottled at 45-74% percent ABV. Some modern Franco–Suisse absinthes are bottled at up to 82.3% ABV,[60] while some modern cold-mixed, bohemian-style absinthes are bottled at up to 89.9% ABV.

Kits[edit source | edit]

The modern day interest in absinthe has spawned a rash of "absinthe kits", which are claimed to produce homemade absinthe. Kits often call for soaking herbs in vodka or alcohol, and/or adding a liquid concentrate to the same in order to create an ersatz absinthe. Such practices usually yield a harsh substance that bears little resemblance to the genuine article, and are considered to be inauthentic by any practical standard.[61] Some concoctions may even be dangerous, especially if they call for supplementation with potentially poisonous herbs, oils and/or extracts. At least one documented case exists in which a person suffered acute renal failure after drinking 10 ml of pure wormwood oil, a dose much higher than that found in absinthe.[62]

Alternatives[edit source | edit]

In baking, Pernod Anise is often used as a substitute if absinthe is unavailable.[63] In preparing the classic New Orleans-style Sazerac cocktail, various substitutes such as Pastis, Pernod, Ricard, and Herbsaint have been used to replace absinthe.[64]

Preparation[edit source | edit]

Preparing absinthe using the traditional method, which does not involve burning.
Absinthe spoons are designed to perch a sugar cube atop the glass, over which ice-cold water is dripped to dilute the absinthe. The lip near the centre of the handle allows the spoon to rest securely on the rim of the glass.

Traditionally, absinthe is prepared by placing a sugar cube on top of a specially designed slotted spoon, and then placing the spoon on the glass which has been filled with a measure of absinthe. Iced water is then poured or dripped over the sugar cube in a manner whereby the water is slowly and evenly displaced into the absinthe, such that the final preparation contains 1 part absinthe and 3-5 parts water. As water dilutes the spirit, those components with poor water solubility (mainly those from anise, fennel, and star anise) come out of solution and cloud the drink. The resulting milky opalescence is called the louche (Fr. "opaque" or "shady", IPA [luʃ]). The release of these dissolved essences coincides with a perfuming of herbal aromas and flavours that "blossom" or "bloom", and brings out subtleties that are otherwise muted within the neat spirit. This reflects what is perhaps the oldest and purest method of preparation, and is often referred to as the French Method.

The Bohemian Method is a recent invention that involves fire, and was not performed during absinthe's peak of popularity in the Belle Époque. Like the French method, a sugar cube is placed on a slotted spoon over a glass containing one shot of absinthe. The sugar is pre-soaked in alcohol (usually more absinthe), then set ablaze. The flaming sugar cube is then dropped into the glass, thus igniting the absinthe. Finally, a shot glass of water is added to douse the flames. This method tends to produce a stronger drink than the French method. A variant of the Bohemian Method involves allowing the fire to extinguish on its own. This variant, sometimes referred to as "Cooking the Absinthe" or "Flaming Green Fairy," destroys most of the alcohol. The origin of this burning ritual may borrow from a coffee and brandy drink that was served at Café Brûlot, in which a sugar cube soaked in brandy was set aflame.[58] Most experienced absintheurs do not recommend the Bohemian Method and consider it a modern gimmick, as it can destroy the absinthe flavor and present a fire hazard due to the unusually high alcohol content present in absinthe.[65]

Slowly dripping ice water from an absinthe fountain

In 19th century Parisian cafés, upon receiving an order for an absinthe, a waiter would present the patron with a dose of absinthe in a suitable glass, sugar, absinthe spoon, and a carafe of iced water.[66] It was up to the patron to prepare the drink, as the inclusion or omission of sugar was strictly an individual preference, as was the amount of water used. As the popularity of the drink increased, additional accoutrements of preparation appeared, including the absinthe fountain, which was effectively a large jar of iced water with spigots, mounted on a lamp base. This allowed a number of drinks to be prepared at once, and with a hands-free drip, patrons were able to socialize while louching a glass.

Although many bars served absinthe in standard glassware, a number of glasses were specifically designed for the French absinthe preparation ritual. Absinthe glasses were typically fashioned with a dose line, bulge, or bubble in the lower portion denoting how much absinthe should be poured. One "dose" of absinthe ranged anywhere from around 1-1.5 fluid ounces (30-45 ml).

In addition to being prepared with sugar and water, absinthe emerged as a popular cocktail ingredient in both the United Kingdom and the United States. By 1930, dozens of fancy cocktails that called for absinthe had been published in numerous credible bartender guides.[67] One of the most famous of these libations is Ernest Hemingway's "Death in the Afternoon" cocktail, a tongue-in-cheek concoction contributed to a 1935 collection of celebrity recipes. The directions are as follows: "Pour one jigger absinthe into a Champagne glass. Add iced Champagne until it attains the proper opalescent milkiness. Drink three to five of these slowly."[68]

Styles[edit source | edit]

The Absinthe Drinker by Viktor Oliva (1861–1928)

Most categorical alcoholic beverages have regulations governing their classification and labelling, while those governing absinthe have always been conspicuously lacking. According to popular treatises from the 19th century, absinthe could be loosely categorized into several grades (ordinaire, demi-fine, fine, and Suisse—the latter does not denote origin), in order of increasing alcoholic strength and quality. Many contemporary absinthe critics simply classify absinthe as distilled or mixed, according to its production method. And while the former is generally considered far superior in quality to the latter, an absinthe's simple claim of being 'distilled' makes no guarantee as to the quality of its base ingredients or the skill of its maker.

Storage[edit source | edit]

Absinthe that is artificially coloured or clear is aesthetically stable, and can be bottled in clear glass. If naturally coloured absinthe is exposed to light or air for a prolonged period, the chlorophyll gradually becomes oxidized, which has the effect of gradually changing the colour from green to yellow green, and eventually to brown. The colour of absinthe that has completed this transition was historically referred to as feuille morte (dead leaf). In the preban era, this natural phenomenon was favourably viewed, for it confirmed the product in question was coloured naturally, and not artificially with potentially toxic chemicals. Predictably, vintage absinthes often emerge from sealed bottles as distinctly amber in tint due to decades of slow oxidation. Though this colour change presents no adverse impact to the flavour of absinthe, it is generally desired to preserve the original colour, which requires that naturally coloured absinthe be bottled in dark, light resistant bottles. Absinthe intended for decades of storage should be kept in a cool (room temperature), dry place, away from light and heat. Absinthe should not be stored in the refrigerator or freezer, as the anethole may polymerize inside the bottle, creating an irreversible precipitate, and adversely impacting the original flavour.

Effects[edit source | edit]

Absinthe has been frequently and improperly described in modern times as being hallucinogenic. This is at least partly rooted in the fact that following some ten years of experiments with wormwood oil in the 19th century, the French psychiatrist Valentin Magnan studied 250 cases of alcoholism, and claimed that those who drank absinthe were worse off than those drinking ordinary alcohol, having experienced rapid-onset hallucinations.[74] Such accounts by opponents of absinthe (like Magnan) were cheerfully embraced by famous absinthe drinkers, many of whom were bohemian artists or writers.[75]

Two famous artists who helped popularize the notion that absinthe had powerful psychoactive properties were Toulouse-Lautrec and Vincent van Gogh. In one of the best-known written accounts of absinthe drinking, an inebriated Oscar Wilde described a phantom sensation of having tulips brush against his legs after leaving a bar at closing time.[76] Today it is known that absinthe does not cause hallucinations.[77] Thujone, once widely believed to be an active chemical in absinthe, is a GABA antagonist; and while it can produce muscle spasms in large doses, there is no direct evidence to suggest it causes hallucinations.[77] It has been speculated that reports of hallucinogenic effects of absinthe were most likely due to poisonous adulterants being added to cheaper versions of the drink in the 19th century.[78]

Notions of absinthe's alleged hallucinogenic properties were again fuelled in the 1970s, when a scientific paper suggested that thujone's structural similarity to THC, the active chemical in cannabis, presented the possibility of THC receptor affinity.[79][80] This theory was conclusively disproved in 1999.[81]

The debate over whether absinthe produces effects on the human mind in addition to those of alcohol has not been conclusively resolved. The effects of absinthe have been described by some as mind opening.[77] The most commonly reported experience is a 'clear-headed' feeling of inebriation — a form of 'lucid drunkenness'. Chemist, historian and absinthe distiller Ted Breaux has claimed that the alleged secondary effects of absinthe may be caused by the fact that some of the herbal compounds in the drink act as stimulants, while others act as sedatives, creating an overall lucid effect of awakening.[82] The long term effects of moderate absinthe consumption in humans remain unknown, although herbs traditionally used in the production of absinthe are reported to have both painkilling[83] and antiparasitic[84] properties.

Controversy[edit source | edit]

It was once widely promoted that excessive absinthe drinking caused effects that were discernible from those associated with alcoholism, a belief that led to the coining of the term absinthism. One of the first vilifications of absinthe followed an 1864 experiment in which Magnan simultaneously exposed one guinea pig to large doses of pure wormwood vapour, and another to alcohol vapours. The guinea pig exposed to wormwood vapour experienced convulsive seizures, while the animal exposed to alcohol did not. Magnan would later blame the naturally occurring (in wormwood) chemical thujone for these effects.[85]

Past reports estimated thujone concentrations in absinthe as being up to 260 mg/kg.[86] More recently, published scientific analyses of samples of various original absinthes have disproved previous estimates, and demonstrated that only a trace of the thujone present in wormwood actually makes it into a properly distilled absinthe when historical methods and materials are employed to create the spirit. As such, most traditionally crafted absinthes, both vintage and modern, fall within the current EU standards.[87][88][89][90]

Tests conducted on mice to study toxicity showed an oral LD50 of about 45 mg thujone per kg of body weight,[91] which represents far more absinthe than could be realistically consumed. The high percentage of alcohol in absinthe would result in mortality long before thujone could become a factor.[91] In documented cases of acute thujone poisoning as a result of oral ingestion,[92] the source of thujone was not commercial absinthe, but rather non-absinthe related sources, such as common essential oils (which may contain as much as 50% thujone).[93]

One study published in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol[94] concluded that high doses (0.28 mg/kg) of thujone in alcohol had negative effects on attention performance in a clinical setting. It delayed reaction time, and caused subjects to concentrate their attention into the central field of vision. Low doses (0.028 mg/kg) did not produce an effect noticeably different from the plain alcohol control. While the effects of the high dose samples were statistically significant in a double blind test, the test subjects themselves were unable to reliably identify which samples were the ones containing thujone. For the average 65 kg man, the high dose samples in the study would equate to 18.2 mg of thujone. The EU limit of 35 mg/L of thujone in absinthe means that given the highest permitted thujone content, one would have to consume approximately 0.5 litres to reach the measured effects, a feat likely to cause alcohol poisoning.

Regulations[edit source | edit]

Most countries (except Switzerland) presently do not possess a legal definition of absinthe (unlike Scotch whisky or cognac). Accordingly, producers are free to label a product 'absinthe' or 'absinth', whether or not it bears any resemblance to the traditional spirit.

Australia[edit source | edit]

Bitters may contain a maximum 35 mg/kg thujone, while other alcoholic beverages can contain a maximum 10 mg/kg.[95] In Australia, the import and sale of absinthe technically requires a special permit, although absinthe is readily available in many bottle shops. Regulation 5H of the Customs (Prohibited Imports) Regulations 1956 (Cth)[96] (the Regulations) prohibits the importation of Absinthe (Schedule 8), unless the permission (in writing) of the Secretary or an authorised person has been granted permission to import the goods and the permission has been produced to the Collector. Item 12A of Schedule 8 of the Regulations,[97] refers to "oil of wormwood, being an essential oil obtained from plants of the genus Artemisia, and preparations containing oil of wormwood." The administrative arrangements include the Secretary and authorised officers (appropriately delegated TGA officers) of the Therapeutic Goods Administration[98] may grant permission to import absinthe. The Australian Customs and Border Protection Service is the Collector for the importation of Schedule 8 goods. The domestic production and sale of Absinthe is regulated by State licensing laws.

Brazil[edit source | edit]

Absinthe was prohibited in Brazil until 1999 and was brought by entrepreneur Lalo Zanini and legalized in the same year. Presently, absinthe sold in Brazil must abide by the national law that restricts all spirits to a maximum of 54.0% ABV. While this regulation is enforced throughout channels of legal distribution, most major cities have large open air markets where contraband items, including absinthe containing alcohol in excess of the legal limit, are sold without interference from local police.

Canada[edit source | edit]

In Canada, liquor laws are established by the various provincial governments. As with any spirit, importation by individuals for personal use is allowed, provided that conditions for the individual's duration outside the country are satisfied. Importation is a federal matter, and is enforced by the Canada Border Services Agency.

Absinthe is not sold in some provinces, although in Saskatchewan, an individual is permitted to import one case (usually twelve 750 ml bottles or eight one-litre bottles) of any liquor. Individual provincial liquor boards must approve each product before it may be sold.

The production of spirits in Canada is provincially regulated. Okanagan Spirits in British Columbia released the Taboo brand in 2007, which is possibly the first commercial absinthe ever crafted in Canada.[99]

European Union[edit source | edit]

The European Union permits a maximum thujone level of 35 mg/kg in alcoholic beverages where Artemisia species is a listed ingredient, and 10 mg/kg in other alcoholic beverages.[100] Member countries regulate absinthe production within this framework. The sale of absinthe is permitted in all EU countries unless they further regulate it.

France[edit source | edit]

Despite adopting sweeping EU food and beverage regulations in 1988 that effectively re-legalised absinthe, a decree was passed that same year that preserved the prohibition on products explicitly labelled as "absinthe", while placing strict limits on fenchone (fennel) and pinocamphone (hyssop)[101] in an obvious, but failed, attempt to thwart a possible return of absinthe-like products. French producers circumvented this regulatory obstacle by labelling absinthe as spiritueux à base de plantes d'absinthe ('wormwood-based spirits'), with many either reducing or omitting fennel and hyssop altogether from their products. A legal challenge to the scientific basis of this decree resulted in its repeal (2009),[102] which opened the door for the official French re-legalisation of absinthe for the first time since 1915. The French Senate voted to repeal the prohibition in mid-April 2011.[103]

Georgia[edit source | edit]

It is legal to produce and sell absinthe in the Republic of Georgia, which has claimed to possess several producers of absinthe.

Germany[edit source | edit]

A ban on absinthe was enacted in Germany on 27 March 1923. In addition to banning the production of and commercial trade in absinthe, the law went so far as to prohibit the distribution of printed matter that provided details of its production. The original ban was lifted in 1981, but the use of Artemisia absinthium as a flavouring agent remained prohibited. On 27 September 1991, Germany adopted the European Union's standards of 1988, which effectively re-legalised absinthe.[104] Unlike Switzerland and France, there are no further restrictions.

Italy[edit source | edit]

The Fascist regime in 1926 banned the production, import, transport and sale of any liquor named "Assenzio". The ban was reinforced in 1931 with harsher penalties for transgressors, and remained in force until 1992 when the Italian government amended its laws to comply with the EU directive 88/388/EEC.

New Zealand[edit source | edit]

Although absinthe is not prohibited at national level, some local authorities have banned it. The latest is Mataura in Southland. The ban came in August 2008 after several issues of misuse drew public and police attention. One incident resulted in breathing difficulties and hospitalization of a 17-year-old for alcohol poisoning.[105] The particular brand of absinthe that caused these effects was bottled at an unusually high 89.9% ABV.

Finland[edit source | edit]

The sale and production of absinthe has never been (except for the time under prohibition from 1919 to 1932) prohibited in Finland. The government-owned chain of liquor stores called Alko is the only outlet that may sell alcoholic beverages containing over 4.7% ABV. Also there is a law that bans the sale of alcoholic beverages containing over 60% ABV (though the possession is legal).

Sweden[edit source | edit]

The sale and production of absinthe has never been prohibited in Sweden. However, the only outlet that may sell alcoholic beverages containing more than 3.5% ABV is the government-owned chain of liquor stores known as Systembolaget. Systembolaget did not import or sell absinthe for many years.[106]

Switzerland[edit source | edit]

In Switzerland, the sale and production of absinthe was prohibited from 1910 to 2005; the ban being lifted on March 1, 2005. To be legally made or sold in Switzerland, absinthe must be distilled,[107] must not contain commercial additives, and must be either naturally coloured or left uncoloured.[108]

United States[edit source | edit]

In 2007, the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) effectively lifted the longstanding absinthe ban, and has since approved many brands for sale in the U.S. market. This was made possible partly through the TTB's clarification of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) thujone content regulations, which specify that finished food and beverages that contain Artemisia species must be thujone free.[109] In this context, the TTB considers a product to be thujone-free if the thujone content is less than 10 ppm (equal to 10 mg/kg).[110][111] This is verified through the use of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.[112]

The importation, distribution, and sale of absinthe is permitted with respect to the following restrictions:

Absinthe imported in violation of these regulations is subject to seizure at the discretion of U.S. Customs and Border Protection.[113][114]

Beginning in 2001, a product called Absente was sold legally in the United States under the marketing tagline "Absinthe Refined," but as the product contained sugar, and was made with southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) and not grande wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) (prior to 2009), the TTB classified it as a liqueur.

Vanuatu[edit source | edit]

The Absinthe (Prohibition) Act 1915, passed in the New Hebrides, has never been repealed, is included in the 1988 Vanuatu consolidated legislation, and contains the following all-encompassing restriction: The manufacture, importation, circulation and sale wholesale or by retail of absinthe or similar liquors in Vanuatu shall be prohibited.[115]

Cultural influence[edit source | edit]

The legacy of absinthe as a mysterious, addictive, and mind-altering drink continues to this day. Absinthe has served as the subject of numerous works of fine art, films, video, music and literature since the mid-19th century.

Numerous artists and writers living in France in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were noted absinthe drinkers who featured absinthe in their work. These included Émile Zola,[citation needed] Vincent van Gogh, Édouard Manet, Amedeo Modigliani, Arthur Rimbaud, Guy de Maupassant, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and Paul Verlaine. Later artists and writers drew from this cultural well, including Pablo Picasso, August Strindberg, Oscar Wilde, and Ernest Hemingway. Aleister Crowley was also known to be a habitual absinthe drinker. Émile Cohl, an early pioneer in the art of animation, presented the effects of the drink in 1920 with the short film, Hasher's Delirium.

The aura of illicitness and mystery surrounding absinthe has played into modern literature, movies, music and television. Such depictions vary in their authenticity, often applying dramatic license to depict the drink as a flaming green neon liquid that ranges from an aphrodisiac to poison, and always seems to be a catalyst of vivid hallucinations.

See also[edit source | edit]

References[edit source | edit]

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  3. ^ "La Fabrication des Liqueurs", J. De Brevans (1908, pp 251–262)
  4. ^ "Nouveau Manuel Complet du Distillateur Liquoriste", Lebead, de Fontenelle, & Malepeyre (1888, pp 221–224)
  5. ^ 'Traite de la Fabrication de Liqueurs et de la Distillation des Alcools' Duplais (1882 3rd Ed, Pg 249)
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Further reading[edit source | edit]

External links[edit source | edit]

Related information[edit source | edit]