List of Greek and Latin roots in English

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The following is an alphabetical list of Greek and Latin roots, stems, and prefixes commonly used in English.

Some of those used in medicine and medical terminology are not listed here but instead in Wikipedia's List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes.

A[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
ab-, a-, abs-away fromLatinab "away"abnormal, abrasion, absent, abstain, abstraction, aversion
ac-sharp or pointedLatinacereacupuncture, acute
acerb-sharp, bitter, sourLatinacerbusacerbic, exacerbate
acid-sour or acidLatinacidusacidosis, acidulation
acr-height, summit, tipGreekἄκρος (akros) "high", "extreme"acrobatics, acromegaly, acronym, acrophobia
acr-bitter, pungent, sharp, sourLatinacer, acrisacrid, acrimony
acu-sharpLatinacutus, past participle of acuere "to sharpen", from acus "needle"acupuncture, acute, acutifoliate
ad-, a-, ac-, af-, ag-, al-, ap-, ar-, as-, at-movement to or toward; in addition toLatinad "to", "toward"accept, adapt, affect, aggression, approximate, ascend
adip-fatLatinadeps, adipis "fat"adipose
aer-air, atmosphereGreekἀήρ (aēr) "air"aeronautics, aeroplane, aerosol
aesthet-feeling, sensationGreekαἰσθητικός (aisthētikos) "of sense perception" from αἰσθάνεσθαι (aisthanesthai) "to perceive"aesthetics, anaesthetic
ag-, act-doLatinagere, actusact, agent
agr-fieldGreekἀγρός (agros) "field"agronomy,
agri-, -egri-fieldLatinager, agris "field, country"agriculture, peregrine
alb-dull whiteLatinalbusalbedo, albino, albumen
am-, amat-loveLatinamāre, amatus, amoramateur, amatory, amorous
ambi-both, on both sidesLatinambiambidexterity, ambivalent
ambul-to walkLatinambulareambulance, ambulatory
amic-, -imic-friendLatinamicusamicable, inimical
amph-, amphi-around, about, both, on both sides of, both kindsGreekἀμφί (amphi) "on both sides"amphibian, amphibolic, amphoterism
ampl-ample, abundant, bountifulLatinamplusamplification
an-, a-not, withoutGreekGreek ἀν-/ἀ- "not"anhydrous, atypical
ana-, an-again, against, back, upGreekἀνά (ana)anabaptist, anaphylaxis, anion, anode
andr-male, masculineGreekἀνδρός androsandrogen, android
anem-windGreekἄνεμος anemosanemometer
anim-breath, life, spiritLatinanima "breath"animal, animation
ann-, -enn-year, yearlyLatinannus "year"anniversary, annual, biannual, millennium
ant-, anti-against, opposed to, preventiveGreekἀντί anti "against"antagonist, antibiotic, antipodes
ante-, anti-before, in front of, prior toLatinante "before", "against"antebellum, antediluvian, anticipate, antiquarian
anth-flowerGreekἄνθος (anthos) "flower"anther, anthology
anthra-coalGreekἄνθραξ (anthraks)anthracite, anthrax
anthrop-humanGreekἄνθρωπος (anthropos) "man"anthropology, anthropomorphic
ap-, apo-away from, separate, at the farthest pointGreekἀπό (apo) "from, away, un-, quite"aphelion, apocrine, apogee, apostasy
aqu-waterLatinaquaaquamarine, aquarium, aqueduct, aquifer
ar-plow, tillLatinărārearable
ar-be dryLatinārēre "be dry or parched"arid
arche-, archi-rulerGreekἀρχή (archē) "rule" (in compounds: ἀρχε-, ἀρχι-)archangel, archetype
archae-, arche-ancientGreekἀρχαῖος arkhaios "ancient" from arkhē "beginning"archaeology or archeology, archaic
arct-Relating to the North Pole or the region near it; relating to coldGreekἄρκτος arktos "bear"Arctic Ocean
argent-silverLatinargentumargent, Argentina
areta-virtueGreekἀρετή aretēaretaic
arist-excellenceGreekἄριστος aristosaristocracy
arthr-jointGreekἄρθρον (arthron)arthritis, arthropod
astr-star, star-shapedGreekἄστρον (astron) "star"asterisk, astrology, astronomy
athl-prizeGreekἄθλος (athlos) "contest, feat"athlete, pentathlon
-athroidgathered or lumped togetherGreekαθροίζω (athroidzo) "I gather together"hypoathroid, epiathroid
audi-hearing, listening, soundLatinaudire "to hear"audible, auditorium, auditory
aug-, auct-grow, increaseLatinaugēre, auctus "to increase"augend, augmentation
aur-relating to gold, or gold-coloredLatinaurum "gold"aureate, aureole
auri-relating to the earLatinauris "ear"auricle
aut-, auto-self; directed from withinGreekαὐτός (autos) "self", "same"autarchy, autograph, automobile, autonomy
avi-birdLatinavisaviary, aviation
axi-axisLatinaxisaxisymmetry
axi(o)-meritGreekἄξιος (axios) "worth"axiology, axiom

B[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
bac-rod-shapedLatinbaculumbaculiform, baculum
bar-weight, pressureGreekβάρος (baros)barograph, barometer, barostat
basi-at the bottomGreekβάσις (basis) "step", from βαίνω (bainō), "I walk, march"basic, basis
bathy-, batho-deep, depthGreekβαθύς (bathús, bathýs)batholith, bathymetry, bathyscaphe
be-, beat-blessLatinbeare, beatusbeatification
bell-warLatinbellum, belliantebellum, bellicose, belligerent
ben-good, wellLatinbene (adverb)benefit, benignity
bi-twoLatinbis, "twice"; bini, "in twos"binary, binoculars, bigamy, biscotti
bib-drinkLatinbibere, bibitusimbibe
bibl-bookGreekβιβλίον (biblíon) "book"bible, bibliography
bio-lifeGreekβίος (bíos) "life"biography, biologist, biology, biosphere
blenn-slimeGreekβλέννος (blennos)blennophobia, blennosperma
blast-germ, embryo, bud, cell with nucleusGreekβλασταίνω (blastainō), "I put forth shoots"blastula, fibroblast, osteoblast, sideroblast
bon-goodLatinbonusbonify, bonitary
bore-northLatin from Greekborealis "northern" from Βορέας (Boreas) "the north wind"borealis
botan-plantGreekβοτάνη, βότανον (botanē, botanon)botanic, botanist, botany
bov-cow, oxLatinbos, bovisbovine
brachi-armGreekβραχίων (brakhíōn)brachial artery, brachiosaurus
brachy-shortGreekβραχύς (brakhús, brakhýs)brachycephaly, brachydactyly
brady-slowGreekβραδύς (bradús, bradýs)bradycardia
branchi-gillGreekβράγχιον (brágkhion, bránkhion)branchiopod, nudibranch
brev-brief, short (time)Latinbrevis, breviareabbreviation, brevity
brom-foodGreekβρῶμα (brōma)bromatium, bromatology
brom-oatsGreekβρόμος, βρόμη (brómos, brómē) "oats"brome, Bromus, Bromus ramosus
brom-stenchGreekβρῶμος (brōmos) "stench, clangor"bromate, bromide, bromine
bronch-windpipeGreekβρόγχος (brógkhos, brónkhos)bronchiole, bronchitis, bronchus
bront-thunderGreekβροντή (brontē)Brontosaurus
bucc-cheek, mouth, cavityLatinbuccabuccal, buccinator muscle
bulb-bulbousLatinbulbusbulbous, bulbule
bull-bubble, flaskLatinbulla, "bubble"ebullient, ebullism
burs-pouch, purseLatinbursabursa, bursar, bursary, disburse

C[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
cac-badGreekκακός (kakos)cacophony
cad-, -cid-, cas-fallLatincadere, casusaccident, cadence, case
caed-, -cid-, caes-, -cis-cutLatincaedere, caesuscaesura, incisor, scissors
calc-stoneLatin and Greekfrom Latin calx "lime" from Greek χάλιξ (khalix) "pebble", "limestone"calcite, calcium, calculate, calculus, chalicothere
call-beautifulGreekκάλλος (kallos) "beauty"calligraphy
calor-heatLatincalor "heat"calorie
calyp-coverGreekκαλύπτειν (kaluptein)apocalypse
camer-vaultLatincamerabicameral, camera
camp-fieldLatincampus "field", "level ground"champion, campaign
can-dogLatincaniscanine, Canis Major
can-, -cin-, cant-singLatincanerecantata, canto, cantor
cand-glowing, iridescentLatincandere "to be white or glisten"candela, candid, candle, candor, incandescent, incendiary, incense
cap-, -cip-, capt-, -cept-hold, takeLatincapere, captus "take or hold" (vowel changes from a to i in compounds)captive, capture, conception, recipient
capit-, -cipit-headLatincaput, capitiscapital, decapitation, precipitation
capr-goatLatincaper, capriCapricorn, caprine
caps-box, caseLatincapsacapsule
carbo-coalLatincarbo, carboniscarbohydrate
carcer-jailLatincarcer, carcerareincarceration
carcin-cancer (disease)Latin from GreekLatin from Greek καρκίνος (karkinos) "crab"carcinogenic, carcinoma
cardi-relating to the heartGreekκαρδιά (kardia)cardiograph, cardiology
cardin-hingeLatincardo, cardiniscardinal
carn-fleshLatincaro, carniscarnal, carnival, carnivore
carp-fruitGreekκαρπός (karpos) "fruit"carpology
carp-wristGreekκαρπός (karpos) "wrist"carpal, carpal tunnel syndrome
cast-pureLatincastus "chaste"caste, castigate
cata-, cat-downGreekκατά (katá) "down"catabolic, catalyst, catastrophe, catatonia, cathode, cation
caten-chainLatincatenacatenary, concatenation
cathar-pureGreekκαθαρός (katharos)catharsis
caud-tailLatincaudacaudal, coda
caus-, -cus-cause or motiveLatincausacausative
cav-hollowLatincavuscave, cavity, excavation
ced-, cess-goLatincedere, cessusprocession, recede, secede
celer-quickLatinceler, celerareacceleration, celerity
cen-newGreekκαινός (kainos)Cenozoic
cen-emptyGreekκενός (kenos)cenotaph
cen-commonGreekκοινός (koinos)cenobite
cens-to assessLatincenserecensus
cent-hundredLatincentumcent, centennial, centurion
centen-hundred eachLatincentenicentenarian, centenary
centesim-hundredthLatincentesimuscentesimal, centesimation
centr-centerGreekκέντρον (kéntron) "needle", "spur"eccentric
cephal-headGreekκεφαλή (kephalē)cephalic, cephalopod, encephalogram
ceram-clayGreekκέραμος (keramos)ceramic
cerat-hornGreekκέρας, κέρατος (keras, keratos)keratin, triceratops
cern-siftLatincernerediscern, secern
cervic-relating to the neck, relating to the cervixLatincervix, cervicis "neck"cervix, cervical
ceter-otherLatinceteruset cetera
chir-of the hand or handsGreekχείρ (kheir) "hand"chiral, chiropractic, chiroptera
chelon-relating to a turtleGreekχελώνη (khelōne) "tortoise"chelonia
chlor-greenGreekχλωρός (khlōros)chlorine, chlorophyll, chloroplast
chore-relating to danceGreekχορεία (khoreia) "dancing in unison" from χορός (khoros) "chorus"choreography
chord-cordLatin and Greekchorda "rope" from χορδή (chordē)chordata
chrom-colorGreekχρῶμα (chrōma)chromium, chromosome, monochrome
chron-timeGreekχρόνος (chronos)chronic, chronology, chronometer
chrys-goldGreekχρυσός (khrusos)chrysalis, chrysolite
cili-eyelashLatinciliumcilia, supercilious
cine-motionGreekκινέω (kineō)cinema
ciner-ashLatincinis, cinerisincineration
cing-, cinct-girdLatincingere, cinctussuccinct
circ-circle, ringLatincircuscircular, circus
circum-aroundLatincircumcircumcise, circumference, circumlocution, circumnavigate
cirr-orangeGreekκιρρός (kirros)cirrhosis
cirr-curl, tentacleLatincirruscirrus
civ-citizenLatinciviscivic, civility
clad-branchGreekκλάδος (klados)clade
clar-clearLatinclarus, clarareclarity, declaration
clast-brokenGreekκλαστός (klastos)iconoclast, osteoclast
claud-, -clud-, claus-, -clus-closeLatinclaudere, claususclause, exclusion, include
clav-keyGreekfrom Greek κλείς (kleis) "key" from κλείειν, (kleiein) "to close"clavichord, clavicle, conclave
cleist-closedGreekκλειστός (kleistos)cleistogamy
cleithr-bar, keyGreekcleithrum
clement-mildLatinclemens, clementisclemency, inclement
clin-bedGreekκλίνη (klinē)clinic
clin-lean, reclineLatin-clinaredeclination, inclined
cochl-snail, spiral shellGreekκόχλος (kochlos)cochlea
coel-hollowGreekκοῖλος (koilos)blastocoel, coelom, spongocoel
cogn-knowLatincognoscere, cognituscognitive, cognizant, recognize
col-strainLatincolare, columcolander, coulee, percolate
coll-hillLatincolliscolliculus
coll-neckLatincollumcollar
color-colorLatincolorcoloration, coloratura, tricolor
con-, co-, col-, com-, cor-with, togetherLatincumcoagulate, collide, compress, connect, contain, corrode
con-coneGreekκῶνος (kōnos)conic, conical, conoid
condi-seasonLatincondirecondiment
contra-againstLatincontracontraception, contradiction, contrast
copr-dungGreekκόπρος (kopros)coprolite, coprophagia, coprophilia
corac-ravenGreekκόραξ, κόρακος (korax, korakos)coracoid
cord-heartLatincor, cordisaccord, cordial
corn-hornLatincornucornea, cornucopia, unicorn
coron-crownLatincorona, coronarecorona, coronation
corpor-bodyLatincorpus, corporiscorporation, corpse, corpuscle
cortic-barkLatincortex, corticiscortical, corticosteriod
cosm-universeGreekκόσμος (kosmos)cosmic, cosmonaut
cosmet-the art of dress and ornamentGreekκοσμητική (kosmetike) from κόσμος (kosmos)cosmetics, cosmetology
cost-ribLatincostacostal
cotyl-cupGreekκοτύλη (kotulē)cotyledon
-cracy, -cratgovernment, rule, authorityGreekκράτος (kratos)democracy
crani-skullGreekκρανίον (kranion)cranium
crass-thickLatincrassuscrassitude
cre-makeLatincreare, creatuscreation, creature
cred-believe, trustLatincredere, credituscredentials, credibility, creditor, incredible
crep-boot, shoeGreekκρηπίς, κρηπίδος (krēpis, krēpidos)crepidoma
cribr-sieveLatincribrum, cribrarecribble, cribrate
cric-ringGreekκρίκος (krikos)cricoid
crisi-, crit-judgeGreekκρίσις (crisis)crisis, critic
crisp-curledLatincrispuscrepe, crispate
crist-crestLatincristacristate
cross-fringe, tasselGreekκροσσός (krossos)crossopterygii
cruc-crossLatincrux, cruciscrucial, crucifix, crucify, excruciating
crur-leg, shankLatincrus, cruriscrural
crypt-hiddenGreekκρυπτός (kruptos)cryptic, cryptography
cten-combGreekκτείς, κτενός (kteis, ktenos)ctenophore
cub-cubeGreekκύβος (kubos)cubic, cuboid
cub-lieLatincubareincubation, succuba
culin-kitchenLatinculinaculinary
culp-blame, faultLatinculpaculpable, exculpate
cune-wedgeLatincuneuscuneiform
cur-care forLatincura, curareaccurate, curator, cure
curr-, curs-runLatincurrere, cursusconcurrent, current, cursive, recursion
curv-bentLatincurvuscurvature
cuspid-lance, pointLatincuspis, cuspidisbicuspid
cut-skinLatincutiscutaneous, cuticle
cyan-blueGreekκυανός (kuanos)cyanide
cycl-circularGreekκύκλος (kuklos)bicycle, cycle, cyclone
cylind-rollGreekκύλινδρος (kulindros)cylinder
cyn-dogGreekκύων, κυνός (kuōn, kunos)cynology, cynosure
cyst-capsuleGreekκύστις (kustis)cystic
cyt-cellGreekκύτος (kutos)cnidocyte, cytoplasm

D[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
dactyl-finger, toe, digitGreekδάκτυλος (daktulos)dactylology, pterodactyl
damn-, -demn-to inflict loss uponLatindamnārecondemn, damnation, indemnify
de-from, away from, removing, downLatindeletion, dementia, descend
deb-oweLatindebere, debitusdebit
deca-, dec-, deka-, dek-tenGreekδέκα deka, tendecagram, decahedron, decameter
decim-tenth partLatindecimus, tenth; from decem, tendecimal, decimate
delt-shaped like a ΔGreekδέλτα (delta)deltoid
dem-peopleGreekδῆμος (dēmos)demagogue, democracy
den-ten eachLatindenidenarius, denary, denier, dinar, dinero, dinheiro
dendr-resembling a treeGreekδένδρον (dendron): akin to δρύς, drys, "tree"dendrite, dendrochronology
dens-thickLatindensuscondense, density
dent-toothLatindens, dentisdental, dentifrice, dentures
derm-skinGreekδέρμα (derma)dermis, epidermis, hypodermic, Dermaptera
deuter-secondGreekδεύτερος (deuteros)Deuteronomy, deuterostome
dexter-rightLatindexterdexterity, dextrose
dexi-rightGreekδεξιός (deksios)Dexiarchia
di-twoGreekδι- (di-)dicot, diode, dipole
dia-apart, throughGreekδιά (dia)diagram, dialysis, diameter
dict-say, speakLatindicere, dictuscontradict, dictate, dictation, dictionary, edict, predict
digit-fingerLatindigitusdigital
dino-terrible, fearfully greatGreekδεινός (deinos)dinosaur
dipl-double; twofoldGreekδιπλός (diplos)diploid, diplosis
doc-, doct-teachLatindocere, doctusdocile, doctor, indoctrinate
dodec-twelveGreekδώδεκα (dōdeka)dodecahedron, dodecasyllabic
dogmat-, dox-opinion, tenetGreekδόξαdogmatic, orthodox
dom-houseLatindomusdome
don-giveLatindonarecondone, donation
dorm-sleepLatindormiredormant, dormitory
dors-backLatindorsumdorsal
du-twoLatinduodual
dub-doubtfulLatindubiusdubious
duc-, duct-leadLatindux, ducisabduction, conductor, deduction, introduction, production, reduction
dulc-sweetLatindulcisdulcet, dulcimer
dur-hardLatindurusdurable, duration, duress, endure, obdurate
dy-twoGreekδύο (duo)dyad
dyna-powerGreekδύναμαι (dunamai)dynamism, dynasty, dynamite
dys-badly, illGreekδυσ- (dus-)dysentery, dysplasia, dystrophy

E[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
ec-outGreekἐκ (ek)eccentric
ecclesi-assembly, congregationGreekἐκκλησία (ekklēsiā) from ἐκκαλέω (ekkaleō) "I summon" or "I call out"Ecclesiastes, ecclesiastical
eco-houseGreekοἶκος (oikos)ecology, economics, ecumenism
ecto-outsideGreekἐκτός (ektos)ectoderm
ed-, es-eatLatinedere, esusedible, obesity
eg-goatGreekαἴξ, αἰγός (aix)egophony
ego-self, I (first person)Latin, Greekego, ἐγώegocentric
electr-amberGreekἤλεκτρον (elektron)electron, electricity
em-, empt-buyLatinemere, emptusexemption, preempt, redeem
eme-vomitGreekἐμεῖν, ἔμετος (emetos)emesis, emetic
emul-striving to equal, rivalingLatinaemulus, aemulareemulator
en-, em-inGreekἐν (en)emphasis
encephalo-brainGreekἐγκέφαλος (enkephalos)encephalopathy
endo-insideGreekἔνδον (endon)endocrine, endocytosis
engy-narrowGreekἐγγύς (engys)Engystomops
ennea-nineGreekἐννέα (ennea)ennead, enneagon, enneode
ens-swordLatinensisensiform
eo-, eos-, eoso-dawn, eastGreekἨώς/ἝωςEocene
ep-, epi-uponGreekἐπί (epi)epicenter, epistemic, epitaph, epoch
equ-, -iqu-even, levelLatinaequusequal, equivalence
equ-horseLatinequusequestrian
erg-workGreekέργον (ergon)ergonomics
erot-(sexual) loveGreekἔρως, ἔρωτος (erōs, erōtos)erogenous, erotic
err-strayLatinerrareaberration, errant, error
erythr-redGreekἐρυθρός (eruthros)erythrocyte
eso-withinGreekἔσω (esō)esoteric
eth-custom, habitGreekἦθος (ēthos)ethology
ethm-sieve, siftGreekἠθμός (ēthmos); ἤθειν (hethein)ethmoid
ethn-people, race, tribe, nationGreekἔθνος (ethnos)ethnarch, ethnic
etym-trueGreekἔτυμος (etumos)etymology
eu-well, goodGreekεὖ (eu)euphoria, euthanasia
eur-wideGreekεὐρύς (eurus)Europe, eurypterid
ex-, e-, ef-from, outLatinexexclude, extend, extrude
exo-outsideGreekἔξω (eksō)exoskeleton, exothermic
exter-, extra-outerLatinexterusexterior
extrem-outermost, utmostLatinextremusextremity, extremophile

F[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
f-, fat-say, speakLatinfari, fatusfate, infant, preface
fab-beanLatinfabafaba bean
fac-, -fic-, fact, -fect-makeLatinfacere, factusdefect, factory, manufacture
falc-sickleLatinfalx, falcisfalciform
fall-, -fell-, fals-deceiveLatinfallere, falsusfalsity, infallibility
fallac-falseLatinfallax, fallacisfallacy
famili-a close attendantLatinfamulusfamiliarity
fant-to showGreekφαντάζω (phantazō)fantasy
fasc-bundleLatinfascisfasciculation, fascism
fatu-foolish, uselessLatinfatuusfatuous, infatuation
feder-treaty, agreement, contract, league, pactLatinfoedus, foederisconfederation, federal
fel-catLatinfeles, felisFelinae, feline
felic-happy, merryLatinfelix, felicisfelicity
fell-suckLatinfellarefellation
femin-women, femaleLatinfeminafemininity
femor-thighLatinfemur, femorisfemoral
fend-, fens-strikeLatinfendere, -fensusdefend, offense
fenestr-windowLatinfenestradefenestration
fer-carryLatinferrereference, transfer
feroc-fierceLatinferox, ferocisferocity
ferr-ironLatinferrumferrous
fet-stinkLatinfeterefetid, fetor
fic-figLatinficusFicus
fid-, fis-faith, trustLatinfides, fidere, fisusconfidence, fidelity
fil-threadLatinfilumfilament
fili-sonLatinfiliusaffiliation
fin-endLatinfinisfinal, finish
find-, fiss-splitLatinfindere, fissusfission, fissures
firm-firm, strongLatinfirmus, firmareconfirmation, firmament
fistul-hollow, tubeLatinfistulafistula
fl-blowLatinflare, flatusflatulence, inflation, insufflation
flacc-flabbyLatinflaccus, flaccereflaccid
flav-yellowLatinflavusflavonoid
flect-, flex-bendLatinflectere, flexusflexible, flexile, flexor, inflection
flig-, flict-strikeLatinfligere, flictusconflict, inflict
flor-flowerLatinflos, florisfloral, florid
flu-, flux-flowLatinfluere, fluxuseffluent, fluency, influx
foc-hearthLatinfocusfocal
fod-, foss-digLatinfodere, fossusfossil
foen-hayLatinfoenumFoeniculum
foli-leafLatinfoliumdefoliant
font-springLatinfons, fontisfont, fontal, fontanelle
for-bore, drillLatinforare, foratusforalite, foramen, foraminifer, perforation
form-shapeLatinformaconformity, deformity, formation, reformatory
form-antLatinformicaformaldehyde, formic acid
fornic-vaultLatinfornix, fornicisfornication
fort-strongLatinfortisfortification
fove-shallow round depressionLatinfoveafovea
frang-, -fring-, fract-, frag-breakLatinfrangere, fractusfracture, fragment, frangible, infringe
frater-, fratr-brotherLatinfraterfraternity
fric-, frict-rubLatinfricare, frictusdentifrice, friction
frig-coldLatinfrigerefrigid, frigorific
front-foreheadLatinfrons, frontisconfront, frontage, frontal
fruct-, frug-fruitLatinfrux, fructisfructose, frugivorous
fug-, fugit-fleeLatinfugerecentrifuge, fugitive, refuge
fum-smokeLatinfumusfume, fumigation
fund-bottomLatinfundus, fundarefundamentalism, profundity
fund-, fus-pourLatinfundere, fususdiffusion, effusion, effusive, fusion, profuse, profusion, transfusion
fung-, funct-doLatinfungi, functusfunction, fungibility
fur-, furt-stealLatinfur, furarefurtive
furc-forkLatinfurcabifurcation
fusc-darkLatinfuscusobfuscation

G[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
galact-milkGreekγάλα, γαλακτός (gala, galaktos)galactic
gastr-stomachGreekγαστήρ (gastēr)gastric, gastroenterology
ge-earthGreekγῆ (), γεω- (geō-)geography, geology, geometry
gel-icy coldLatingelumgelatin, gelid
gen-race, kindGreekγένος (genos)eugenics, genocide
ger-, gest-bear, carryLatingerere, gestusdigest, gestation
germin-sproutLatingermen, germinisgermination
glabr-hairlessLatinglaberglabrous
glaci-iceLatinglaciesglacier
gladi-swordLatingladiusgladiator
glia-glueGreekγλία (glia)glial
glob-sphereLatinglobusglobal, globule
glori-gloryLatingloriaglorify
glutin-glueLatingluten, glutinisagglutination
gnosc-to knowLatincognoscenti
gon-corner, angleGreekγωνία (gōnía)goniometer, polygon
grad-, -gred-, gress-walk, step, goLatingradus, gradere, gressusgrade, regress
gramm-writingGreekγράμμα (gramma)grammar, grammatic
gran-grainLatingranumgranary, granite, granola, granule
grand-grandLatingrandisgrandiloquous, grandiosity
graph-draw, writeGreekγραφή (graphē)grapheme, graphic, graphology
grat-thank, pleaseLatingratusgrace, gratitude, ingrate
grav-heavyLatingravisaggravation, grave, gravity
greg-flockLatingrex, gregisegregious, gregarious, segregation
gubern-govern, pilotLatingubernaregubernatorial
gust-tasteLatingustusdisgust, gusto
gutt-dropLatinguttagutta, guttifer, guttiform
guttur-throatLatingutturguttural
gymn-nudeGreekγυμνός (gumnos)gymnasium, gymnastics, gymnosperm
gyn-womanGreekγυνή (gunē)gynecology

H[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
hab-, -hib-, habit-, -hibit-haveLatinhabere, habitushabit, prohibition
hadr-thickGreekἁδρός (hadros)hadrocodium, hadron
haem-, hem-bloodGreekαἷμα (haima)haemophilia, hemoglobin
hal-saltGreekἅλς, ἁλός (hals, halos)halite, halogen
hal-, -hel-breatheLatinhalare, halatusanhelation, inhale, halitosis
hapl-simple, singleGreekἁπλοῦς (haplous)haploid, haplotype
haur-, haust-drawLatinhaurire, haustusexhaustion
hedo-pleasureGreekἡδονή (hēdonē)hedonism
heli-sunGreekἥλιος (hēlios)heliocentric, heliotrope, helium
hemi-halfGreekἥμισυς (hēmisus)hemicycle, hemisphere
hen-oneGreekἕν (hen)henad, hyphen
hendec-elevenGreekἕνδεκα (hendeka)hendecagon
hept-sevenGreekἑπτά (hepta)heptagon, heptathlon, heptode
her-, hes-clingLatinhaerere, haesusadhesive, coherent
herb-grassLatinherbaherbal, herbicide
hered-heirLatinheres, heredisheredity
herp-creepGreekἕρπω, ἕρπειν (herpō, herpein)herpes, herpetology
heter-different, otherGreekἕτερος (heteros)heterochromatin, heterodoxy, heterogeneity, heterogeneous
heur-findGreekεὑρίσκω (heuriskō)heuristic
hex-sixGreekἕξ (hex)hexagon, hexahedron, hexode
hibern-wintryLatinhibernushibernation
hiem-winterLatinhiemshiemal
hier-sacredGreekἱερός (hieros)hierarchy, hieroglyphics
hipp-horseGreekἵππος (hippos)hippodrome, hippopotamus
hirsut-hairyLatinhirtus, hirsutushirsute
hispid-bristlyLatinhispidushispidity, hispidulous
histri-actorLatinhistrio, histrionishistrionic
hod-wayGreekὁδός (hodos)cathode, herpolhode, hodometer
hol-wholeGreekὅλος (holos)holistic, holography
hom-sameGreekὁμός (homos)homophone, homozygous
homal-even, flatGreekὁμαλός (homalos)anomalous
home-likeGreekὅμοιος (homoios)homeostasis
homin-humanLatinhomo, hominishominid
honor-esteemLatinhonos, honorishonorable, honorarium
hor-boundaryGreekὅρος (horos)aphorism, horizon
hor-hourGreekὥρα (hōra)horoscope
horm-that which excitesGreekὁρμή (hormē)hormone
hort-gardenLatinhortus, hortihorticulture
hospit-hostLatinhospes, hospitishospice, hospital, hospitality, inhospitable
host-enemyLatinhostishostile
hum-groundLatinhumus, humareexhumation, inhume
hyal-glassGreekὕαλος (hualos)hyaline, hyaloid
hydr-waterGreekὕδωρ (hudōr)hydraulics, hydrology, hydrolysis, hydrophily, hydrophobia, hydroponic, hydrous
hygr-wetGreekὑγρός (hugros)hygrometer
hymen-skin or membraneGreekὑμήν (humēn)hymen, Hymenoptera
hyo-U-shapedGreekὑοειδής (huoeidēs)hyoid
hyp-underGreekὑπό (hupo)hypothermia
hyper-above, overGreekὑπέρ (huper)hyperbole, hypertonic
hypn-sleepGreekὕπνος (hupnos)hypnosis
hyster-laterGreekὕστερος (husteros)hysteresis

I[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
ichthy-fishGreekἰχθύς (ichthus)ichthyology
icos-twentyGreekεἴκοσι (eikosi)icosagon, icosahedron
id-shapeGreekεἶδος (eidos)idol
ide-idea; thoughtGreekιδέα (ideal)ideogram, ideology
idi-personalGreekἴδιος (idios)idiom, idiosyncrasy, idiot
ign-fireLatinignisigneous, ignition
imagin-copyLatinimāgō, imāginisimage, imagine
in- (1), im-in, onLatininimport, incur, intend, invite
in- (2), il-, im-, ir-not, un- (negation)Latinin-illicit, impossible, inimical, irrational
infra-below, underLatininfrainfrastructure
insul-islandLatininsulainsular, insulation
inter-among, betweenLatininter (preposition)intercollegiate, intermission, intersection
intra-withinLatinintraintramural
irasc-, irat-be angryLatinirasciirascible, irate
irid-rainbowLatinirisiridescent
is-, iso-equal, sameGreekἴσος (isos)isometric, isomorphic, isotropic
iter-againLatiniterum, iterareiteration
itiner-journeyLatiniter, itinerisitinerary

J[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
jac-lieLatinjacēre "to be thrown"adjacent
jac-, -ject-cast, throwLatinjacere, iectusejaculate, eject, reject, interject, trajectory
janu-doorLatinjanuajanitor, January
joc-jokeLatinjocusjocularity
judic-judgeLatinjudex, iudicisadjudicate, judicial, judiciary
jug-yokeLatinjugare, jugumconjugal, subjugate
jung-, junct-joinLatinjungere, junctusconjunction, juncture
junior-youngerLatinjuniorjuniority
jus-, jur-law, justiceLatinius, iurisjury, justice
juv-, jut-helpLatinjuvare, jutusadjutant
juven-young, youthLatinjuvenisjuvenile, rejuvenate
juxta-beside, nearLatinjuxtajuxtaposition

K[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
kil(o)-thousandGreekχίλιοι (chilioi)kilobyte, kilogram, kilometer
kine-movement, motionGreekκινέω (kineō)kinesthetic, kinetic, telekinesis
klept-stealGreekκλέπτης (kleptēs)kleptomania, kleptoplasty
kudo-gloryGreekκῦδος (kudos)kudos

L[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
lab-, laps-slide, slipLatinlabi, lapsuselapse, relapse
labi-lipLatinlabia, labiaebilabial, labial
labor-workLatinlaborcollaboration, elaboration
lacer-tearLatinlacerlaceration
lacrim-cry, tearsLatinlacrimalacrimal, lacrimous
lact-milkLatinlac, lactis, lactarelactate, lactation, lactose
lamin-layer, sliceLatinlaminalaminate, lamination
lamp-torchGreekλαμπάς (lampas)lamp
lapid-stoneLatinlapis, lapidislapidary
larg-largeLatinlargusenlargement
larv-ghost, maskLatinlarvalarva, larvae, larval
lat-broad, wideLatinlatuslatitude
later-sideLatinlatus, laterisbilateral
laud-, laus-praiseLatinlauderelaud, laudanum
lav-washLatinlavarelavatory
lax-not tenseLatinlaxus, laxarelaxative, relaxation
lecith-egg yolkGreekλέκιθος (lekithos)lecithin
led-, les-hurtLatinlaedere, laesuslesion
leg-lawLatinlex, legis, legarelegal, legislative
leg-sendLatinlegarerelegate
lei-smoothGreekλεῖος (leios)leiomyoma
lekan-dish, potGreekλεκάνη (lekanē)lekane
leni-gentleLatinlenis, lenireleniency
leon-lionLatinleo, leonisLeo, leonine, Leopold
lep-flake, scaleGreekλέπειν, λεπίς, λεπίδος (lepis, lepidos)Lepidoptera
lepsi-grasp, seizeGreekλῆψις (lēpsis)epilepsy
leuc-, leuk-whiteGreekλευκός (leukos)leucocyte
lev-lift, lightLatinlevis "light" (in weight), levareelevator, levitation
liber-freeLatinliber, liberareliberation, liberty
libr-bookLatinliber, librilibrarian, library
lig-bindLatinligare, ligatusligament, ligature
limac-slugLatinlimax, limacislimacoid, limacon
line-lineLatinlinealine, linearity
lingu-language, tongueLatinlinguabilingual, linguistic
linqu-, lict-leaveLatinlinquere, lictusrelict, relinquish
lip-fatGreekλίπος (lipos)lipolysis
liter-letterLatinlitteraalliteration, illiterate, literacy, literal, obliterate
lith-stoneGreekλίθος (lithos)lithosphere, megalith, monolith, Neolithic Era
loc-placeLatinlocuslocal, location
log-thought, word, speechGreekλόγος (logos)logic, monologue, morphological, philology
long-longLatinlonguselongate, longitude
loqu-, locut-speakLatinloquiallocution, eloquence
luc-bright, lightLatinlux, lucisLucifer (bearer of light)
lud-, lus-playLatinludere, lususallude, illusion
lumin-lightLatinlumen, luminisillumination, luminous
lun-moonLatinlunalunar, lunatic
lysi-, lyti-dissolvingGreekλύσις (lusis)analysis, analytic, cytolysis, hydrolysis, lysigeny

M[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
macr-longGreekμακρός (makros)macron
magn-great, largeLatinmagnusmagnanimous, magnificent, magnitude
maj-greaterLatinmajor, majusmajesty, majority, majuscule
mal-bad, wretchedLatinmalusmalfeasance, malicious, malignancy, malodorous
mamm-breastLatinmammamammal, mammary gland
man-flowLatinmānāre, manatusemanate, emanationism, immanant, immanation
man-stayLatinmanēre, mansusimmanence, immanent, manse, permanence, permanent, remanence, remanent
mand-orderLatinmandāre, mandatusmandate, remand
maniamental illnessGreekμανία (manίā)kleptomania, maniac
manu-handLatinmanusmanual, manuscript, manufacture
mar-seaLatinmare, marismarine, maritime
mater-, matr-motherLatinmater, matrismaternity, matriarch, matrix
maxim-greatestLatinmaximusmaximum
mechan-machine or instrumentGreekμηχανή (mēkhanē)mechane, mechanics
medi-, -midi-middleLatinmedius, mediaremedian, medieval
meg-great, largeGreekμέγας (megas)megaphone
mei-lessGreekμεῖον (meiōn)meiosis
melan-black, darkGreekμέλας (melas)Melanesia, melanoma
melior-betterLatinmelioramelioration
mell-honeyLatinmel, mellismellifluous
memor-rememberLatinmemormemorial
mening-membraneGreekμήνιγξ (meninx)meningitis
men-monthGreekμήν (mēn)menopause
menstru-monthlyLatinmenstruusmenstrual, menstruation
mensur-measureLatinmensuracommensurate
ment-mindLatinmens, mentisdemented, mentality
mer-partGreekμέρος (meros)polymer
merc-reward, wages, hireLatinmerx, mercismercantile, mercenary, merchant
merg-, mers-dip, plungeLatinmergereemerge, immersion
mes-middleGreekμέσος (mesos)mesolithic, mesozoic
meter-, metr-measureGreekμέτρον (metron)metric, thermometer
meta-above, among, beyondGreekμετά (meta)metaphor, metaphysics
mic-grainLatinmicamicelle
micr-smallGreekμικρός (mikros)microphone, microscope
migr-wanderLatinmigrareemigrant, migrate
milit-soldierLatinmiles, militismilitary, militia
mill-thousandLatinmillemillennium, million
millen-thousand eachLatinmillenimillenary
mim-repeatGreekμίμος (mimos)mime, mimic
min-jutLatinminereprominent
min-less, smallerLatinminor, minusminority, minuscule, minutiae
mir-wonder, amazementLatinmiror, mirari, miratus sumadmire, miracle, mirror
mis-hateGreekμῖσος (misos)misandry, misogyny
misc-, mixt-mixLatinmiscere, mixtusmiscellaneous, mixture
mit-threadGreekμίτος (mitos)mitochondrion, mitosis
mitt-, miss-sendLatinmittere, missusintermittent, missionary, transmission
mne-memoryGreekμνήμη (mnēmē)amnesia, mnemonic
mol-grindLatinmola, molere, molitusmolar
moll-softLatinmollisemollient, mollify
mon-oneGreekμόνος (monos)monism, monolith, monotone
monil-string of beadsLatinmonileMoniliformida
mont-mountainLatinmons, montisMontana
mord-biteLatinmordere, morsusmordacious, morsel, remorse
morph-form, shapeGreekμορφή (morphē)anthropomorphism, morpheme, morphology
mort-deathLatinmors, mortisimmortal, mortality, mortuary
mov-, mot-move, motionLatinmovere, motusmobile, momentum, motor, move
mulg-, muls-milkLatinmulgereemulsion
mult-many, muchLatinmultusmultiple, multiplex, multitude
mur-wallLatinmurus, muriimmured, mural
mus-thiefLatinmus, murismouse
musc-flyLatinmusca, muscaeMuscicapidae, Muscidae
mut-changeLatinmutaremutation
my-mouseGreekμῦς (mus)musophobia
myri-countless, ten thousandGreekμυρίος (murios)myriad, myriapod
myrmec-antGreekμύρμηξ (murmēx)myrmecoid, Myrmidons
myth-storyGreekμῦθος (muthos)mythic, mythology
myx-slimeGreekμύξα (muxa)Myxini
myz-suckGreekμυζάω (muzaō)Myzopoda

N[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
nar-nostrilLatinnarisnaris
narc-numbGreekνάρκη (narkē)narcosis, narcotic
narr-tellLatinnarrarenarrative
nas-noseLatinnasusnasal
nasc-, nat-bornLatinnascere, natusnascent, native
naut-shipGreekναύτης (nautes)Argonaut, astronaut
nav-shipLatinnavisnaval
ne-newGreekνέος (neos)neologism
necr-deadGreekνεκρός (nekros)necrophobia
nect-swimmingGreekνηκτός (nēktos)nectopod
nect-, nex-join, tieLatinnectere, nexusconnect, nexus
neg-say noLatinnegarenegative
nema-hairGreekνῆμα (nēma)nematode
nemor-grove, woodsLatinnemus, nemorisnemoral
nephr-kidneyGreekνεφρός (nephros)nephritis
nes-islandGreekνῆσος (nēsos)Polynesia
neur-nerveGreekνευρών (neurōn)neurology, neurosurgeon
nict-winkLatinnictarinictation
nigr-blackLatinnigerdenigrate
nihil-nothingLatinnihilumannihilation
noct-nightLatinnox, noctisnoctambulist, nocturnal
nod-knotLatinnodusnode, nodule
nom-arrangement, lawGreekνόμος (nomos)autonomous, taxonomy
nomad-those who let pasture herdsGreekνομάς, νομάδος (nomas, nomados)nomadic
nomin-nameLatinnomen, nominisnomination
non-notLatinnonnone
non-ninthLatinnonusnonary
nonagen-ninety eachLatinnonageninonagenary
nonagesim-ninetiethLatinnonagesimusnonagesimal
not-letter, note, paperLatinnotareannotation, notable
noth-spuriousGreekνόθος (nothos)nothogenus
noto-back, southGreekνότος (notos)notochord
nov-nineLatinnovemNovember, novennial
nov-newLatinnovusinnovation, nova
noven-nine eachLatinnoveninovenary
novendec-nineteenLatinnovendecimnovemdecillion
nox-, noc-harmfulLatinnoxanoxious
nu-nodLatinnuereinnuendo
nub-to marry, to wedLatinnubes, nubis, nubereconnubial, nubile
nuc-nutLatinnux, nucisnucleus
nuch-back of neckLatinnuchanuchal cord
nud-nakedLatinnudusdenude, nudity
null-noneLatinnullusnullify
numer-numberLatinnumerusnumeral
nunci-announceLatinnuntiuspronunciation
nupti-pertaining to marriageLatinnuptialisnuptial
nutri-nourishLatinnutrirenutrient

O[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
ob-, o-, oc-, of-, og-, op-, os-againstLatinobobstinate, obstreperous, occur, offend, omit, oppose, ostentatious
oct-eightGreekὀκτώ (oktō)octagon, octahedron, octode
oct-eightLatinoctōoctangular, octennial, octovir
octav-eighthLatinoctāvusoctaval
octogen-eighty eachLatinoctogenioctogenary
octogesim-eightiethLatinoctogesimusoctogesimal
octon-eight eachLatinoctonioctonary
ocul-eyeLatinoculus, oculareocular, oculus, ullage
od-path, wayGreekὁδός (hodos)anode, diode, odometer, pentode, tetrode, triode
od-hateLatinodiumodious
odont-toothGreekὀδούς, ὀδόντος (odous, odontos)odontology
odor-fragrantLatinodorodorous
oeco-houseGreekοἶκος (oikos)ecology
oed-swollenGreekοἴδημα (oidēma)oedema
oen-wineGreekοἶνος (oinos)oenology
oesophag-gulletGreekοἰσοφάγος (oisophagos)oesophagus
ogdo-eighthGreekὄγδοος (ogdoos)ogdoad
-oidlikeGreek-οειδής (-oeidēs)asteroid, mucoid, organoid
ole-oilLatinoleumoleosity
olecran-skull of elbowLatin from Greekὠλέκρανον (ōlekranon)olecranon
olig-fewGreekὀλίγος (oligos)oligarchy
oliv-oliveLatinolivaolivaceous, olivary, olivette
-omacancerGreek-ωμαmelanoma
omas-paunchLatinomasumomasum
oment-fat skinLatinomentumomental
omin-creepyLatinomen, ominisabominable, ominous
omm-eyeGreekὄμμα (omma)ommatidium
omni-allLatinomnisomnipotence, omnivore
omo-shoulderGreekὦμος omosomohyoid
omphal-navelGreekὀμφαλός (omphalos)omphalectomy
oner-burdenLatinonus, onerisexonerate, onerous
onom-nameGreekόνομα (onoma)onomatopoeia
ont-existingGreekὄντος (ontos)ontogeny, ontology
-onymnameGreekὄνυμα (onuma)antonym, pseudonym, synonym
oo-eggGreekᾠόν (oion)oocyte
opac-shadyLatinopacusopacity
oper-workLatinopus, operisinoperable, opera
opercul-little coverLatinoperculumoperculum
ophi-snakeGreekὄφις (ophis)ophiophagy
ophthalm-eyeGreekὀφθαλμός (ophthalmos)ophthalmology
opisth-behindGreekὄπισθεν (opisthen)opisthosoma, opsimath
opoter-eitherGreekὁπότερος (hopoteros)
opt-eyeGreekὀπτός (optos)optical
opt-chooseLatinoptareadopt, optional
optim-bestLatinoptimusoptimum
or-mouthLatinos, orisoral, orator
orb-circleLatinorbisorbit
orch-testicleGreekὄρχις (orchis)orchid
ordin-orderLatinōrdō, ordinisordinal, ordinary
organ-organ, instrument, toolGreekὄργανον (organon)organism
ori-, ort-easternLatinoriri, ortusorient
orn-decorateLatinōrnāreadorn, ornament, ornate
ornith-birdGreekὄρνις (ornis, ornithos)ornithology
orth-straightGreekὀρθός (orthos)orthodontist, orthodoxy, orthosis
oscill-swingLatinoscillumoscillation
oss-boneLatinos, ossisossification
osteo-boneGreekὀστοῦν (ostoun)osteoporosis
osti-entranceLatinostiumostiole
ostrac-shellGreekὄστρακον (ostrakon)ostracism, ostracoderm
ot-earGreekοὖς, ωτός (ous, ōtos)otology
ov-eggLatinovumoval, ovary, ovule
ovi-sheepLatinovisovine
oxy-sharp, pointedGreekὀξύς (oxus)oxygen, oxymoron

P[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
pac-peaceLatinpax, pacispacifism
pach-thickGreekπαχύς (pachus)pachydermata, Pachypodium
paed-childGreekπαῖς, παιδός (pais, paidos)paediatric
pagin-pageLatinpaginapagination
pal-stakeLatinpalusimpalement, pale
palae-, pale-ancient, oldGreekπαλαιός (palaios)paleontology
palin-backGreekπάλιν (palin)palindrome
pall-be paleLatinpallerepallid, pallor
palli-cloakLatinpalliumpallium
palm-palmLatinpalmapalmate
palustr-in marshesLatinpalusterpalustral
pan-, pam-allGreekπᾶς, παντός (pas, pantos)pandemic
pand-, pans-spreadLatinpandere, pansusexpand, expansion
par(a)-beside, nearGreekπαρά (para)parallel, parameter
pariet-wallLatinparies, parietisparietal
part-partLatinpars, partisbipartite, partition
parthen-maidenGreekπαρθένος (parthenos)Parthenon, parthenogenesis
parv-littleLatinparvusparvovirus
pasc-, past-feedLatinpascere, pastuspasture, repast
pass-pace, stepLatinpassus
passer-sparrowLatinpasserpasseriform, passerine
pat-be openLatinpaterepatent
path-feel, hurtGreekπάθος (pathos)pathetic, pathology
pati-, pass-suffer, feel, endure, permitLatinpati, passuspassive, patience
patr-fatherGreekπατήρ, πατριά (patēr, patria)patriarch
patr-fatherLatinpater, patrispatrilocal
pauc-fewLatinpaucuspaucal, pauciloquent, paucity
pav-Latinpavirepavement
pecc-sinLatinpeccareimpeccable
pect-fixedGreekπηκτός (pēktos)pectic, pectin
pector-chestLatinpectus, pectorispectoral
pecun-moneyLatinpecuniapecuniary
ped-childGreekπαῖς, παιδός (pais, paidos)pedagogy
ped-footLatinpes, pedispedal, quadruped
pejor-worseLatinpejorpejorative
pell-, puls-driveLatinpellere, pulsuspropellent, propulsor, repellent
pen-almostLatinpaenepeninsula, penultimate, penumbra
pend-, pens-hangLatinpenderesuspend
penn-, pinn-featherLatinpennapennate, pinnate
pent-fiveGreekπέντε (pente)pentagon, pentode, pentagrid
pentecost-fiftiethGreekπεντηκοστός (pentēkostos)pentecostalism
pept-to digestGreekπέσσειν, πεπτός (pessein, peptos)peptic, peptide
per-thoroughly, throughLatinperperfection, permeate, persistence, pervade
peran-across, beyondGreekπέραν (peran)Perates
peri-aroundGreekπερί (peri)perigee, perihelion, perimeter, peripheral, periscope
persic-peachGreekπερσικός (persikos)
pessim-worstLatinpessimuspessimal
pet-strive towardsLatinpetereappetite, competition
petr-rockGreekπέτρα (petra)petroglyph
phae-darkGreekφαιός (phaios)phaeomelanin, pheochrome
phag-eatGreekφαγεῖν (phagein)phagocyte, sarcophagus
phalang-close formation of troops, finger bonesGreekφάλαγξ, φάλαγγος (phalanx, phalangos)phalanges
phalar-having a patch of whiteGreekφάλαρος (phalāros)[1]phalarope
pharmac-drug, medicineGreekφάρμακον (pharmakon)pharmacy
phaner-visibleGreekφανερός (phaneros)phanerozoic
pher-bear, carryGreekφέρω (pherō)pheromone
phil-, -philelove, friendshipGreekφιλέω (phileō, philia)hydrophile, philosophy
phleg-heatGreekφλέγω (phlegō)phlegm, phlegmatic
phloe-tree barkGreekφλοιός (phloios)phlobaphene, phloem
phob-fearGreekφόβος (phobos)hydrophobia
phon-soundGreekφωνή (phōnē)homophone, microphone, phonograph
phor-carry, bearGreekφόρος (phoros)metaphor
phos-, phot-lightGreekφῶς, φωτός (phōs, phōtos)phosphor, photograph
phragm-fenceGreekφράγμα (phragma)diaphragm
phren-diaphragm, mindGreekφρήν, φρενός (phrēn, phrenos)phrenetic, schizophrenia
phryn-toad, toad-likeGreekφρύνη (phrunē)Phrynobatrachus
phyl-tribeGreekφύλον (phulon)phylogenetics, phylum
phyll-leafGreekφύλλον (phullon)chlorophyll, phyllotaxis
physi-natureGreekφύσις (phusis)physics
physalid-bladderGreekφυσαλ(λ)ίς (phusal(l)is)physalis
phyt-plantGreekφυτόν (phuton)neophyte, phytoplankton
pic-pitchLatinpix, picis
pil-hairLatinpilusdepilatory, epilator
pin-drinkGreekπίνειν (pinein)pinocytosis
pin-pineLatinpinuspineal gland
ping-, pict-paintLatinpingere, pictusdepiction, picture
pingu-fatLatinpinguisPinguicula
pir-pearLatinpiruspiriformis muscle
pisc-fishLatinpiscisPisces, piscivore
pis-peaGreekπίσος (pisos)
plac-plate, tabletGreekπλάξ, πλακός (plax, plakos)
plac-calmLatinplacare, placatusplacate, placid
plac-, -plic-pleaseLatinplacēre, placitusplacebo
plagi-obliqueGreekπλάγιος (plagios)plagiocephaly, plagioclase
plan-flatLatinplanusexplanation, planar, plane
plang-, planct-Latinplangere, planctusplangent
plas-mouldGreekπλάθω (plathō)plasma, plastic
platy-flat, broadGreekπλατύς (platus)platypus
plaud-, -plod-, plaus-, -plos-approve, clapLatinplaudere, plaususapplaud, applause, explosion, implode, plaudits, plausible
ple-, plet-fillLatinplerecomplement, suppletion
pleb-peopleLatinplebs, plebisplebeian, plebs
plec-interwovenGreekπλέκω (plekō)plectics, symplectomorphism
plect-, plex-plaitLatinplectere, plexusperplex
plen-fullLatinplenusplenary
plesi-nearGreekπλησίος (plēsios)plesiosaur
pleth-fullGreekπλῆθος (plēthos)plethora
pleur-sideGreekπλευρά (pleura)pleuritis
plic-foldLatinplicare, plicatusduplication, replicate
plinth-brickGreekπλίνθος (plinthos)Plinthograptis
plor-Latinplorareimplore
plu-rainLatinpluere
plum-featherLatinplumaplumage, plumate
plumb-leadLatinplumbumplumber
plur-moreLatinplus, plurisplural, surplus
plurim-mostLatinplurimusplurimal
plut-wealthGreekπλοῦτος (ploutos)plutocracy
pluvi-rainLatinpluviapluvial
pneu-air, breath, lungGreekpnein, πνεῦμα (pneuma)apnoea, pneumatic
pod-footGreekπούς, ποδός (pous, podos)podiatry, tripod
pogon-beardGreekπώγων, πώγωνος (pōgōn, pōgōnos)pogonotrophy
poie-makeGreekποιέω (poieō)poiesis
pol-poleGreekπόλος (polos)dipole, polar
pole-, poli-cityGreekπόλις (polis)metropolis, politics
polem-warGreekπόλεμος (polemos)polemic
poli-greyGreekπολιός (polios)poliomyelitis
pollic-thumbLatinpollex, pollicispollicate
pollin-fine flourLatinpollen, pollinispollination
poly-manyGreekπολύς (polus)polygon
pon-, posit-putLatinponere, posituscomponent, position, postpone
ponder-weightLatinpondus, ponderispreponderance
pont-bridgeLatinpons, pontispontoon
popul-peopleLatinpopulus, popularepopulation
por-passageGreekπόρος (poros)pore, porosity
porc-pigLatinporcusporcine, pork
porn-prostituteGreekπόρνη (pornē)pornography
porphyr-purpleGreekπορφύρα (porphura)porphyrin
port-gateLatinportaportal
port-carryLatinportare, portatusexport, portable, transportation
post-after, behindLatinpostposterior, postscript
pot-drinkLatinpotus, potarepotable
potam-riverGreekποταμός (potamos)hippopotamus, Mesopotamia
prasin-leek-greenGreekπράσινος (prasinos)prasinous
prat-meadowLatinpratum
prav-crookedLatinpravusdepravity
pre-beforeLatinpraeprevious
prec-prayLatinprex, precis, precārideprecation
pred-preyLatinpraeda, praedaripredator
prehend-, prend-, prehens-graspLatinprehendere, prehensuscomprehend, prehensility
prem-, -prim-, press-pressLatinpremere, pressuspressure
presby-oldGreekπρέσβυς (presbus)Presbyterianism
preter-pastLatinpraeterpreterite, pretermission
preti-priceLatinpretium, pretiare
prim-firstLatinprimusprimary, primeval, primitive
prior-formerLatinpriorpriority
priv-separateLatinprivus, privare, privatusdeprivation, privilege
pro-before, in front ofGreekπρό (pro)prologue, prostate
pro-for, forwardLatinproprocrastinate, propulsion
prob-worthy, goodLatinprobus, probareprobation
proct-anusGreekπρωκτός (prōktos)proctology
propri-one's own, ownershipLatinproprius, proprietasappropriate, property, propriety
pros-forwardGreekπρός (pros)prosenchyma, prosthesis
prot-firstGreekπρῶτος (prōtos)protoplasm
proxim-nearestLatinproximus, proximareapproximate, proximity
prun-plumLatinprunusprune
psamm-sandGreekψάμμος (psammos)psammite, psammophyte, psammosere, psammous
pseud-falseGreekψευδής (pseudēs)pseudonym
psil-bareGreekψιλός (psilos)epsilon, psilocybin
psych-mindGreekψυχή (psuchē)psyche, psychology
psychr-coldGreekψυχρός (psuchros)psychrometer
pter-wing, fernGreekπτερόν (pteron)helicopter, pterodactyl
pto-fallGreekπτῶσις (ptōsis)ptosis
pty-salivaGreekπτύον (ptuon)ptyalin
ptych-fold, layerGreekπτύξ, πτυχή (ptuchē)triptych
pub-sexually matureLatinpubespubescent, pubic
public-Latinpublicuspublication
pude-shameLatinpudereimpudent, pudendum
pugn-fightLatinpugna, pugnarepugnacious, repugnant
pulchr-beautifulLatinpulcher, pulchripulchritude
pulmon-lungLatinpulmo, pulmonispulmonary
pulver-dustLatinpulvis, pulverispulverize
pung-, punct-prickLatinpungere, punctuspuncture, pungent
puni-punishLatinpunire, punitusimpunity, punitive
pup-dollLatinpupapupa, puppet
pur-pureLatinpurusimpurity, purify
purg-cleanseLatinpurgareexpurgate, purgatory, purge
purpur-purpleLatinpurpurapurpurate, purpureal
put-prune, reckonLatinputārecompute, putative
pyg-rumpGreekπυγή (pugē)callipygian, pygostyle
pyl-gateGreekπυλών, πυλῶνος (pulōn, pulōnos)pylon
pyr-heat, fireGreekπῦρ, πυρός (pur, puros)pyrolysis

Q[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
quadr-fourLatinquattuorquadrangle, quadrillion, quadrilateral, quadruped
quadragen-forty eachLatinquadrageniquadragenarian, quadragenary
quadragesim-fortiethLatinquadragesimusquadragesimal
quart-fourthLatinquartusquartary, quarter, quartile
quasi-as ifLatinquasiquasar
quatern-four eachLatinquaterniquaternary, quaternion
quati-, quass-shakeLatinquaterequassation
quer-, -quir-, quesit-, -quisit-search, seekLatinquaerereInquisition, query
qui-restLatinquiesquiet, requiem
quin-five eachLatinquiniquinary
quindecim-fifteenthLatinquindecimusquindecimal
quinden-fifteen eachLatinquindeniquindenary
quinque-fiveLatinquinquequinquennium
quint-fifthLatinquintusquintary, quintile
quot-how many, how greatLatinquotiensquota, quotient

R[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
rad-, ras-scrape, shaveLatinradere, rasusabrade, abrasion, erasure
radi-beam, spokeLatinradius, radiareradiance, radiation
radic-rootLatinrādix, rādīciseradicate, radical
ram-branchLatinrāmusramification, ramose
ran-frogLatinranaRana
ranc-rancidness, grudge, bitternessLatinrancererancid, rancor
rap-turnipLatinrapumrapeseed
raph-seamGreekῤαφή (rhaphē)raphe, raphae
rar-rareLatinrarusrarity
rauc-harsh, hoarseLatinraucusraucous
re-, red-again, backLatinre-recede, redact
reg-, -rig-, rect-straightLatinregere, rectusdirect, dirigible, erect, erection, rectum
rem-oarLatinremusbireme, trireme
ren-kidneyLatinrenesrenal
rep-, rept-crawl, creepLatinrepere, reptusreptile
ret-netLatinretereticle, retina
retro-backward, behindLatinretroretrograde, retrospective, retrovirus
rhabd-rodGreekῥάβδος (rhabdos)rhabdoid, rhabdom
rhach-, rach-spineGreekῥάχις, ῥάχεως (rhachis)rhachiodont
rhag-tear, rentGreekῥαγίζωrhagades
rhe-flowGreekῥεῖν (rhein)rheostat
rhig-chillGreekῥῖγος (rhigos)rhigosaurus
rhin-nose, snoutGreekῥίς, ῥινός (rhis, rhinos)rhinoceros, rhinoplasty
rhiz-rootGreekῥίζα (rhiza)rhizome
rhod-roseGreekῥόδον (rhodon)rhododendron
rhomb-spinning topGreekῥόμβος (rhombos)rhombus
rhynch-snoutGreekῥύγχοςRhynchobatus
rid-, ris-laughLatinridere, risusderision, ridicule
robor-oak, strengthLatinrobur, roboriscorroboration
rod-, ros-gnawLatinrodere, rosuscorrode, erosion, rodent
rog-askLatinrogarederogatory, interrogation
rostr-beak, prowLatinrostrumrostral, rostriform, rostrum
rot-wheelLatinrota, rotarerotation, rotunda
ruber-, rubr-redLatinruberrubric, ruby
rug-wrinkleLatinruga, rugarecorrugation
rumin-throatLatinrumen, ruminisrumination
rump-, rupt-breakLatinrumpere, ruptuseruption, interrupt, rupture
rur-countryLatinrus, rurisrural

S[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
sacchar-sugarGreekσάκχαρον (sakcharon)saccharin
sacr-, secr-sacredLatinsacer, sacrareconsecrate, sacrament
sagac-wiseLatinsagax, sagacissagacity
sagitt-arrowLatinsagittasagittal plane, Sagittaria
sal-saltLatinsal, salis, saleresalinity
sali-, -sili-, salt-jumpLatinsalire, saltusresilient, salient, saltus
salic-willowLatinsalix, salicissalicin
salv-saveLatinsalvus, salvaresalvation
san-healthyLatinsanusinsane, sanity
sanc-holyLatinsancire, sanctussanctify, sanctuary
sanguin-bloodLatinsanguis, sanguinisconsanguinity, sanguine
sapi-, -sipi-taste, wiseLatinsapereinsipience, sapient
sapon-soapLatinsapo, saponissaponification
sarc-fleshGreekσάρξ, σαρκός (sarx, sarkos)sarcophagus
saur-lizard, reptileGreekσαῦρος (sauros)dinosaur
sax-rockLatinsaxumsaxatile, saxicavous, saxicoline, saxifrage, saxifragous
scab-scratchLatinscaberescabies
scal-ladder, stairsLatinscalascalar, scale
scalen-unevenGreekσκαληνός (skalēnos)scalene muscles, scalene triangle
scand-, -scend-, scans-, -scens-climbLatinscandereascend, descend, transcendent
scaph-anything hollow, bowl, shipGreekσκάφη, σκάφοςscaphoid bone
scel-leg, thighGreekσκέλος, σκέλεος (skelos)isosceles
schem-planGreekσχῆμα (schēma)schematic
schis-splitGreekσχίζω, σχίσμα (schisma)schism
sci-knowLatinscireprescient, science
scind-, sciss-splitLatinscindererescind, scissors
scler-hardGreekσκληρός (sklēros)scleroderma, sclerosis
scoli-crookedGreekσκολιός (skolios)scoliosis
scop-, scept-look at, examine, view, observeGreekσκέπτομαι, σκοπός (skopos)horoscope, kaleidoscope, stethoscope
scrib-, script-writeLatinscribere, scriptusinscribe, scripture
sculp-carveLatinsculpere, sculptussculpture
scut-shieldLatinscutumscute
scyph-cupGreekσκύφος (skyphos)Scyphozoa
se-, sed-apartLatinsesecede, sedition
seb-tallowLatinsebumsebaceous, sebum
sec-, sect-, seg-cutLatinsecaresecant, section, segment
sed-settle, calmLatinsedare, sedatussedative
sed-, -sid-, sess-sitLatinsedere, sessusreside, sediment, session, supersede
sedec-sixteenLatinsedecimsedecimal
seget-in cornfieldsLatinsegetum
sei-shakeGreekσείω, σεισμός (seismos)seismograph
selen-moonGreekσελήνη (selēnē)Selene, selenium
sell-saddle, seatLatinsellasella turcica
sema-signGreekσῆμα (sēma)semantics, semaphore
semi-halfLatinsemissemifinal
semin-seedLatinsemen, seminisinsemination
sen-old manLatinsenex, senissenator, senility
sen-six eachLatinsenisenary
senti-, sens-feelLatinsentire, sensusconsensus, sentient
sept-fence, partition, enclosureLatinsaeptumtransept
sept-sevenLatinseptemseptennial
septen-seven eachLatinsepteniseptenary
septim-seventhLatinseptimusseptimal, septime
septuagen-seventy eachLatinseptuageniseptuagenary
septuagesim-seventiethLatinseptuagesimusseptuagesima, septuagesimal
septuagint-seventyLatinseptuagintaSeptuagint
sequ-, secut-followLatinsequere, secutusconsecutive, sequence
ser-, sat-cultivateLatinserere, satussative
ser-body fluidLatinserumserous
ser-lateLatinserusserein, serotine
serp-crawl, creepLatinserpere, serptusserpent
serr-saw, saw-toothedLatinserra, serrareserration
serv-save, protect, serveLatinservareconservation
sesqui-one and a halfLatinsesquisesquicentennial
set-bristle, hairLatinsaetaseta, setose
sever-stern, strict, seriousLatinseverusseverity
sex-, se-sixLatinsexsemester, sexangle, sexennium
sexagen-sixty eachLatinsexagenisexagenary
sexagesim-sixtiethLatinsexagesimussexagesimal
sext-sixthLatinsextussextant
sibil-hissLatinsibilus, sibilaresibilance
sicc-dryLatinsiccusdesiccation
sider-starLatinsidus, siderissidereal
sign-signLatinsignumdesign, designate, signal
sil-quiet or stillLatinsileresilence
silv-forestLatinsilvasilviculture
simi-ape, monkeyLatinsimiasimian
simil-likeness, trust, groupLatinsimilisassimilate, similarity
simul-imitating, feigningLatinsimularesimulation
singul-one eachLatinsingulussingular
sinistr-leftLatinsinister, sinistrisinistral
sinu-(to draw) a lineLatinsinuareinsinuate
sinus-hollow, bayLatinsinussinusoidal
siph-tubeGreekσίφων (siphōn)siphon
sist-cause to standLatinsistereconsist, persistence
sit-food, grain, wheatGreekσῖτος (sitos)sitology
soci-groupLatinsocius, sociareassociate, social
sol-sunLatinsol, solissolar
sol-comfort, sootheLatinsolariconsolation, solace
sol-alone, onlyLatinsolusdesolate, sole, solo, solipsism
solen-pipe, channelGreekσωλήν (sōlēn)solenoid
solv-, solut-loosen, set freeLatinsolvere, solutusdissolve, solution
soma-bodyGreekσῶμα, σώματος (sōma, sōmatos)somatic
somn-sleepLatinsomnusinsomnia
somni-dreamLatinsomniumsomnial
son-soundLatinsonusresonance
soph-wiseGreekσοφός (sophos)sophist, sophomore
sorb-, sorpt-suckLatinsorbereabsorb, absorption
sord-dirtLatinsordes, sorderesordid
soror-sisterLatinsororsorority
spati-spaceLatinspatiumspatial
spec-, -spic-, spect-lookLatinspecereconspicuous, inspection, specimen
spect-watch, look atLatinspectarespectator
specul-observeLatinspecularispeculation
sper-hopeLatinspes, speraredesperation, esperance
sperm-seedGreekσπέρμα (sperma)angiosperm
sphen-wedgeGreekσφήν (sphēn)sphenoid
spher-ballGreekσφαῖρα (sphaira)sphere, spheroid
sphinct-closingGreekσφίγγαsphincter
spic-spikeLatinspicaspicule
spin-thornLatinspinaspine
spir-breatheLatinspirarerespiration
spond-, spons-a surety, guarantee; give assurance, promise solemnlyLatinspondere, sponsusrespond
spondyl-vertebraGreekσπόνδυλος (spondylos)spondylosis
spu-, sput-spew, spitLatinspueresputum
squal-scaly, dirty, filthyLatinsqualeresqualid, squalor
squam-scaleLatinsquamasquamous
squarros-spreading at tipsLatinsquarrosussquarrose
st-standLatinstare, statusstable, station, statistic, statue, status
stagn-pool of standing waterLatinstagnarestagnant
stalact-Greekσταλακτίτης (stalaktitēs)stalactite
stalagm-Greekσταλαγμός (stalagmos)stalagmite
stann-tinLatinstannumstannous
stasi-standing, discordGreekστάσις (stasis)static
statu-, -stitu-standLatinstatuereinstitution, statute
stear-fat, tallowGreekστέαρ, στέατος (stear, steatos)stearic acid
steg-coveringGreekστέγη (stege), στεγανός (steganos)steganography, Stegosaurus
stell-starLatinstellaconstellation, stellar
sten-narrowGreekστενός (stenos)stenography
stere-solidGreekστερεός (stereos)stereometry
stern-, strat-spread, strewLatinsternere, stratusstratify
stern-breastboneGreekστέρνον (sternon)sternum
stich-line, rowGreekστίχος (stichos)distich
stigmat-mark, punctureGreekστίγμα (stigma)stigma
still-dripLatinstilla, stillaredistillation
stimul-goad, rouse, exciteLatinstimulusstimulate
stingu-, stinct-apartLatinstingueredistinction, distinguish
stoch-aimGreekστόχοςstochastic
stom-mouthGreekστόμα (stoma)stomatoplasty
strept-twistedGreekστρεπτός (streptos)Streptococcus
strig-compressLatinstrix, strigisstrigogyps
strigos-having stiff bristlesLatinstrigosus from strigastrigose
string-, strict-upright, stiffLatinstringere, strictusstringent
stroph-turningGreekστροφή (strophē)apostrophe
stru-, struct-to make up, buildLatinstruere, structusconstruction, construe
stud-dedicationLatinstuderestudent
stup-wonderLatinstuperestupor
styl-column, pillarGreekστῦλος (stulos)Stylites
su-, sut-sewLatinsuere, sutussuture
sui-selfLatinsuisui generis, suicide
suad-, suas-urgeLatinsuadere, suasuspersuasion
suav-sweetLatinsuavissuave
sub-, su-, suf-, sug-, sup-, sus-belowLatinsubsubmarine, submerge, suffix, suggest, support
subter-underLatinsubtersubterfuge
sucr-sugarLatinsuccarumsucrose
sud-sweatLatinsudaresudoriferous
sulc-furrowLatinsulcussulcus
sum-, sumpt-takeLatinsumere, sumptusassumption, consume
super-above, overLatinsupersupersede
supin-lying backLatinsupinussupination, supine
supra-above, overLatinsuprasupranationalism
surd-deafLatinsurdusabsurdity
surg-riseLatinsurgereresurgent
syn-, sy-, syl-, sym-withGreekσύν (sun)symbol, symmetry, sympathy, synchronous, synonym, system
syring-pipeGreekσύριγξ, σύριγγος (syrinx, syringos)syringe

T[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
tac-, -tic-be silentLatintacere, tacitusreticent, tacit
tach-swiftGreekταχύς (tachus)tachometer, tachycardia
taeni-ribbonGreekταινία (tainia)taenidium, taeniodont, Taeniolabis
tal-ankleLatintalustalus bone
tang-, -ting-, tact-, tag-touchLatintangere, tactuscontact, tactile, tangent
tapet-carpetLatintapete, tapetistapestry, tapetum, tapis
tard-slowLatintardusretard, tardigrade, tardy
tars-ankleGreekταρσός (tarsos, a flat basket)tarsal
taur-bullGreekταῦρος (tauros)Minotaur
taur-bullLatintaurusTaurus
tax-arrangement, orderGreekτάξις (taxis)taxonomy
techn-art, skillGreekτέχνη (technē)technology
teg-, tect-coverLatintegere, tectusintegument, protection
tele-far, endGreekτῆλε (tēle)telegram, telephone, telescope
tele-completeGreekτέλος (telos)teleology
temn-cutGreekτέμνω (temnō)Temnospondyli
tempor-timeLatintempus, temporiscontemporary, temporal, temporary
ten-, -tin-, tent-holdLatintenere, tentuscontinent, detention, tenacious, tenor
tend-, tens-stretch, strainLatintendere, tensusextend, extension, tensile
tenu-slender, thinLatintenuisattenuate, tenuous
tep-be warmLatinteperetepid, tepor
ter-, trit-rubLatinterere, tritusattrition, contrite, detritus, trite
teret-roundedLatinteres, teretissubterete, teretial
terg-, ters-wipeLatintergere, tersusdetergent, terse
termin-boundary, limit, endLatinterminusdetermine, terminal, termination
tern-three eachLatinterniternary, ternion
terr-earthLatinterrasubterranean, terrace, terracotta, terrain
terti-thirdLatintertiustertian, tertiary
test-witnessLatintestistestament, testimony
tetr-fourGreekτέσσαρες (tessares)tetrahedron, tetrode
tex-, text-weaveLatintexere, textuscontext, subtle, textile, texture
thalam-chamber, bedGreekθάλαμος (thalamos)hypothalamus
thalass-seaGreekθάλασσα (thalassa)Panthalassa, thalassemia
than-deathGreekθάνατος (thanatos)euthanasia, thanatology
the-, thus-godGreekθεός (theos)enthusiasm, theology
the-putGreekτίθημι (tithēmi), θήκη (thēkē)Bibliotheca, theca, theme, thesis
thel-nippleGreekθηλή (thēlē)epithelium, thelium, thelial
theori-speculationGreekθεωρία (theōria)theorem, theory
ther-beast, animalGreekθήρ, θηρός (thēr)theroid, theropod
therm-heat, warmGreekθερμός (thermos)endotherm, thermometer
thym-moodGreekθυμός (thumos)dysthymia
thyr-doorGreekθύρα (thura)thyratron
thyre-large shieldGreekθυρεός (thureos)Thyreophora, thyroid, thyrotropin, thyroxine
tim-be afraidLatintimeretimid, timorous
ting-, tinct-moistenLatintingere, tinctustincture
tom-cutGreekτομή (tome), τόμος (tomos)atom, ectomy, tome
ton-stretchGreekτόνος (tonos)isotonic, monotone, tone
top-placeGreekτόπος (topos)topic, topography, toponymy
torn-, tourn-turn or rotateLatin from Greektornare < τόρνος (tornos)tornado, tournament
torpe-be numbLatintorperetorpent, torpid, torpor
torqu-, tort-twistLatintorquere, tortusextortion, torque, torture
tot-all, wholeLatintotussubtotal, total, totality
tox-arrow, bowGreekτόξον (toxon)toxic, toxoplasmosis
trab-beamLatintrabs, trabistrabeculae
trachy-roughGreekτραχύς (trachus)trachea
trag-goatGreekτράγος (tragos)tragus
trah-, tract-draw, pullLatintrahere, tractussubtrahend, tractor
trans-, tra-, tran-acrossLatintranstradition, transcend, transportation
trapez-four-sided, tableGreekτράπεζα (trapeza)trapezius, trapezoid
traum-woundGreekτραῦμα (trauma)trauma, traumatic, traumatize
trecent-three hundredLatintrecentitrecentennial, trecentillion
tredec-thirteenLatintredecimtredecimal
treiskaidek-thirteenGreekτρεισκαίδεκα (treiskaideka)triskaidekaphobia
trem-trembleLatintremeretremor
trema-holeGreekτρῆμα (trēma)monotreme, trematode
tri-threeGreekτρεῖς, τρία (treis, tria)triad, trigon, triode, tripod
tri-threeLatintrēstriangle, triumvirate, trivia
tricen-thirty eachLatintricenitricenary
tricesim-, trigesim-thirtiethLatintricesimustrigesimal
trich-hairGreekθρίξ, τριχός (thrix, trichos)peritrichous, trichopathophobia, Trichoptera
trin-three eachLatintrinitrinary, trine, trinity
trit-thirdGreekτρίτος (tritos)tritagonist
tritic-wheatLatintriticumtriticale
troch-wheelGreekτροχός (trochos)trochlea
trop-turningGreekτρόπος (tropos)heliotropism, psychotropic, tropic
troph-feed, growGreekτροφή, τροφός (trophos)dystrophy, pogonotrophy, trophic
trud-, trus-thrustLatintrudere, trususextrusion, intrude
tuss-coughLatintussis, tussirepertussis
tympan-drumGreekτύμπανον (tumpanon)tympani
typ-stamp, modelGreekτύπος (tupos)archetype, phenotype, typography

U[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
uber-fruitfulLatinuber, uberareexuberant
uligin-in marshesLatinuligo, uliginisuliginous
ulo-woolyGreekοὖλος (oulos)Ulotrichi
ultim-farthestLatinultimusultimate, ultimatum
ultra-beyondLatinultraultrasonic
umbilic-navelLatinumbilicusumbilical
umbr-shade, shadowLatinumbrapenumbra, umbrella
un-oneLatinunus, uniusunary, unicorn, union
unc-hookedLatinuncusuncinate, Uncinia
unci-ounce, twelfthLatinunciauncial
und-waveLatinundaabundant, redundancy, undulate
undecim-eleventhLatinundecimusundecimal
unden-eleven eachLatinundeniundenary
ungui-claw, nailLatinunguisunguiform
ungul-claw, hoofLatinungulaungulate
ur-tailGreekοὐρά (oura)uroid, uroborus
ur-urineGreekοὖρον (ouron)urology
urb-cityLatinurbs, urbissuburbanite, urban, urbanism, urbanize
urg-workLatinurgereurgent
urs-bearLatinursusUrsa Major, ursine, Ursus
ut-, us-useLatinuti, usususual, utility
uv-grapeLatinuvauvea
uxor-wifeLatinuxoruxoricide

V[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
vac-emptyLatinvacarevacancy, vacation, vacuum
vacc-cowLatinvaccavaccary, vaccination, vaccine
vad-, vas-goLatinvadereevade, pervasive
vag-wanderLatinvagus, vagarevagabond, vague
van-empty, vain, idleLatinvanusevanescent, vanity
vap-lack (of)Latinvaporevaporation, vapid, vaporize
veh-, vect-carryLatinvehere, vectusvehicle, vector
vel-veilLatinvelumrevelation, velate
vell-, vuls-pullLatinvellere, vulsusconvulsion
veloc-quickLatinvelox, velocisvelocity
ven-veinLatinvenaintravenous, venosity, venule
ven-huntLatinvenarivenison
ven-, vent-comeLatinvenireadvent, convention
vend-sellLatinvenderevendor, vending
vener-respectfulLatinvenus, venerisvenerable, veneration, venereal
vent-windLatinventusventilation, ventilator
ventr-bellyLatinventer, ventrisventral
ver-trueLatinverusaver, veracious, verify, verisimilitude, verity
verb-wordLatinverbumverbal, verbatim, verbosity
verber-whipLatinverberreverberation
verm-wormLatinvermisvermiform, vermin
vern-springLatinver, vernusvernal
vert-, vers-turnLatinvertere, versusconvert, inversion, invert, vertical
vesic-bladderLatinvesicavesical
vesper-evening, westernLatinvesperavesperal
vest-clothing, garmentLatinvestisdivest, vest
vestig-trackLatinvestigiuminvestigate, vestigial
vet-forbidLatinvetareveto
veter-oldLatinvetus, veterisinveterate, veteran
vi-wayLatinviadeviate, obvious, via
vic-changeLatinvicisvice versa, vicissitude
vicen-, vigen-twenty eachLatinvicenivicenary
vicesim-, vigesim-twentiethLatinvicesimusvicesimary, vicesimation, vigesimal
vid-, vis-seeLatinvidere, visusvideo, vision
vil-cheapLatinvilisrevile, vile, vilify
vill-country houseLatinvillavilla, village, villain
vill-shaggy hairLatinvillusvelour, velvet, villiform
vin-wineLatinvinumvine, vinous
vinc-, vict-conquerLatinvincere, victusinvincible, victory
vir-manLatinvirtriumvirate, virility
vir-greenLatinvirerevirid, viridian
visc-thickLatinviscumviscosity
viscer-internal organLatinviscus, visceriseviscerate, visceral
vit-lifeLatinvitavital, vitamin
vitell-yolkLatinvitellusvitellogenesis
viti-faultLatinvitiumvice, vitiate
vitr-glassLatinvitrumvitreous, vitriol
viv-liveLatinvivererevive, survive, vivid
voc-voiceLatinvox, vocisprovocative, vocal, vocation
vol-flyLatinvolarevolatility
vol-wishLatinvellevolition
volv-, volut-rollLatinvolvere, volutusconvolution, revolve
vom-dischargeLatinvomerevomit
vor-, vorac-swallowLatinvorare, voraxdevour, voracious
vov-, vot-vowLatinvovere, votusvotive
vulg-crowdLatinvulgusdivulge, vulgarity, vulgate
vulner-woundLatinvulnus, vulnerisvulnerable
vulp-foxLatinvulpēs, vulpisvulpine

X[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
xanth-yellowGreekξανθός (xanthos)xanthium, xanthochromia, xanthogenic, xanthophyll
xen-foreignGreekξένος (xenos)xenoblast, xenogamy, xenophobia, xenon
xer-dryGreekξηρός (xēros)xeroderma, xerography, xeromorph, xerophagy, xerophile, xerophyte
xiph-swordGreekξίφος (xiphos)xiphisternum, xiphoid, xiphophyllous
xyl-woodGreekξύλον (xulon)xylem, xylocarp, xyloid, xylophone

Z[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
zel-zeal, jealousyGreekζῆλος (zēlos)jealousy, zeal
zo-animal, living beingGreekζῷον (zōion)protozoa, zoo, zoology
zon-belt, girdleGreekζώνη (zōnē)zonal, zone
zyg-yokeGreekζυγός (zugon)heterozygous, zygote
zym-fermentGreekζύμη (zumē)enzyme, lysozyme

See also[edit]

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