Greater London

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Greater London
London region
London's location within England.
Geography
StatusAdministrative area
Ceremonial county[notes 1]
RegionLondon
Area
- Total

1,572 km2 (607 sq mi)
Admin HQCity Hall, Southwark, London
ONS codeH
NUTS 3UKI
Demography
Population
- Total (2011)
- Density
Ranked 1st
8,173,194
5,206 /km2 (13,480 /sq mi)
Ethnicity69% white
Politics
Greater London Authority logo.svg
Greater London Authority
Executive 
Members of Parliament

List of Parliamentary constituencies in London

Districts
City of LondonCity of WestminsterKensington and ChelseaHammersmith and FulhamWandsworthLambethSouthwarkTower HamletsHackneyIslingtonCamdenBrentEalingHounslowRichmond upon ThamesKingstonMertonSuttonCroydonBromleyLewishamGreenwichBexleyHaveringBarking and DagenhamRedbridgeNewhamWaltham ForestHaringeyEnfieldBarnetHarrowHillingdonLondon-boroughs.svg
About this image
  1. City of London[notes 1]
  2. City of Westminster
  3. Kensington and Chelsea
  4. Hammersmith and Fulham
  5. Wandsworth
  6. Lambeth
  7. Southwark
  8. Tower Hamlets
  9. Hackney
  10. Islington
  11. Camden
  12. Brent
  13. Ealing
  14. Hounslow
  15. Richmond upon Thames
  16. Kingston upon Thames
  17. Merton
  18. Sutton
  19. Croydon
  20. Bromley
  21. Lewisham
  22. Greenwich
  23. Bexley
  24. Havering
  25. Barking and Dagenham
  26. Redbridge
  27. Newham
  28. Waltham Forest
  29. Haringey
  30. Enfield
  31. Barnet
  32. Harrow
  33. Hillingdon
 
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Greater London
London region
London's location within England.
Geography
StatusAdministrative area
Ceremonial county[notes 1]
RegionLondon
Area
- Total

1,572 km2 (607 sq mi)
Admin HQCity Hall, Southwark, London
ONS codeH
NUTS 3UKI
Demography
Population
- Total (2011)
- Density
Ranked 1st
8,173,194
5,206 /km2 (13,480 /sq mi)
Ethnicity69% white
Politics
Greater London Authority logo.svg
Greater London Authority
Executive 
Members of Parliament

List of Parliamentary constituencies in London

Districts
City of LondonCity of WestminsterKensington and ChelseaHammersmith and FulhamWandsworthLambethSouthwarkTower HamletsHackneyIslingtonCamdenBrentEalingHounslowRichmond upon ThamesKingstonMertonSuttonCroydonBromleyLewishamGreenwichBexleyHaveringBarking and DagenhamRedbridgeNewhamWaltham ForestHaringeyEnfieldBarnetHarrowHillingdonLondon-boroughs.svg
About this image
  1. City of London[notes 1]
  2. City of Westminster
  3. Kensington and Chelsea
  4. Hammersmith and Fulham
  5. Wandsworth
  6. Lambeth
  7. Southwark
  8. Tower Hamlets
  9. Hackney
  10. Islington
  11. Camden
  12. Brent
  13. Ealing
  14. Hounslow
  15. Richmond upon Thames
  16. Kingston upon Thames
  17. Merton
  18. Sutton
  19. Croydon
  20. Bromley
  21. Lewisham
  22. Greenwich
  23. Bexley
  24. Havering
  25. Barking and Dagenham
  26. Redbridge
  27. Newham
  28. Waltham Forest
  29. Haringey
  30. Enfield
  31. Barnet
  32. Harrow
  33. Hillingdon

Greater London is an administrative area, ceremonial county and the London region of England.[1] It was created on 1 April 1965, comprising the City of London and 32 London boroughs, of which 12 are Inner London and 20 Outer London boroughs.[2] The ceremonial county created at the same time, and used by the Lord Lieutenant of Greater London, does not include the City of London.[3] The Greater London Authority, consisting of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly, headquartered in City Hall, has been responsible for strategic local government since 2000. Greater London occupies the same area as the London European Parliament constituency. It is at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes, covers 1,572 km2 (607 sq mi)[4] and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census.[5] It has by far the highest GVA per capita in the United Kingdom. The term Greater London was in use before 1965 to refer to various areas larger than the County of London and often similar to the Metropolitan Police District.[6]

History[edit]

London is divided into the small City of London and the much wider Greater London. This arrangement has come about because as the area of London grew and absorbed neighbouring settlements, a series of administrative reforms did not amalgamate the City of London with the surrounding metropolitan area, and its unique political structure was retained. Outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London administrative area in 1965.

London became a greater and still greater accumulation of towns, an immense colony of dwellings where people still live in their own home in small communities with local government just as they had done in the Middle Ages.

The term Greater London was used well before 1965, particularly to refer to the Metropolitan Police District (such as in the 1901 census),[7] the area of the Metropolitan Water Board (favoured by the London County Council for statistics),[8] the London Passenger Transport Area and the area defined by the Registrar General as the Greater London Conurbation.[9] The Greater London Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916.[10] One of the larger early forms was the Greater London Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied 1,856 square miles (4,810 km2) and included 9 million people.[8]

Proposals to expand the County of London[edit]

Although the London County Council was created covering the County of London in 1889, the county did not cover all the built-up area, particularly West Ham and East Ham, and many of the LCC housing projects, including the vast Becontree Estates, were outside its boundaries.[11] The LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan and City Police Districts there were 122 housing authorities. A Royal Commission on London Government was set up to consider the issue.[12][13] The LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties.[14] Protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor, Slough and Eton in the authority.[15] The Commission made its report in 1923, rejecting the LCC's scheme. Two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission.[16] Reform of local government in the County of London and its environs was again considered by the Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London. The commission applied three tests to decide if a community should form part of Greater London: how strong is the area as an independent centre in its own right; how strong are its ties to London; and how strongly is it drawn outwards towards the country rather than inwards towards London.

Greater London is formally created[edit]

Arms of the former Greater London Council

Greater London was formally created by the London Government Act 1963, which came into force on 1 April 1965, replacing the administrative counties of Middlesex and London, including the City of London, where the London County Council had limited powers, and absorbing parts of Kent, Surrey, Essex and Hertfordshire. Greater London originally had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council (GLC) sharing power with the City of London Corporation (governing the small City of London) and the 32 London Borough councils. The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985. Its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards.[17]

Greater London was used to form the London region of England in 1994. A referendum held in 1998 established a public will to create a strategic authority for Greater London. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999. In 2000 the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary. The 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were won by Ken Livingstone, who had been the final leader of the GLC. The 2008 and 2012 elections were won by Boris Johnson, the Conservative Party candidate.

Geography[edit]

Greater London roughly corresponds to the built-up area of London and includes parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt, which limits development. It is bounded by the home counties of Essex and Hertfordshire in the East of England, and Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Surrey and Kent in South East England. The highest point is Westerham Heights, in the North Downs and on the boundary with Kent, at 245 metres (804 ft).

The area has not changed significantly, but there have been a considerable number of small boundary changes. The most significant were the 1969 transfers of Knockholt to Kent and Farleigh to Surrey,[18] the exchange of two River Thames islands with Surrey,[19] and minor adjustments during the 1990s that realigned the boundary to the M25 motorway in some places. The majority of Greater London forms the London low emission zone from 4 February 2008.

Governance[edit]

CityHallLondon2007.JPG
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The Greater London Authority is based in City Hall

Greater London is not a city in the sense that the word applies in the United Kingdom, that of having city status granted by the Crown. Westminster London borough[20] and the City of London are already cities, which would make such a status anomalous.[notes 2] Despite this, Greater London is commonly regarded as a city in the general sense of a municipality. A Lord Lieutenant of Greater London is appointed for its area, less the City of London, and for the purposes of the Lieutenancies Act 1997, this area is defined as a county.[21]

The term "London" is normally used in reference to Greater London or to the conurbation, but not often to the ancient, tiny City of London.[1][22] This small area is often referred to as "the City" or "the Square Mile" and it forms the main financial district. Archaically, the urbanised area of London was known as the Metropolis. In common usage, the terms "London" and "Greater London" are usually used interchangeably.[1] It is officially divided for some purposes, with varying definitions, into Inner London and Outer London. For strategic planning purposes the region is divided into five sub regions.

Strategic local government[edit]

Logo of the Greater London Authority

Greater London is under the strategic local governance of the Greater London Authority (GLA).[23] It comprises an elected assembly, the London Assembly, and an executive head, the Mayor of London.[24]

The current Mayor (not to be confused with the Lord Mayor of London) is Boris Johnson. He is scrutinised by the elected London Assembly, which may amend his annual budget (by two-thirds majority) but otherwise lacks the power to block his directives. The headquarters of the GLA is at City Hall in Southwark. The Mayor is responsible for Greater London's strategic planning and is required to produce a London Plan document.

Local government[edit]

Greater London is divided into 32 London Boroughs, each governed by a London Borough council, and the City of London, which has a unique government dating back to the 12th century.[1]

All London Borough councils belong to the London Councils association. Three London Boroughs carry the honorific title of Royal Borough: Kensington and Chelsea, Kingston, and Greenwich. Within the City of London are the liberties of Middle Temple and Inner Temple.

  1. City of London
  2. City of Westminster
  3. Kensington and Chelsea
  4. Hammersmith and Fulham
  5. Wandsworth
  6. Lambeth
  7. Southwark
  8. Tower Hamlets
  9. Hackney
  10. Islington
  11. Camden
  12. Brent
  13. Ealing
  14. Hounslow
  15. Richmond
  16. Kingston
  17. Merton
City of LondonCity of WestminsterKensington and ChelseaHammersmith and FulhamWandsworthLambethSouthwarkTower HamletsHackneyIslingtonCamdenBrentEalingHounslowRichmond upon ThamesKingstonMertonSuttonCroydonBromleyLewishamGreenwichBexleyHaveringBarking and DagenhamRedbridgeNewhamWaltham ForestHaringeyEnfieldBarnetHarrowHillingdonLondon-boroughs.svg
About this image
  1. Sutton
  2. Croydon
  3. Bromley
  4. Lewisham
  5. Greenwich
  6. Bexley
  7. Havering
  8. Barking and Dagenham
  9. Redbridge
  10. Newham
  11. Waltham Forest
  12. Haringey
  13. Enfield
  14. Barnet
  15. Harrow
  16. Hillingdon

London Assembly[edit]

For elections to the London Assembly, London is divided into 14 constituencies, each formed from two or three boroughs. The City of London forms part of the City and East constituency.

UK Parliament[edit]

London is divided into 73 Parliamentary borough constituencies, formed from the combined area of several wards from one or more boroughs. Typically a borough is covered by two or three constituencies.

European Parliament[edit]

London is covered by a single Parliamentary constituency in the European Parliament.

Demography[edit]

2011 United Kingdom Census[25]
Country of birthPopulation
United Kingdom United Kingdom5,175,677
India India262,247
Poland Poland158,300
Republic of Ireland Ireland129,807
Nigeria Nigeria114,718
Pakistan Pakistan112,457
Bangladesh Bangladesh109,948
Jamaica Jamaica87,467
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka84,542
France France66,654
South Africa South Africa66,654
Kenya Kenya66,311
Somalia Somalia65,333
United States United States63,920
Italy Italy62,050
Ghana Ghana62,896
Turkey Turkey59,596
Germany Germany55,476
Australia Australia53,959
Romania Romania44,848
Philippines Philippines44,199
Portugal Portugal41,041
Lithuania Lithuania39,817
China China39,452
Iran Iran37,339
Spain Spain35,880
Hong Kong Hong Kong26,435
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe21,039
View from the top of Tolworth tower over the local area
High resolution view from the top of Tolworth tower over the sprawling suburban housing that is typical in some areas of Greater London

With increasing industrialisation, London's population grew rapidly throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and was the most populated city in the world until overtaken by New York in 1925. Its population peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939. There were an estimated 7,753,600 official residents in mid-2009.

London's continuous urban area extends beyond the borders of Greater London and was home to an estimated 9,332,000 people in 2005[citation needed], while its wider metropolitan area has a population of between 12 and 14 million depending on the definition of that area. According to Eurostat, London is the most populous city and metropolitan area of the European Union.

The region covers an area of 1,579 square kilometres. The population density is 4,761 people per square kilometre, more than ten times that of any other British region. In terms of population, London is the 25th largest city and the 17th largest metropolitan region in the world. It is ranked 4th in the world in the number of US dollar billionaires residing in the city. It ranks as one of the most expensive cities in the world, alongside Tokyo and Moscow.

Ethnic groups[edit]

In the 2001 census, 71.15% of the population classed their ethnic group as white, including White British (59.79%), White Irish (3.07%) or "Other White" (8.29%, mostly Greek- and Turkish-Cypriot, Italian and French). 12.09% classed themselves as British Asian, including Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and "Other Asian" (mostly Sri Lankan, Arab and other Southern Asian ethnicities). 10.91% classed themselves as Black British (around 7% as Black African, 3% as Black Caribbean, 0.84% as "Other Black"). 3.15% were of mixed race; 1.12% as Chinese; and 1.58% as other (mostly Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and other "British Orientals"). 21.8% of inhabitants were born outside the European Union. The Irish, from both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, number about 200,000, as do the Scots and Welsh combined.

In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that there were more than 300 languages spoken and more than 50 non-indigenous communities with a population of more than 10,000. Figures from the Office for National Statistics show that, as of 2006, London's foreign-born population is 2,288,000 (31%), up from 1,630,000 in 1997. The 2001 census showed that 27.1% of the population were born outside the UK, and a slightly higher proportion were classed as non-white.

The table shows the top 21 countries of birth of residents in 2001, the date of the last UK Census.[26] These figures do not give a fair indication of the total population of the specific ethnic groups associated with each country. For example, Londoners of Greek origin (from both Greece and Cyprus) number 300,000, since an organised Greek community has been established for nearly two centuries. The same can be said for Italian and French Londoners whose communities have been here for centuries (the French Embassy estimates there are between 300,000 and 400,000 French citizens living in the UK, with "a huge majority of them living in London").[27] Though a Polish community has existed in London since the late Middle Ages, it was not significant in the 2001 census but has grown significantly since 2004 and by June 2010 London had 122,000 Polish residents.[28] The German-born population figure may be misleading, however, because it includes British nationals born to parents serving in the British armed forces in Germany.

London has been a focus for immigration for centuries, whether as a place of safety or for economic reasons. Huguenots, eastern European Jud The largest ethnic-minority communities are the Jamaican in Brixton, Hackney and Tottenham; West African in Southwark; West Indians and West Africans in Lewisham; Ghanaians in Mitcham, Indians in Ealing, Brent, Harrow, Hounslow, Redbridge, Newham and Hillingdon; Tamil (Indian and Sri Lankan) in Harrow, Watford (in Hertfordshire), East Ham, Wembley and Tooting; Pakistani and Bangladeshi in Newham, Tooting, East Ham, Wembley, Haringey, Tower Hamlets, Waltham Forest, and Barking & Dagenham; Tamil in Harrow, Watford (in Hertfordshire), East Ham, Wembley and Tooting; and East African and Caribbean in Harlesden and Stonebridge. A sizeable Italian community live in the Enfield area of Freezywater, and close by at Waltham Cross and Cheshunt, (both in Hertfordshire).[29]

Population[edit]

Population of Greater London

The population of the current area of Greater London rose from about 1.1 million in 1801 (when only about 0.85 million people were in the urban area, while 0.25 million were living in villages and towns not yet part of London) to an estimated 8.6 million in 1939, but declined to 6.7 million in 1988, before starting to rebound in the 1990s.

By 2006, the population has recovered only to the level of 1970 (and the level of population in the 1920s). Some researchers expect the population to reach 8.15 million by 2016, 0.45 million short of the 1939 peak.

Figures here are for Greater London in its 2001 limits. Figures before 1971 have been reconstructed by the Office for National Statistics based on past censuses in order to fit the 2001 limits. Figures from 1981 onward are midyear estimates (revised as of August 2007), which are more accurate than the censuses, known to underestimate the population of London.

18915–6 April5,572,012
190131 March – 1 April6,506,954
19112–3 April7,160,525
192119–20 June7,386,848
193126–27 April8,110,480
1939Midyear estimate8,615,245
19518–9 April8,196,978
196123–24 April7,992,616
1965Greater London formally created
197125–26 April7,452,520
1981Midyear estimate6,805,000[30]
1988Midyear estimate6,729,300[31]
1991Midyear estimate6,829,300[32]
2001Midyear estimate7,322,400[33]
2002Midyear estimate7,361,600[34]
2003Midyear estimate7,364,100[35]
2004Midyear estimate7,389,100[36]
2005Midyear estimate7,456,100[37]
2006Midyear estimate7,512,400[5]
2009Midyear estimate7,753,600[5]

Wider population[edit]

Greater London is not exactly coterminous with London's built-up area and a wider Greater London Urban Area is used for mainly statistical purposes. London's wider metropolitan area is known as the London commuter belt, with a variety of definitions.

Economy[edit]

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of Inner London at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

YearRegional Gross Value Added[38]Agriculture[39]Industry[40]Services[41]
199564,61678,14756,461
200092,330610,09482,229
2003112,0901210,154101,924

Eurostat data shows the GDP of Inner London to be 232 billion euros in 2009[42] and per capita GDP of 78,000 euros.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Outer London at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

YearRegional Gross Value Added[38]Agriculture[39]Industry[40]Services[41]
199544,1605110,80133,307
200060,3044312,52947,732
200367,5823913,08154,462

Eurostat data shows the GDP of Outer London to be 103 billion euros in 2009[42] and per capita GDP of 21,460 euros.

Religion[edit]

Westminster Abbey. A World Heritage Site and location of the coronation of British monarchs.

The largest religious groupings are Christian (58.2%), Muslim (8.2%), Hindu (4.1%), Jewish (2.1%), and Sikh (1.5%), alongside those of no religion (15.8%). London has traditionally been Christian, and has a large number of churches, particularly in the City. St Paul's Cathedral in the City and Southwark Cathedral south of the river are Anglican administrative centres, while the head of the Church of England and the worldwide Anglican Communion, the Archbishop of Canterbury, has his main residence at Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth.

Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between St Paul's and Westminster Abbey. The Abbey is not to be confused with nearby Westminster Cathedral, the largest Roman Catholic cathedral in England and Wales. Religious practice in London is lower than in any other part of the UK or Western Europe and is around seven times lower than American averages. Despite the prevalence of Anglican churches, weekly observance is low within that denomination, although in recent years church attendance, particularly at evangelical Anglican churches in London, has started to increase.

London is home to sizeable Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, and Jewish communities. Many Muslims live in Tower Hamlets and Newham; the most important Muslim buildings are the East London Mosque in Whitechapel and the London Central Mosque on the edge of Regent's Park. London's large Hindu community is in the north-western boroughs of Harrow and Brent, the latter containing one of Europe's largest Hindu temples, Neasden Temple.

Sikh communities are in East and West London, which is also home to the some of the largest Sikh temples in Europe. The majority of British Jews live in London, with significant communities in Stamford Hill (the most Orthodox Jewish area outside New York City and Israel) and St. John's Wood, Golders Green, and Edgware in North London.

Education[edit]

Publicly funded education has been administered through 33 LEAs, which correspond to the City of London and the 32 London boroughs, since the 1990 enactment of the Education Reform Act 1988.[43] From 1965 to 1990, 12 Inner London boroughs and the City of London were served by the Inner London Education Authority.[43]

The introduction of comprehensive schools, directed by Circular 10/65 in 1965, was mostly followed in Greater London; however, 19 grammar schools have been retained in some Outer London boroughs,[44] with Sutton having the most with five, followed by Bexley with four and others in five other boroughs. In these boroughs the state schools outperform the (relatively few) independent schools. In inner London, private schools always get the best results and are larger in number. At GCSE and A level, Outer London boroughs have broadly better results than Inner London boroughs.[45]

At GCSE, the best borough is Kingston upon Thames, closely followed by Sutton. Both boroughs have selective schools, and get the top two average GCSE results in England for LEAs. Next is Kensington and Chelsea, the third best in England, then Redbridge, Hammersmith and Fulham, Bromley, Barnet and Harrow. Only ten boroughs have GCSE results under the England average, and some inner-London boroughs have surprisingly good results considering where they lie on the scale of deprivation, e.g. Lambeth. Overall at GCSE in 2009, Greater London had the best results for regions of England. Greater London is generally a prosperous region, and prosperous areas generally have good GCSE results. The City of London has no state schools, just two independent schools. Haringey and Kensington and Chelsea have the most people that pass no GCSEs.

At A-level, the average results for LEAs are disappointing compared to their good GCSE results. Although Kingston upon Thames gets the best GCSE results in England, at A-level it is not even above average. Sutton gets the best A-level results in London and in England. Three of the schools in the top four at A-level in London are in Sutton. It has only one independent school. The few other boroughs with above-average A-level results are Havering, Barnet, Bexley, Redbridge, and Ealing. The poor A-level results in many London boroughs is explained by the quantity of independent schools getting good A-level results. The state school system is often bypassed at age 16 by the more able pupils. Some London boroughs need more good sixth form colleges.

The region's 34 further education colleges are funded through the Skills Funding Agency and the Young People's Learning Agency. Large colleges include Kingston College, Havering College of Further and Higher Education, and Croydon College.

Universities[edit]

The University of London has 20 federated colleges and schools. The main three higher education institutions (HEIs) are (in order of total funding) University College London (UCL), Imperial College London, and King's College London. KCL and UCL are part of the University of London, and Imperial College was part of this university until 2007, and is now an independent university. UCL and Imperial have very large research grants — some of the largest in England after Cambridge and Oxford. KCL also has a large research grant, and one of the largest in England. The next largest institution by funding is Queen Mary, University of London. The top three institutions get more than twice as much total income than any other institution in the region, with UCL and Imperial around £600 million each. The region has many medical schools, and one vet school, the Royal Veterinary College (which also has a main site at North Mymms in Hertfordshire) in Camden. The RVC has the lowest drop-out rate in the region.

By student numbers, the top five universities are: London Metropolitan University, the University of Westminster, Middlesex University, the University of Greenwich, and City University London.

50% of students come from the region, and around 30% from other regions. Most students from other regions come from South East England, the East of England, and, to a lesser degree, South West England; the vast majority are from the south of England. Over 50% students native to the region stay in the region, with 15% going to South East England, around 5% going elsewhere, except Scotland, Wales and the North East. Once graduated, over 70% stay in the region; London is a mecca (though expensive) for graduates from all over the UK. Just under 15% go to the South-East, and just over 5% go to the East of England; very few go anywhere else.

Twinning[edit]

The GLA has twin and sister city agreements with the following cities.[46]

CountryCityCounty / District / Region / StateDate
ChinaChinaBeijingBeijing Municipality2006[47]
FranceFranceParisÎle-de-France
GermanyGermanyBerlinBerlin2000
RussiaRussiaMoscowCentral Federal District
United StatesUnited StatesNew York CityNew York2001[48]
JapanJapanTokyoTokyo2005

For Borough twinning, see List of twin towns and sister cities in the United Kingdom#London.

See also[edit]

Geographical[edit]

Political[edit]

Historical[edit]

Other[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The ceremonial county of Greater London does not include the City of London
  2. ^ Croydon and Southwark have made several failed applications for city status

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Travers, T., The Politics of London, (2004)
  2. ^ London Government Act 1963
  3. ^ Administration of Justice Act 1964
  4. ^ "Our Region". www.gol.gov.uk. Government Office for London. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  5. ^ a b c "T 08: 2011 Census — Population and Household Estimates for England and Wales, March 2011". Office for National Statistics. 16 July 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  6. ^ Glass, R., London: aspects of change (1964).
  7. ^ Vision of Britain -Census 1901: Preliminary Report
  8. ^ a b Young, K. & Garside, P., Metropolitan London: Politics and Urban Change, (1982)
  9. ^ Westergaard, J., The Structure of Greater London, London: Aspects of Change, (1961)
  10. ^ The Motorway Archive — The origins of the London Orbital Motorway (M25)
  11. ^ Saint, A., Politics and the people of London: the London County Council (1889–1965), (1989)
  12. ^ London Local Government. The Times. 18 April 1921.
  13. ^ Complex London: Big Task For Inquiry Commission. The Times. 5 August 1921.
  14. ^ Greater London: Case for Central Authority: Area and Powers. The Times. 14 December 1921.
  15. ^ Windsor and Greater London: Protests Against Proposals. The Times. 27 December 1921
  16. ^ Greater London: Report of Royal Commission. The Times. 22 March 1923.
  17. ^ 'The Government of London: the struggle for reform' by Gerald Rhodes (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1970 ISBN 297 00031 4
  18. ^ The Greater London, Kent and Surrey Order, 1968
  19. ^ The Greater London and Surrey Order, 1970
  20. ^ Westminster City Council — One City — An Introduction
  21. ^ HMSO, Lieutenancies Act 1997, (1997)
  22. ^ Mills, A., Dictionary of London Place Names, (2001), Oxford
  23. ^ Jones, B. et al., Politics UK, (2004)
  24. ^ Arden Chambers Barristers, A Guide to the Greater London Authority Act, (2000)
  25. ^ "A summary of countries of birth in London". Census Update (Office for National Statistics) 2011: page 1. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  26. ^ "Greater London Authority — Summary of 'Country-of-Birth' in London" (PDF). Greater London Authority. Retrieved 6 June 2008. 
  27. ^ "London, France's sixth biggest city". BBC News. 30 May 2012. 
  28. ^ "Polish people in the UK". Office for National Statistics. 24 February 2011. Archived from the original on 5 March 2011. 
  29. ^ Italian community Retrieved 5 July 2010
  30. ^ "T 08: Quinary age group and sex for local authorities in England and Wales; estimated resident population based on the 1991 Census; Mid-1981 Population Estimates.". Office for National Statistics. 22 August 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2007. 
  31. ^ "T 08h: Mid-1988 Population Estimates; Quinary age groups and sex for local authorities in England and Wales; estimated resident population revised in light of results of the 2001 Census". Office for National Statistics. 22 August 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2007. 
  32. ^ "T 09a: Mid-1991 Population Estimates; Quinary age groups and sex for local authorities in the United Kingdom; estimated resident population". Office for National Statistics. 22 August 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2007. 
  33. ^ "T 08: Selected age groups for local authorities in the United Kingdom; estimated resident population; revised in light of the local authority population studies; Mid-2001 Population Estimates". Office for National Statistics. 22 August 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2007. 
  34. ^ "T 09L: Quinary age groups and sex for local authorities in the United Kingdom; estimated resident population Mid-2002 Population Estimates; reflecting the revisions due to improved international migration". Office for National Statistics. 22 August 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2007. 
  35. ^ "T 09m: Quinary age groups and sex for local authorities in the United Kingdom; estimated resident population Mid-2003 Population Estimates; reflecting the revisions due to improved international migration". Office for National Statistics. 22 August 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2007. 
  36. ^ "T 09n: Quinary age groups and sex for local authorities in the United Kingdom; estimated resident population Mid-2004 Population Estimates; reflecting the revisions due to improved international migration". Office for National Statistics. 22 August 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2007. 
  37. ^ "T 09p: Quinary age groups and sex for local authorities in the United Kingdom; estimated resident population Mid-2005 Population Estimates; reflecting the revisions due to improved international migration". Office for National Statistics. 22 August 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2007. 
  38. ^ a b Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  39. ^ a b includes hunting and forestry
  40. ^ a b includes energy and construction
  41. ^ a b includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured Hi
  42. ^ a b http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_PUBLIC/1-13032012-AP/EN/1-13032012-AP-EN.PDF
  43. ^ a b Tomlinson, S., Education in a post-welfare society, (2001)
  44. ^ BBC News — What future for grammar schools?. 15 February 2003.
  45. ^ OFSTED, Improvements in London schools 2000–06, (2006)
  46. ^ The Mayor of London's City Partnerships webpage[dead link]
  47. ^ "Beijing, London to be sister cities", China Daily, 11 April 2006. Retrieved on 6 June 2006.
  48. ^ "Sister City — London". nyc.gov. Retrieved 3 February 2007. [dead link]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 51°30′N 0°5′W / 51.500°N 0.083°W / 51.500; -0.083