Graniteville, South Carolina, train crash

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Graniteville train crash
Graniteville derailment, aerial overview.jpg
Details
DateJanuary 6, 2005
TimeAround 2:40 am
LocationGraniteville, South Carolina
CountryUnited States
OperatorNorfolk Southern Railway
Type of incidentCollision
CauseIncorrectly aligned railroad switch
Statistics
Trains2
Deaths9
Injuries250+
 
  (Redirected from Graniteville, South Carolina train disaster)
Jump to: navigation, search
Graniteville train crash
Graniteville derailment, aerial overview.jpg
Details
DateJanuary 6, 2005
TimeAround 2:40 am
LocationGraniteville, South Carolina
CountryUnited States
OperatorNorfolk Southern Railway
Type of incidentCollision
CauseIncorrectly aligned railroad switch
Statistics
Trains2
Deaths9
Injuries250+

The Graniteville train crash was an American rail disaster that occurred on January 6, 2005 in Graniteville, South Carolina.

At roughly 2:40am EST, two Norfolk Southern trains collided near the Avondale Mills plant in Graniteville.[1] NS local P22 (lead engine GP59 #4622) was parked on a siding near the Avondale Mills plant. NS freight train 192 (lead engine SD60 #6653), which was transporting chlorine gas, sodium hydroxide and cresol, was diverted by an improperly lined railroad switch onto the siding and collided with P22.[citation needed] The collision derailed both lead engines, 16 of 192's 42 freight cars, and one of P22's freight cars.[citation needed] One of 192's tank cars (loaded with 90 tons of chlorine) ruptured, releasing about 60 tons of the gas.[citation needed] About 30% of the load was recovered by industrial responders.[citation needed] Nine people died (eight at the time of the accident, one later as a result of chlorine inhalation), and at least 250 people were treated for chlorine exposure.[citation needed] In total, 5,400 residents within one mile (1.6 km) of the crash site were forced to evacuate for nearly two weeks while HAZMAT teams and cleanup crews decontaminated the area.[citation needed]

Victims[edit]

Aerial closeup of the accident scene (courtesy of EPA)

Nine people lost their lives in the Graniteville train disaster on the day of the accident:

On April 21, 2005, one more death was attributed to the accident. Leonard Mathis, a brick mason in Graniteville, was driving home from a convenience store just after the accident occurred. As he was traveling home, he passed through a portion of the chlorine cloud that resulted from the collision. His health deteriorated from that point on.[2]

Economic consequences[edit]

Norfolk Southern announced that it expected the disaster to cost between $US 30 to $40 million, including the corporation's self-insurance retention under its insurance policies and other uninsured costs, but not any fines or penalties that might be imposed.[3]

On May 25, 2005, lawyers involved in the damages claims against Norfolk Southern announced that they had reached a preliminary agreement on settlements for area residents and business that were evacuated but did not seek medical attention. In this preliminary settlement, Norfolk Southern would offer each resident who was evacuated and did not seek medical attention within 72 hours of the accident a flat amount of $2,000 for the evacuation plus $200 per person per day of the evacuation. These amounts are separate from any property damage claims. Claims that involve injury or death are not included in this settlement, but are still being negotiated.[4]

On May 22, 2006, Avondale Mills' CEO, G. Stephen Felker Sr., announced that his firm would close all its plants, corporate and sales offices no later than July 25, throwing more than 4,000 workers across four states out of work. Mr. Felker cited the 2005 derailment as the primary reasons for the company's failure. The wreck knocked out the Gregg plant of Avondale mills, which was a key pillar to the survival of the company in a shrinking United States textile market. The plant accounted for 40% of the company's sales.[5] Stephen Felker Jr., Avondale's manager of corporate development stated,"We were prepared to weather the storm of global competition. What we weren't prepared for was an event such as this derailment, which was completely beyond our control."[6] Avondale Mills Inc. reached a $215 million settlement with its insurance company for damages caused by the train derailment and fatal chemical spill.

It is generally assumed[by whom?] that since the plant would have been fully insured and/or covered by Norfolk Southern's accident insurance, that the owners chose to take the settlement money and leave rather than rebuild the damaged plant.[citation needed] However, G. Stephen Felker Sr. stated "We do not believe that the settlement fully compensates us for the full value of the losses incurred as a result of the Norfolk Southern derailment"[6] and said that the company intends to pursue a lawsuit or seek a settlement against Norfolk Southern.

Findings and recommendations[edit]

On November 29, 2005, the NTSB issued a report officially blaming the accident on the P22 train crew's failure to reline the switch for mainline operations. The report concluded that neither equipment failure nor crew fatigue or drug or alcohol use was a factor in the accident. It further concluded that the level and immediacy of emergency response to the accident was wholly appropriate for the situation.[7]

As a result of this accident and a similar accident on the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway on January 8, 2005, the United States Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) released to railroads a reminder of federal regulations on procedures for turnout operation and safety procedures.[8] Among the federal rules regarding turnouts are:

The FRA further recommended[1] that railroads should:

Litigation[edit]

Avondale Mills filed suit against Norfolk Southern claiming that the railroad was negligent in its operations through Graniteville and that this alleged negligence was the root cause of the accident. After the accident, Avondale Mills was closed, laying off thousands of employees and paid more than $140 million on cleanup and repair expenses. The trial opened on March 10, 2008, in federal court in Columbia, South Carolina.[9]

On April 7, 2008, Norfolk Southern and interests representing Avondale Mills, and its surviving entities, reached a confidential out of court settlement.[10][11]

On April 24, 2008, Norfolk Southern was sued by the U.S. EPA for violations of the Clean Water Act, as Horse Creek had been polluted. In a similar lawsuit in Pennsylvania, where a derailed Norfolk Southern runaway train crashed, the state of Pennsylvania sued the railroad for similar violations and won several million dollars for environmental remediation.[citation needed] However, fines may be minimal when compared to the damage to the surrounding environment.[12][13][14]

On March 8, 2010, Norfolk Southern Railway Company agreed to pay $4 million penalty to resolve alleged violations of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and hazardous materials laws for a 2005 chlorine spill in Graniteville, S.C. Under the settlement filed in federal court in Columbia, S.C., Norfolk Southern will be required to pay a civil penalty of $3,967,500 for the alleged CWA violations, to be deposited in the federal Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund. The alleged CWA violations, included in an amended complaint filed in March 2009, are for the discharge of tons of chlorine, a hazardous substance, from a derailed train tank car and thousands of gallons of diesel fuel from ruptured locomotive engine fuel tanks. For the alleged Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) violation for failure to immediately notify the National Response Center of the chlorine release, Norfolk Southern will pay a penalty of $32,500, to be deposited in the Hazardous Substance Superfund. Under the terms of the agreement, Norfolk Southern will provide incident command system training to environmental and transportation personnel; stock nearby Langley Pond with at least 3,000 fish to replace fish killed by the chlorine spill; and post the telephone number for the National Response Center to facilitate spill reporting. Further, the settlement includes a supplemental environmental project (SEP) valued at $100,000 to plant vegetation along the banks of Horse Creek to decrease erosion and sedimentation, thereby improving water quality in Horse Creek.[15]

Related information[edit]

On May 24, 2005, Norfolk Southern was awarded the TRANSCAER National Achievement Award for 2004. TRANSCAER is an acronym for Transportation Community Awareness and Emergency Response, which aims to promote emergency preparedness among first responders and communities for accidents that involve chemical releases. Part of the reasons for NS's selection for this award were the emergency preparedness training that the railroad held in 18 of the 22 states through which the railroad hauls hazardous materials.[16]

Texas folk artist Doug Burr memorialized the Graniteville accident in his song "Graniteville" in his 2007 released album On Promenade. The song is fictionalized account of a husband attempting to rouse his wife from sleep to escape the dangers of the chemical spill.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Jamison, Robert D.; Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration (January 10, 2005). "Notice of safety advisory 2005-01; Position of switches in non-signaled territory" (PDF). Retrieved 2005-02-01. 
  2. ^ "Graniteville man's death blamed on chlorine train wreck". Trains News Wire. Kalmbach Publishing. April 21, 2005. Retrieved 2005-05-04. [dead link]
  3. ^ "Norfolk Southern estimates Graniteville derailment costs". Trains News Wire. Kalmbach Publishing. Retrieved 2005-01-27. [dead link]
  4. ^ Jordan, Jacob, Associated Press (May 25, 2005). "Lawyers for Railroad, S.C. Town Seek Deal". Washington Post. Retrieved 2005-05-25. [dead link]
  5. ^ DuPlessis, Jim. "Graniteville train wreck Rust ruined Avondale plant Damage had a big role in mill closures".  [volume & issue needed]
  6. ^ a b AccessNorthGa.com (2013). "Avondale settles with insurance company for train wreck damages". AccessNorthGa.com. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  7. ^ United States National Transportation Safety Board (November 29, 2005). "Report of Railroad Accident: Collision of Norfolk Southern Freight Train 192 with Standing Norfolk Southern Local Train P22 With Subsequent Hazardous Materials Release. Graniteville, South Carolina; January 6, 2005. NTSB/RAR-05/04". Retrieved 2005-11-29. 
  8. ^ "Switch Safety Guidelines Issued to Railroad Industry to Prevent Train Accidents Caused by Misaligned Switches" (Press release). United States Federal Railroad Administration. January 11, 2005. Retrieved 2006-09-27. 
  9. ^ "Trial begins for SC textile firm suing railroad after train wreck". Worcester Telegram & Gazette. Associated Press. 2008-03-10. Retrieved 2008-03-10. 
  10. ^ "Norfolk Southern To Settle Claims From Graniteville Accident". TradingMarkets.com. Retrieved 2008-04-24. 
  11. ^ "Norfolk Southern Reaches Agreement With Avondale Mills to Settle Claims From Graniteville Accident". Norfolk Southern. Retrieved 2008-04-24. 
  12. ^ Dow Jones Newswires (2008-04-24). "Norfolk Southern 'Disappointed' In DOJ Graniteville Suit". CNN Money. Retrieved 2008-04-25. [dead link]
  13. ^ "Railroad accused of polluting water in South Carolina wreck". Houston Chronicle. Associated Press. 2008-04-24. Retrieved 2008-04-25. [dead link]
  14. ^ Putzier, Damon (2008-04-24). "Federal Prosecutors Say Norfolk Southern Should Be Fined For Graniteville Pollution Prosecutors say the train wreck spilled chlorine and diesel fuel into the waterways, near Graniteville, violating the Clean Water Act". WJBF. Retrieved 2008-04-24. 
  15. ^ "03/08/2010: Railroad Company to Pay $4 Million Penalty for 2005 Chlorine Spill in Graniteville, SC". Yosemite.epa.gov. Retrieved 2014-01-01. 
  16. ^ "Norfolk Southern Corporation Receives 2004 TRANSCAER National Achievement Award" (Press release). American Chemistry Council (reprinted by Norfolk Southern). May 24, 2005. Retrieved 2005-05-26. 


External links[edit]

Coordinates: 33°33′44″N 81°48′31″W / 33.56222°N 81.80861°W / 33.56222; -81.80861