Government failure (or non-market failure) is the public-sector analogy to market failure and occurs when government intervention causes a more inefficient allocation of goods and resources than would occur without that intervention. In not comparing realized inadequacies of market outcomes against those of potential interventions, one writer describes the "anatomy" of market failure as providing "only limited help in prescribing therapies for government success."
The government's failure to intervene in a market failure that would result in a socially preferable mix of output is similarly referred to as passive government failure. Just as with market failures, different kinds of government failures describe corresponding economic distortions.
Contemplation of an optimal system may provide techniques of analysis that would otherwise have been missed and, in certain special cases, it may go far to providing a solution. But in general its influence has been pernicious. It has directed economists’ attention away from the main question, which is how alternative arrangements will actually work in practice. It has led economists to derive conclusions for economic policy from a study of an abstract of a market situation. It is no accident that in the literature...we find a category "market failure" but no category "government failure." Until we realize that we are choosing between social arrangements which are all more or less failures, we are not likely to make much headway.
The idea of government failure is associated with the policy argument that, even if particular markets may not meet the standard conditions of perfect competition, required to ensure social optimality, government intervention may make matters worse rather than better.
Just as a market failure is not a failure to bring a particular or favored solution into existence at desired prices, but is rather a problem which prevents the market from operating efficiently, a government failure is not a failure of the government to bring about a particular solution, but is rather a systemic problem which prevents an efficient government solution to a problem. The problem to be solved need not be a market failure; sometimes, some voters may prefer a governmental solution even when a market solution is possible.
Government failure can be on both the demand side and the supply side. Demand-side failures include preference-revelation problems and the illogics of voting and collective behaviour. Supply-side failures largely result from principal–agent problem.
Economic crowding out
Crowding out – Crowding out occurs when the government expands its borrowing more to finance increased expenditure or tax cuts in excess of revenue crowding out private sector investment by way of higher interest rates. Government spending is also said to crowd out private spending.
Regulatory arbitrage – Where a regulated institution takes advantage of the difference between its real (or economic) risk and the regulatory position.
Regulatory risk – A risk faced by private-sector firms that regulatory changes will hurt their business.
Recent evidence suggests that increased government size is associated with more political corruption even in stable democracies with high income, robust rule of law mechanisms, transparency, and media freedom.[page needed]
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^Wolf, Jr., Charles (1979). "A Theory of Nonmarket Failure: Framework for Implementation Analysis," Journal of Law and Economics, 22(1), pp. 107-139.
^Weimer and Vining (2004). Policy Analysis and Concepts. 4th edition p. 206.
^Coase, Ronald (1964). "The Regulated Industries: Discussion," American Economic Review, 54(2), p. 195, as quoted in Oliver E. Williamson (2002), "The Lens of Contract: Private Ordering," American Economic Review, 92(2), pp. 438-443.
^McKean, Roland N. (1965), "The Unseen Hand in Government," "American Economic Review," 55(3), pp, 496-506.
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^• Anne O. Krueger (1990). "Government Failures in Development," Journal of Economic Perspectives, 4(3), pp. 9-23. • Eduardo Wiesner (1998). "Transaction Cost Economics and Public Sector Rent-Seeking in Developing Countries: Toward a Theory of Government Failure," in E. Wiesner and R. Picciotto, ed. Evaluation and Development: The Institutional Dimension, pp. 108-23. World Bank.
^Thomas Andersson (1991). "Government Failure – the Cause of Global Environmental Mismanagement," Ecological Economics, 4(3), pp. 215–236. Abstract.
^• Julian Le Grand (1991). "The Theory of Government Failure," British Journal of Political Science, 21(4), pp. 423-442. • Eduardo Wiesner (1998). "Transaction Cost Economics and Public Sector Rent-Seeking in Developing Countries: Toward a Theory of Government Failure," in E. Wiesner and R. Picciotto, ed. Evaluation and Development: The Institutional Dimension, pp. 108-23. World Bank.
^• Oliver E. Williamson (1995). "The Politics and Economics of Redistribution and Inefficiency," Greek Economic Review, December, 17, pp. 115-136, reprinted in Williamson (1996), The Mechanisms of Governance, Oxford University Press, ch. 8, pp. 195- 218. • Sturzenegger, Federico, and Mariano Tommasi (1998). The Polítical Economy of Reform, MIT Press. Description and links to chapter-previews and "failure". • Sharun W. Mukand (2008). "policy reform, political economy of," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract. • Buchanan James M. (2008). "public debt," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics , 2nd EditionThe New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd Edition.Abstract.
^• Buchanan James M. (1983). "The Achievement and the Limits of Public Choice in Diagnosing Government Failure and in Offering Bases for Constructive Reform," in Anatomy of Government Deficiencies, ed. Horst Hanusch (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1983), pp. 15–25. • Gordon Tullocket al. (2002), Government Failure: A Primer in Public Choice, Cato Institute. Description and scroll-down for preview.
^Richard O. Zerbe Jr. and Howard E. McCurdy (1999). "The Failure of Market Failure," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 18(4), pp. 558–578. Abstract. Reprinted in Zerbe (2001), Economic Efficiency in Law and Economics," pp. 164-87.
^Connolly, S. & Munro, A. (1999). 'Public Choice', Chapter 8 in Economics of the Public Sector, Pearson, Harlow, Essex.
^• Blanchard, Olivier Jean (2008). "crowding out," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract. • Shaghil Ahmed (1986). "Temporary and Permanent Government Spending in an Open Economy," Journal of Monetary Economics, 17(2). pp. 197–224)
^• Stephen Breyer (1979). "Analyzing Regulatory Failure: Mismatches, Less Restrictive Alternatives, and Reform," Harvard Law Review, 92(3), pp. 547-609. • Joseph E. Stiglitz (2009). "Regulation and Failure," in David Moss and John Cisternino (eds.), New Perspectives on Regulation, ch. 1, pp. 11-23. Cambridge: The Tobin Project.