Godzilla (franchise)

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Original movie poster for Godzilla.

Godzilla (ゴジラ Gojira?) is a Japanese film series of Kaiju/Tokusatsu films featuring the character Godzilla owned, created, and produced by Toho. It is recognized by Guinness World Records to be the longest continuously running movie franchise, having been in on-going production from 1954 to the present (with several hiatuses).[1] A reboot by Toho is planned for a 2016 release[2] while American studio Legendary Pictures are proceeding with a planned trilogy of their own with the first sequel targeted for a June 8, 2018 release.[3]

The first film, Godzilla, is an early and influential classic in the giant monster subgenre of science fiction films and was first released by Toho Co., Ltd. in 1954 and directed by Ishiro Honda. In 1956, the film became Godzilla, King of the Monsters, edited and with added principal scenes featuring Raymond Burr, the film was released internationally becoming a commercial success.

The original Godzilla was greatly inspired by the commercial success of the 1952 re-release of King Kong, and the 1953 success of The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms. Godzilla would go on to inspire Gorgo, Gamera, Cloverfield, and many other monster films worldwide. The original film has also inspired numerous Japanese sequels from Toho along with a pair of full-fledged America productions, the first in 1998 and the second in 2014. The popularity of the films has introduced the character in other media such as television, music, literature, and video games. Its character has been one of the most recognizable symbols in Japanese popular culture worldwide and remains an important facet of Japanese films, and was the first example of the popular kaiju and tokusatsu subgenres in Japanese entertainment. The films are renowned for their political themes, occasionally dark tone, complex internal mythology, and acclaimed music.

The name "Godzilla" is a Romanization of the original Japanese name "Gojira" — which is a combination of two Japanese words: gorira (ゴリラ) 'gorilla' and kujira (クジラ) 'whale'. The word alludes to the size, power and aquatic origin of Godzilla.

Series history[edit]

The Godzilla series is generally broken into three eras reflecting a characteristic style and corresponding to the same eras used to classify all 'daikaiju eiga' (monster movies) in Japan. The first two eras refer to the Japanese emperor during production: the Shōwa era, and the Heisei era. The third is called the Millennium era as the emperor (Heisei) is the same but these films are considered to have a different style and storyline than the prior era.

Shōwa series (1954–1975)[edit]

Godzilla featured in Toho's Shōwa, Heisei, and Millennium films.

The initial series of movies is named for the Shōwa period in Japan (as all of these films were produced before Emperor Hirohito's death in 1989). This Shōwa timeline spanned from 1954, with Godzilla, to 1975, with Terror of Mechagodzilla. With the exceptions of Godzilla, Godzilla Raids Again, and Mothra vs. Godzilla, much of the Shōwa series is relatively light-hearted. Starting with Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster, Godzilla began evolving into a friendlier, more playful antihero (this transition was complete by Son of Godzilla, where it is shown as a good character), and as years went by, it evolved into an anthropomorphic superhero. Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster was also significant for introducing Godzilla's archenemy and the main antagonist of the series, King Ghidorah. The films Son of Godzilla and All Monsters Attack were aimed at youthful audiences, featuring the appearance of Godzilla's son, Minilla. Godzilla vs. Mechagodzilla was notable for introducing Godzilla's robotic arch foe and secondary villain of the movie series Mechagodzilla. The Shōwa period saw the addition of many monsters into the Godzilla continuity, two of which (Mothra and Rodan) originated in their own solo movies.

Haruo Nakajima mainly portrayed Godzilla since 1954 until his retirement in 1972 however, other stunt actors portrayed the character in his absence such as Katsumi Tezuka, Yū Sekida, Ryosaku Takasugi, Seiji Onaka, Shinji Takagi, Isao Zushi, and Toru Kawai.[4][5] Eiji Tsuburaya directed the special effects for the first six films of the series. His protege Sadamasa Arikawa took over the effects work for the next three films (with Tsuburaya supervising) while Teruyoshi Nakano directed the special effects for the last six films of the series.

Heisei series (1984–1995)[edit]

Toho rebooted the Godzilla film series in 1984 with The Return of Godzilla, igniting the second era of Godzilla films known as the "Heisei" series. The Return of Godzilla serves as a direct sequel to the original 1954 film and ignores the afterward events of the Showa era. The Heisei films are set in a single timeline, with each film providing continuity to another film. The biological nature and science behind Godzilla became a much more discussed issue in the films, showing the increased focus on the moral aspects of genetics. Godzilla vs. King Ghidorah gave the first concrete birth story for Godzilla, featuring a Godzillasaurus that was mutated by radiation into Godzilla. Godzilla was portrayed by Kenpachiro Satsuma for the Heisei films while the special effects were directed by Koichi Kawakita, with the exception of The Return of Godzilla, which the effects were directed by Teruyoshi Nakano.

Millennium series (1999–2004)[edit]

Toho rebooted the Godzilla film franchise for the second time, beginning with the 1999 film, Godzilla 2000, igniting the third era of Godzilla films known as the "Millennium series". The Millennium series is treated similarly to an Anthology series where each film, with the exception of Godzilla: Tokyo SOS and Godzilla: Final Wars, is set in its own timeline and follows-up the events of the original 1954 Godzilla but ignores the events of the Shōwa and Heisei era.

After the release of 2004's Godzilla: Final Wars, marking the 50th anniversary of the Godzilla film franchise, Toho declared that it would not produce another Godzilla film for another 10 years. Toho also demolished the water stage on its lot used in numerous Godzilla, kaiju and tokusatsu films.[6] Yoshimitsu Banno, who had directed 1971's Godzilla vs. Hedorah, secured the rights from Toho to make an IMAX 3D short film production, based on a story similar to his Hedorah film. This project eventually lead to the development of Legendary's Godzilla.

Tsutomu Kitagawa portrayed Godzilla for the majority of the Millennium films, with the exception of Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack, whom Godzilla was portrayed by Mizuho Yoshida. Unlike the Showa and later Heisei films, the special effects for the Millennium films were directed by multiple FX-directors such as Kenji Suzuki (Godzilla 2000, Godzilla vs. Megaguirus), Makoto Kamiya (Godzilla, Mothra, & King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack), Yuichi Kikuchi (Godzilla Against Mechagodzilla), and Eiichi Asada (Godzilla: Tokyo SOS, Godzilla: Final Wars).

Toho Reboot (2016)[edit]

Promotional artwork.

In December 2014, Toho announced plans for a new Godzilla film targeted for a 2016 release, stating, "This is very good timing after the success of the American version this year: if not now, then when? The licensing contract we have with Legendary places no restrictions on us making domestic versions".[7] The new film will have no ties to Legendary's Godzilla trilogy and instead will serve as a reboot to the Toho series. Minami Ichikawa will serve as the film's Production Manager and Taiji Ueda as the film's Project Leader. Ueda confirmed that the screenplay is in development and filming has been planned for a summer 2015 shoot. Toho will additionally put together a project team, known as "Godzilla Conference" or "Godzi-con" to formulate future projects.[2]

American films[edit]

In 1956, Jewell Enterprises Inc., licensed Godzilla and produced an "Americanized"[8][9][10][11][12] version of the film, Godzilla, King of the Monsters!. The film utilized a majority of the footage from the Japanese original but a majority of the political themes and social commentaries were removed, resulting in 30 minutes of footage from the Japanese original replaced with new scenes shot exclusively for the film featuring Raymond Burr interacting with Japanese actors and look-alikes to make it seem like Burr was a part of the original Japanese production. In addition, sound-effects and soundtracks were tweaked and some dialogue was dubbed into English. Similar "Americanizations" occurred for the North American releases of King Kong vs Godzilla and Godzilla 1985, the latter which included Burr reprising the role of American journalist Steve Martin.

In 1965, Toho co-produced Invasion of Astro-Monster with American studio UPA, marking the first time a Godzilla film was co-produced with an American studio.

In the 1980s Steve Miner pitched his idea for an American Godzilla production to Toho, with a script written by Fred Dekker. Toho and Warner Bros. were said to be very interested in Miner's idea, but it was shelved because its projected budget was too expensive.[13]

TriStar Pictures (1998)[edit]

Godzilla (later retconned to Zilla) featured in the 1998 American film.

In October 1992, TriStar Pictures acquired the rights from Toho with plans to produce a trilogy of Godzilla films.[14] Godzilla was released in May 1998, with Roland Emmerich directing and co-writing and Dean Devlin producing and co-writing as well. The film was met with a negative reception from critics and fans of the franchise.[15][16][17] Planned sequels were aborted and a weekly animated series was produced instead.[18] Poor merchandise sales for the film led to a cancellation of a toyline based on the animated series, and resulted in significant financial losses for toy manufacturer Trendmasters, which went out of business soon after.[19]

TriStar held on to the Godzilla license until it expired and reverted back to Toho in 2003. The following year, Toho officially renamed TriStar's Godzilla to "Zilla" for subsequent appearances.[20][21][22] This decision was made by producer Shōgo Tomiyama and Godzilla: Final Wars director Ryuhei Kitamura because they felt that Emmerich's film had taken the "God" out of "Godzilla" by portraying the monster as a mere animal.[23] The name "Zilla" was chosen for the character by Tomiyama as a satirical take on counterfeit Godzilla products that use "Zilla" as a suffix.[24] This name-change has been reflected on official products featuring the character, however, "Godzilla" continues to be used as a title on products that pre-date the name change, such as any re-releases of the 1998 film or the animated series. In later years, producer Devlin admitted to "screwing up" his Godzilla, mainly blaming the script he and director Emmerich wrote for the film.[25][26][27]

Legendary Pictures (2014–)[edit]

Godzilla featured in the 2014 American film.

In March 2010, Legendary Pictures formally announced its Godzilla project after it had acquired rights to make a Godzilla film from Toho. The film is directed by Gareth Edwards and is a co-production with Warner Bros.[28][29] Filming was done in 2013 in Canada and the United States and it premiered in May 2014, nearly a decade after Toho's Godzilla: Final Wars.[30]

Godzilla was released on May 16, 2014 and was met with positive reviews from critics and fans alike who had praised director Edwards for honoring the spirit and legacy of the Godzilla character and franchise.[31][32] Godzilla was a box office success, earning over $524 million worldwide at the end of its theatrical run.[33] The film was released in Japan on July 25, 2014 where it was a commercial success.[34] The film's box office success has prompted both Legendary and Toho to proceed with further installments, with Toho planning a reboot of their own for a 2016 release[2] and Legendary proceeding with their own sequels with Gareth Edwards attached to direct a planned trilogy.[3] The sequel is targeted to be released on June 8, 2018[35] and is set to feature other Toho properties such as Rodan, Mothra, and King Ghidorah.[36]

Series development[edit]

Godzilla was originally an allegory for the effects of the hydrogen bomb, and the consequences that such weapons might have on earth.[37][38][39][40] The radioactive contamination of the Japanese fishing boat Daigo Fukuryū Maru through the United States' Castle Bravo thermonuclear device test on Bikini Atoll, on March 1, 1954 led to much press coverage in Japan preceding the release of the first movie in 1954. The Heisei and Millennium series have largely continued this concept. Some[who?] have pointed out the parallels, conscious or unconscious, between Godzilla's relationship to Japan and that of the United States; first a terrible enemy who causes enormous destruction to the cities of Japan such as Tokyo (Godzilla, The Return of Godzilla), Osaka (Godzilla Raids Again, Godzilla vs. Biollante, Godzilla vs. Megaguirus), Nagoya (Mothra vs Godzilla) and Yokohama (Ghidorah the Three Headed Monster, Godzilla vs. Mothra, Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack) in different films, but then becoming a good friend and defender in times of peril.

Films have been made over the last six decades, each reflecting the social and political climate in Japan.[41]

Filmography[edit]

From 1954 through 2004, there have been 28 Godzilla films produced by Toho Studios in Japan. There have been several American productions: adaptations including "Godzilla, King of the Monsters!", "King Kong vs. Godzilla" and "Godzilla 1985", and two complete American-produced productions: the 1998 Godzilla by TriStar Pictures and the 2014 Godzilla by Warner Bros. Pictures and Legendary Pictures.

Toho productions[edit]

#Official Toho title
(alternate English titles)
YearDirectorEffects directorMonster co-star(s)Godzilla
performer(s)
Current US licences/media
1Godzilla
(Gojira, Godzilla: King of The Monsters)
1954Ishirō HondaEiji TsuburayaNoneHaruo Nakajima, Katsumi TezukaClassic Media
Criterion Collection - DVD/Blu-ray
2Godzilla Raids Again
(Gigantis, The Fire Monster)
1955Motoyoshi OdaEiji TsuburayaAnguirusHaruo NakajimaClassic Media - DVD
3King Kong vs. Godzilla1962Ishirō HondaEiji TsuburayaKing Kong, Giant OctopusHaruo Nakajima, Katsumi TezukaUniversal - DVD / Blu-ray
4Mothra vs. Godzilla
(Godzilla vs. the Thing; Godzilla vs. Mothra)
1964Ishirō HondaEiji TsuburayaMothra (larvae and adult)Haruo Nakajima, Katsumi TezukaClassic Media - DVD
5Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster
(Ghidrah, the Three-Headed Monster)
1964Ishirō HondaEiji TsuburayaKing Ghidorah, Rodan, Mothra (larva)Haruo Nakajima, Katsumi TezukaClassic Media - DVD
6Invasion of Astro-Monster
(Monster Zero; Godzilla vs. Monster Zero)
1965Ishirō HondaEiji TsuburayaRodan, King GhidorahHaruo NakajimaClassic Media - DVD
7Godzilla vs. the Sea Monster
(Ebirah, Horror of the Deep)
1966Jun FukudaSadamasa Arikawa, under the supervision of Eiji TsuburayaEbirah, Mothra (adult), Giant CondorHaruo NakajimaKraken Releasing (Section23 Films) - DVD / Blu-ray
8Son of Godzilla1967Jun FukudaSadamasa Arikawa, under the supervision of Eiji TsuburayaMinilla, Kamacuras, KumongaYu Sekida, Haruo Nakajima, Seiji OnakaSony - DVD
9Destroy All Monsters1968Ishirō HondaSadamasa Arikawa, under the supervision of Eiji TsuburayaMinilla, Anguirus, Rodan, Mothra (larva), Kumonga, Gorosaurus, Varan, Baragon, Manda, King GhidorahHaruo NakajimaMedia Blasters - DVD / Blu-ray
10All Monsters Attack
(Godzilla's Revenge)
1969Ishirō HondaIshirō HondaMinilla, Gabara, Anguirus (stock footage), Ebirah (stock footage), Kamacuras, Kumonga (stock footage), Gorosaurus (stock footage), Manda (stock footage), Giant Condor (stock footage)Haruo NakajimaClassic Media - DVD
11Godzilla vs. Hedorah
(Godzilla vs. the Smog Monster)
1971Yoshimitsu BannoTeruyoshi NakanoHedorahHaruo NakajimaKraken Releasing (Section23 Films) - DVD / Blu-ray
12Godzilla vs. Gigan
(Godzilla on Monster Island)
1972Jun FukudaTeruyoshi NakanoGigan, King Ghidorah, AnguirusHaruo NakajimaKraken Releasing (Section23 Films) - DVD / Blu-ray
13Godzilla vs. Megalon1973Jun FukudaTeruyoshi NakanoMegalon, Gigan, Jet Jaguar, AnguirusShinji TakagiMedia Blasters - DVD / Blu-ray
14Godzilla vs. Mechagodzilla
(Godzilla vs. the Bionic Monster; Godzilla vs. the Cosmic Monster)
1974Jun FukudaTeruyoshi NakanoMechagodzilla, Anguirus, King CaesarIsao ZushiSony - DVD
15Terror of Mechagodzilla
(The Terror of Godzilla)
1975Ishirō HondaTeruyoshi NakanoMechagodzilla, TitanosaurusToru KawaiClassic Media - DVD
16The Return of Godzilla
(Godzilla 1985)
1984Koji HashimotoTeruyoshi NakanoShockirusKenpachiro SatsumaLakeshore Entertainment - VHS
17Godzilla vs. Biollante1989Kazuki OmoriKoichi KawakitaBiollanteKenpachiro SatsumaEcho Bridge Entertainment - DVD / Blu-ray
18Godzilla vs. King Ghidorah1991Kazuki OmoriKoichi KawakitaKing Ghidorah/Mecha-King GhidorahKenpachiro SatsumaSony - DVD / Blu-ray
19Godzilla vs. Mothra
(Godzilla and Mothra: The Battle for Earth)
1992Takao OkawaraKoichi KawakitaMothra (larva and adult), Battra (larva and adult)Kenpachiro SatsumaSony - DVD / Blu-ray
20Godzilla vs. Mechagodzilla II1993Takao OkawaraKoichi KawakitaMechagodzilla/Super Mechagodzilla, Baby Godzilla, Rodan/Fire RodanKenpachiro SatsumaSony - DVD / Blu-ray
21Godzilla vs. SpaceGodzilla1994Kensho YamashitaKoichi KawakitaSpaceGodzilla, Moguera, Little Godzilla, Fairy MothraKenpachiro SatsumaSony - DVD / Blu-ray
22Godzilla vs. Destoroyah
(Godzilla vs. Destroyer)
1995Takao OkawaraKoichi KawakitaDestoroyah, Godzilla JuniorKenpachiro SatsumaSony - DVD / Blu-ray
23Godzilla 2000: Millennium
(Godzilla 2000)
1999Takao OkawaraKenji SuzukiOrgaTsutomu KitagawaSony - DVD / Blu-ray
24Godzilla vs. Megaguirus2000Masaaki TezukaKenji SuzukiMeganulon/Meganula, MegaguirusTsutomu KitagawaSony - DVD / Blu-ray
25Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack2001Shusuke KanekoMakoto KamiyaBaragon, Mothra (larva and adult), King GhidorahMizuho YoshidaSony - DVD / Blu-ray
26Godzilla Against Mechagodzilla2002Masaaki TezukaYûichi KikuchiKiryuTsutomu KitagawaSony - DVD / Blu-ray
27Godzilla: Tokyo S.O.S.2003Masaaki TezukaEiichi AsadaKiryu, Mothra (larvae and adult), KamoebasTsutomu KitagawaSony - DVD / Blu-ray
28Godzilla: Final Wars2004Ryuhei KitamuraEiichi AsadaGigan, Monster X/Keizer Ghidorah, Minilla, King Caesar, Rodan, Anguirus, Mothra (adult), Manda, Kamacuras, Hedorah, Ebirah, Kumonga, ZillaTsutomu KitagawaSony - DVD / Blu-ray
29Untitled Godzilla reboot[2]2016TBATBATBATBATBA

American productions[edit]

#TitleYearDirectorEffects directorMonster co-star(s)Current US licences/media
1Godzilla, King of the Monsters!1956Terry O. Morse
Ishirō Honda
Eiji TsuburayaNoneClassic Media
Criterion Collection - DVD / Blu-ray
2King Kong vs. Godzilla1963Ishirō Honda
Thomas Montgomery
Eiji TsuburayaKing Kong, Giant OctopusUniversal - DVD / Blu-ray
3Monster Zero X1970Ishirō HondaEiji TsuburayaRodan, King GhidorahClassic Media - DVD
4Godzilla 19851985R. J. Kiser
Koji Hashimoto
Teruyoshi NakanoShockirusNew World - VHS
Starmaker - VHS
Anchor Bay - VHS
5Godzilla1998Roland EmmerichPatrick TatopoulosBaby GodzillaSony - DVD/Blu-ray
6Godzilla2014Gareth EdwardsJim RygielMUTOsWarner Bros.
7Godzilla 22018Gareth EdwardsUnknownMothra, Rodan, King Ghidorah[42]Warner Bros.

† Japanese films that featured additional American footage shot exclusively for their North American releases.
X Co-production between Japanese studio Toho and American studio UPA.

Italian Godzilla, aka Cozzilla[edit]

In 1976, Italian director Luigi Cozzi intended to re-release Godzilla in Italy. Facing resistance from exhibitors to showing a black and white film, Cozzi instead licensed a negative of Godzilla, King of the Monsters from Toho and created a new movie in color, adding lots of stock footage of graphic death and destruction and short scenes from newsreel footage from World War II, which he released as Godzilla in 1977. The film was colorized using Cozzi's own technique, and may have been one of the first black and white movies to be colorized. Dialogue was dubbed into Italian and new music was added. After the initial Italian run, the negative became Toho property and prints have only been exhibited in Italy. Italian firm Yamato Video at one time intended to release the colorized version on a double DVD along with the original Godzilla.[43][44]

Guest appearances[edit]

In 2007, a CGI Godzilla appeared in the Japanese movie Always Zoku Sanchōme no Yūhi (Always Sunset on Third Street 2). In an imaginary sequence, Godzilla destroys part of 1954 Tokyo. The making of the sequence was kept a secret. Godzilla has been referenced and has briefly appeared in several other films. [45][46]

Other media[edit]

Books[edit]

Main article: Godzilla (comics)

A Godzilla series of books was published by Random House during the late 1990s. The company created different series for different age groups, the Scott Ciencin series being aimed at children. Several manga have been derived from specific Godzilla films, and both Marvel and Dark Horse have published Godzilla comic book series (1977–1979 and 1987–1999, respectively). In 2011, IDW Publishing started a new series Godzilla: Kingdom of Monsters rebooting the Godzilla story.

To tie-in with the 2014 film, three books were published. Titan Books published a novelization of the movie in May 2014, written by Greg Cox. The Godzilla: Awakening graphic novel by Max Borenstein, Greg Borenstein and Eric Battle served as a prequel, and Godzilla: The Art of Destruction by Mark Cotta about the making of the movie

Music[edit]

Blue Öyster Cult released the song "Godzilla" in 1977.

The French death metal band Gojira named the band after Godzilla's name in Japanese.

The song "Simon Says" by Pharoahe Monch is a hip-hop remix of the Godzilla March theme song. The instrumental version of this song was notably used in the 2000 film Charlie's Angels.

British band Lostprophets released a song called "We Are Godzilla, You Are Japan" on their second studio album Start Something.

The American punk band, Groovie Ghoulies released a song called 'Hats Off To You (Godzilla)' as a tribute to Godzilla. It is featured on the EP 'Freaks on Parade' released in 2002.

The American artist Doctor Steel released a song called 'Atomic Superstar' about Godzilla on his album "People of Earth (album)" in 2002.

In 2003, British singer Siouxsie Sioux released the album Hai! with her band The Creatures; the album had a Japanese theme with a song dedicated to the monster, simply titled "Godzilla!"

Label Shifty issued compilation Destroysall with 15 songs from 15 bands, ranging from hardcore punk to doom-laden death metal. Not all songs are dedicated to Godzilla, but all do appear connected to monsters from Toho studios. Fittingly, the disc was released on August 1, 2003, the 35th anniversary of the Japanese release of Destroy All Monsters.

There is also a song by metal band Sepultura that was written with Jello Biafra (Dead Kennedys) called 'Biotech is Godzilla'.[47]

King Ghedorah (aka MF DOOM) released Take Me To Your Leader a Hip-Hop album featuring guests from the group Monster Island Czar another Godzilla themed rap group. These albums include multiple Godzilla samples throughout the series.

Television[edit]

In Japan, Godzilla appeared in several episodes of Toho's live-action Zone Fighter television program in 1973. Also in Japan, Godzilla (along with a plethora of other kaiju) appeared in an animated toy show called Godzilla Island that ran from 1997-1998.

The success of the Godzilla franchise has spawned two American Saturday morning cartoons: the first one produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions, Godzilla, and the second one produced by Sony Pictures Television, Godzilla: The Series, a cartoon sequel to the 1998 film. Both series feature an investigative scientific team who call upon Godzilla as an ally, as making several homages to the Shōwa films and several antagonist monsters have been inspired by extant Toho creations.

In 1991, two Godzilla films, Godzilla vs. Megalon and Godzilla vs. the Sea Monster, were shown on the movie-mocking TV show, Mystery Science Theater 3000.

A creature resembling Godzilla in parody, alongside another parody character resembling what appears to be a a cross between Ultraman and Kamen Rider, appears in the television special Olive, The Other Reindeer during the song Merry Christmas After All, during part of which Olive, Santa, and the other reindeer are shown passing through Tokyo delivering gifts. The two characters are shown to be friendly and taking part in the song and dance routine shown to include numerous figures, both real and fictional, in the show in various locations visited by the team as they make Santa's annual trip around the world.

#TitleYearMonster Co-star(s)Licences/Media
1Zone Fighter1973Red Spark, Jikiro, Destro-King, Dorora, Wargilgar, Spyler, King Ghidorah, Dragon King, Gilmaras, Gelderah, Spideros, Garoga Gorilla, Shadorah, Shipdoror, Gigan, Barakidon, Garaborg, Detragon, Zandora, Mogranda, Balgaras, Gundarguirus, Goram, Jellar, Kastom Jellar, Super Jikiro, Bakugon, Needlar, Kabutogirah, GrotogaurosUnknown
2Godzilla1978Godzooky, Fire Bird, Earth Eater, Stone Creatures, Megavolt Monsters, Seaweed Monster, Energy Beast, Colossus, Horror, Chimera, Minotaur, Magnetic Monster, Breeder Beast, Great Watchuka, Diplodocus, Time Dragon, Giant Squid, Giant Fly, Axor, Power Dragon, Giant Octopus, Cyborg Whale, Giant Bee, Giant Dragonfly, Giant Ant, Giant Beetle, Giant Black Widow, Moon Lode, Magma Lizard, Macro-Crab, Macro-Electric Eel, Macro-Manta, Macro-Sea Horse, Golden GuardiansClassic Media - DVD
3Godzilla Island1997Godzilla Junior, Mothra, Battra, Rodan, King Ghidorah, Mecha-King Ghidorah, Mechagodzilla, Anguirus, Gigan, Hedorah, SpaceGodzilla, Destoroyah, Baragon, King Caesar, Moguera, Megalon, Gorosaurus, Kamacuras, Jet Jaguar, DogoraUnknown
4Godzilla: The Series1998Crustaceous Rex, Giant Squids, Nanotech Creature, El Gusano, Cyber-Flies, Huge Rat, Cryptocleidus, Reptilians, Crackler, Queen Bee, Quetzalcoatl, Ice Borers, Loch Ness Monster, Giant Albino Yeti/Robo-Yeti, King Cobra, Termite Queen, Giant Bat, Cyber-Godzilla, Chameleon, Bacillus, Giant Mutant Widow Spider, Techno-Sentient, Silver Hydra, D.N.A. Mimic, Lizard Slayers, Swamp Beast, Fire Monster, Norzzug, Giant Mutant Hummingbirds, Medusa, Giant Gila Monster, Megapede/Giant Cicada, Giant Centipede, Ts-eh-Go, Armillaria, Shrewster, Skeetera, D.R.A.G.M.A.s, Mutant Jellyfish, Komodithrax, Giant Turtle,Thorny Devil, Giant Armadillo, Desert Lizard, Desert Rat, Deep-Dweller, Rhinosaurus, Giant Water BeetleSony - DVD

Video games[edit]

Main article: Godzilla video games

Cultural impact[edit]

Godzilla is one of the most recognizable symbols of Japanese popular culture worldwide and is an important facet of Japanese films, embodying the kaiju subset of the tokusatsu genre. It has been considered a filmographic metaphor for the United States (with the "-zilla" part of the name being used in vernacular language as a suffix to indicate something of exaggerate proportions), as well as an allegory of nuclear weapons in general. The earlier Godzilla films, especially the original Godzilla, portrayed Godzilla as a frightening, nuclear monster. Godzilla represented the fears that many Japanese held about the nuclear attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the possibility of recurrence.[48]

Much of Godzilla's popularity in the United States can be credited with TV broadcasts of the Toho Studios monster movies during the 1960s and 1970s.[citation needed] The American company UPA contracted with Toho to distribute its monster movies of the time, and UPA continues to hold the license today for the Godzilla films of the 1960s and 1970s. Sony currently holds some of those rights, as well as the rights to every Godzilla film produced from 1991 onward. The Blue Öyster Cult song "Godzilla" also contributed to the popularity of the movies. The creature also made an appearance in a Nike commercial, in which Godzilla (creature created at ILM) went one-on-one with NBA star Charles Barkley.

At least two prehistoric creatures from the fossil record have been named after Godzilla. Gojirasaurus quayi is a theropod dinosaur that lived in the Triassic Period; a partial skeleton was unearthed in Quay County, New Mexico. Dakosaurus andiniensis, a crocodile from the Jurassic Period, was nicknamed "Godzilla" before being scientifically classified.

In 2010 the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society named their most recently acquired scout vessel MV Gojira. Toho, the people in charge of the Godzilla franchise, served them with a notice to remove the name and in response the boat's name was changed in May 2011 to MV Brigitte Bardot.[49]

Awards[edit]

(*) In 1996 Godzilla received an award for Lifetime Achievement at the MTV Movie Awards. Creator and producer Shōgo Tomiyama accepted on his behalf via satellite and was joined by "Godzilla" himself.

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ "TRANSLATION: Guinness World Records® certification". Godzilla.jp. Retrieved December 22, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d Ragone, August (December 7, 2014). "THE "JAPANESE GODZILLA" WILL RISE AGAIN! Toho to Produce a New "Godzilla" in 2015". The Good, the Bad, & the Godzilla. 
  3. ^ a b Kit, Borys (May 22, 2014). "'Star Wars' Spinoff Hires 'Godzilla' Director Gareth Edwards (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. 
  4. ^ Takeo Murata (writer) and Ishirō Honda (writer/director) (2006). Godzilla (DVD). Classic Media. 
  5. ^ Al C. Ward (writer) and Ishirō Honda, Terry Morse (writers/directors) (2006). Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (DVD). Classic Media. 
  6. ^ "Bucket Hall of Fame: The Toho Big Pool". Retrieved February 16, 2011. 
  7. ^ Blair, Gavin (December 7, 2014). "Japan's Toho to Produce New 'Godzilla' for 2016, First in 12 Years". The Hollywood Reporter. 
  8. ^ "Classic Media Reissues the Original GODZILLA on DVD". Scifi Japan. Retrieved September 1, 2014. 
  9. ^ Hanlon, Patrick (May 14, 2014). "Godzilla: What Is It About Monsters?". Forbes. 
  10. ^ Rafferty, Terrence (May 2, 2004). "The Monster That Morphed Into a Metaphor". NY Times. 
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Further reading