Gnossiennes

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The Gnossiennes are several piano compositions written by the French composer Erik Satie in the late 19th century.

Characteristics[edit]

Satie's coining of the word "gnossienne" was one of the rare occasions when a composer used a new term to indicate a new "type" of composition. Satie used many novel names for his compositions ("vexations", "croquis et agaceries" and so on). "Ogive," for example, had been the name of an architectural element until Satie used it as the name for a composition, the Ogives. "Gnossienne," however, was a word that did not exist before Satie used it as a title for a composition. The word appears to be derived from "gnosis"; Satie was involved in gnostic sects and movements at the time that he began to compose the Gnossiennes.[1] However, some published versions claim[1] that the word derives from Cretan "knossos" or "gnossus" and link the Gnossiennes to Theseus, Ariadne and the Minotaur myth. Several archeological sites relating to that theme were famously excavated around the time that Satie composed the Gnossiennes.

The Gnossiennes were composed by Satie in the decade following the composition of the Trois Sarabandes (1887) and the Trois Gymnopédies (1888). Like these Sarabandes and Gymnopédies, the Gnossiennes are often considered dances. It is not certain that this qualification comes from Satie himself – the sarabande and the Gymnopaedia were at least historically known as dances.

The musical vocabulary of the Gnossiennes is a continuation of that of the Gymnopédies (a development that had started with the 1886 OgivesSarabandesGymnopédiesGnossiennes) later leading to more harmonic experimentation in compositions like the Danses Gothiques. These series of compositions are all at the core of Satie's characteristic 19th century style, and in this sense differ from his early salon compositions (like the 1885 "Waltz" compositions published in 1887), his turn-of-the-century cabaret compositions (like the Je te veux Waltz), and his post-Schola Cantorum piano solo compositions, starting with the Préludes flasques in 1912.

Trois Gnossiennes[edit]

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These Three Gnossiennes were composed around 1890 and first published in 1893. A revision prior to publication in 1893 is not unlikely; the 2nd Gnossienne may even have been composed in that year (it has "April 1893" as date on the manuscript). The piano solo versions of the first three Gnossiennes are without time signatures or bar lines, which is known as free time.

These Gnossiennes were first published in Le Figaro musical No. 24 of September 1893 (Gnossiennes Nos. 1 and 3, the last one of these then still "No. 2") and in Le Cœur No. 6–7 of September–October 1893 (Gnossienne No. 2 printed as facsimile, then numbered "No. 6").

The first grouped publication, numbered as known henceforth, followed in 1913. By this time Satie had indicated 1890 as composition date for all three. The first Gnossienne was dedicated to Alexis Roland-Manuel in the 1913 reprint. The 1893 facsimile print of the 2nd Gnossienne contained a dedication to Antoine de La Rochefoucauld, not repeated in the 1913 print. This de La Rochefoucauld had been a co-founder of Joséphin Péladan's Ordre de la Rose-Croix Catholique et Esthetique du Temple et du Graal in 1891. By the second publication of the first set of three Gnossiennes, Satie had broken already for a long time with all Rosicrucian type of endeavours.

Also with respect to the tempo these Gnossiennes follow the Gymnopédies line: slow tempos, respectively "Lent" (French for Lento), "avec étonnement" ("with astonishment"), and again "Lent".

A sketch containing only two incomplete bars, dated around 1890, shows Satie beginning to orchestrate the 3rd Gnossienne.

Gnossiennes Nos. 4–7[edit]

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The Gnossiennes Nos. 4–6 were only published in 1968, long after Satie's death. None of these appear to have been numbered, nor even titled as "Gnossienne" by Satie himself. The sequence of these three Gnossiennes in the 1968 publication by Robert Caby does not correspond with the chronological order of composition. It is extremely unlikely that Satie would have seen these compositions as three members of a single set.

Gnossienne No. 4[edit]

Lent. Composition date on the manuscript: 22 January 1891.

A facsimile of the four manuscript pages of this composition can be seen on this page of Niclas Fogwall's Satie website.

The fourth Gnossienne is often considered[citation needed] musically the most interesting one. Composed in A minor, it features a bass line centred around a minor chord iv (Dm), sounding D, A, D, F, A, D, F, D, A, F, D, A, D. The bass part then transposes into a C minor chord I ostinato, following the pattern C, G, C, Eb, G, C, Eb, C, G, Eb, C, G, C. Section B, usually considered a very inspired section, uses semiquavers to contrast the minor melody of Section A.

Gnossienne No. 5[edit]

Modéré (French for Moderato). Dated 8 July 1889, this was probably Satie's first composition after the 1888 Gymnopédies: in any case it predates all other known Gnossiennes (including the three published in 1893).

Gnossienne No. 6[edit]

Avec conviction et avec une tristesse rigoureuse ("with conviction and with a rigorous sadness"). Composed nearly 8 years after the first, in January 1897.

Le Fils des étoilesTrois Morceaux en forme de poire[edit]

The Le Fils des étoiles incidental music (composed 1891) contains a Gnossienne in the first act. For this one the naming as "Gnossienne" is definitely by Satie (as apparent from the correspondence with his publisher). As a result of that, this music is sometimes known as the 7th Gnossienne. That part of the Le Fils des étoiles music was re-used as Manière de commencement ("A way to begin"), the first of the seven movements of the Trois Morceaux en forme de poire.

Uses in popular culture[edit]

Gnossienne No. 1 has been used in several original soundtracks around the world including

Gnossienne No. 3 was used in Jaco Van Dormael's 2009 film Mr. Nobody, and in a Victoria's Secret commercial for their fragrance line "Dream Angels".

Gnossienne No. 4 was repeatedly played by one of the characters in Anthony Byrne's 2007 film How About You.

Pieces loosely based on Gnossienne No. 4 and No. 5 were used in Hal Ashby's 1979 film Being There, starring Peter Sellers.

Gnossienne No. 4 was used in Alexander Payne's 2002 film About Schmidt.

Several of the Gnossienne were used in Isabel Coixet's 2008 film Elegy. A pastiche of Erik Satie's Gnossiennes, composed by Vladimir Cosma, was used in Jean-Jacques Beineix's 1981 film Diva. A similar pastiche was composed by Charles Fox for the soundtrack of the 1988 film, Short Circuit 2 for the scene following the attack on the robot, Johnny 5. Gnossienne No. 1–3 is featured on The Disappearance of Haruhi Suzumiya movie soundtrack.

The first three Gnossiennes were also used in Louis Malle's Le Feu Follet (1963).

In a deleted scene from the film Girl, Interrupted (1999), a short portion of "Gnossienne No. 1" is played on the piano by the character of Susanna Kaysen's mother, Annette.

Family Fodder's 1982 single "The Big Dig" is a dub influenced rendition of "Gnossienne No. 1"

Chris Martin of Coldplay played part of "Gnossienne No. 1" after "Politik" at concerts during the Viva la Vida tour.

Gnossienne No. 1 is played at the end of the premier episode of Boss "Listen". It is also played at the beginning of the seventh episode of season 1, "Stasis".

Gnossienne No. 1 is the basis for Tori Amos' song "Battle Of Trees".

In September 2011, James Blake opened his BBC Essential Mix with Gnossienne No. 5.

Gnossienne No. 1 is used extensively throughout the 2010 Japanese drama Atami no Sousakan (熱海の捜査官), often heard from a diner jukebox.

Gnossienne No. 1 is used throughout Season 5, Episode 11 of US/Canadian procedural drama Flashpoint. As well as serving as background music, Clark Lane (a recurring character and son of main character Ed Lane) is shown practicing the piece for a piano recital that takes place outside the scope of the episode.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b satie-archives.com

External links[edit]