Gluteus maximus muscle

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Gluteus maximus
Sobo 1909 294.png
The gluteus maximus, with surrounding fascia. Skin covering area removed.
Sobo 1909 318.png
Gluteus maximus is the most superficial muscle of the buttocks, here visible at top centre with skin removed from the entire leg
LatinMusculus glutaeus maximus
Gray'ssubject #128, p.474
OriginGluteal surface of ilium, lumbar fascia, sacrum, sacrotuberous ligament
Insertion   Gluteal tuberosity of the femur and iliotibial tract
ArterySuperior and inferior gluteal arteries
NerveInferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1 and S2 nerve roots)
ActionsExternal rotation and extension of the hip joint, supports the extended knee through the iliotibial tract, chief antigravity muscle in sitting and abduction of the hip
AntagonistIliacus, psoas major and psoas minor
 
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Gluteus maximus
Sobo 1909 294.png
The gluteus maximus, with surrounding fascia. Skin covering area removed.
Sobo 1909 318.png
Gluteus maximus is the most superficial muscle of the buttocks, here visible at top centre with skin removed from the entire leg
LatinMusculus glutaeus maximus
Gray'ssubject #128, p.474
OriginGluteal surface of ilium, lumbar fascia, sacrum, sacrotuberous ligament
Insertion   Gluteal tuberosity of the femur and iliotibial tract
ArterySuperior and inferior gluteal arteries
NerveInferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1 and S2 nerve roots)
ActionsExternal rotation and extension of the hip joint, supports the extended knee through the iliotibial tract, chief antigravity muscle in sitting and abduction of the hip
AntagonistIliacus, psoas major and psoas minor

The gluteus maximus (also known as glutæus maximus or, collectively with the gluteus medius and minimus, the glutes) is the largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles. It makes up a large portion of the shape and appearance of the buttocks.

It is a narrow and thick fleshy mass of a quadrilateral shape, and forms the prominence of the nates.

Its large size is one of the most characteristic features of the muscular system in humans,[1] connected as it is with the power of maintaining the trunk in the erect posture. Other primates have much flatter buttocks.

The muscle is remarkably coarse in structure, being made up of fasciculi lying parallel with one another, and collected together into large bundles separated by fibrous septa.

Origin and insertion[edit]

Muscles of the gluteal and posterior femoral regions, showing origin and insertion of gluteus maximus muscle.

It arises from the posterior gluteal line of the inner upper ilium, and the rough portion of bone including the crest, immediately above and behind it; from the posterior surface of the lower part of the sacrum and the side of the coccyx; from the aponeurosis of the erector spinae (lumbodorsal fascia), the sacrotuberous ligament, and the fascia covering the gluteus medius (gluteal aponeurosis). The fibers are directed obliquely downward and lateralward; The gluteus maximus has two insertions:

Bursae[edit]

Three bursae are usually found in relation with the deep surface of this muscle:

It is also inserted on the lateral condyle of the femur.

Actions[edit]

When the gluteus maximus takes its fixed point from the pelvis, it extends the femur and brings the bent thigh into a line with the body.

Taking its fixed point from below, it acts upon the pelvis, supporting it and the trunk upon the head of the femur; this is especially obvious in standing on one leg.

Its most powerful action is to cause the body to regain the erect position after stopping, by drawing the pelvis backward, being assisted in this action by the biceps femoris (long head), semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and adductor magnus.

The gluteus maximus is a tensor of the fascia lata, and by its connection with the iliotibial band steadies the femur on the articular surfaces of the tibia during standing, when the extensor muscles are relaxed.

The lower part of the muscle also acts as an adductor and external rotator of the limb. The upper fibers act as abductors of the hip joints.

Training[edit]

Additional images[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Norman Eizenberg et al., General Anatomy: Principles and Applications (2008), p 17.

This article incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy.

External links[edit]