Gluten

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Sources of gluten. Top: High-gluten wheat flour. Right: European spelt. Bottom: Barley. Left: Rolled rye flakes.

Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a protein composite found in foods processed from wheat and related grain species, including barley and rye. It gives elasticity to dough, helping it to rise and to keep its shape, and often gives the final product a chewy texture. Gluten may also be found in some cosmetics or dermatological preparations.

Gluten is the composite of a gliadin and a glutelin, which is conjoined with starch in the endosperm of various grass-related grains. The prolamin and glutelin from wheat (gliadin, which is alcohol-soluble, and glutenin, which is only soluble in dilute acids or alkalis) constitute about 80% of the protein contained in wheat seed. Being insoluble in water, they can be purified by washing away the associated starch. Worldwide, gluten is a source of protein, both in foods prepared directly from sources containing it, and as an additive to foods otherwise low in protein.

The seeds of most flowering plants have endosperms with stored protein to nourish embryonic plants during germination. True gluten, with gliadin and glutenin, is limited to certain members of the grass family. The stored proteins of maize and rice are sometimes called glutens, but their proteins differ from gluten.

Contents

Extraction

Gluten is extracted from flour by kneading the flour, agglomerating the gluten into an elastic network, a dough, and then washing out the starch. Starch granules disperse in cold water, and the dispersed starch will be sedimented and dried. If a saline solution is used instead of water, a purer protein is obtained, with certain harmless impurities going into solution with the starch. Where starch is the prime product, cold water is the favored solvent because the impurities stay with the gluten.

In home or restaurant cooking, a ball of wheat flour dough is kneaded under water until the starch disperses out. In industrial production, a slurry of wheat flour is kneaded vigorously by machinery until the gluten agglomerates into a mass. This mass is collected by centrifugation, then transported through several stages integrated in a continuous process.[1] Approximately 65% of the water in the wet gluten is removed by means of a screw press; the remainder is sprayed through an atomizer nozzle into a drying chamber, where it remains at an elevated temperature a short time to evaporate the water without denaturing the gluten. The process yields a flour-like powder with a 7% moisture content, which is air cooled and pneumatically transported to a receiving vessel. In the final step, the collected gluten is sifted and milled to produce a uniform product.[2]

Uses

Wheat, a prime source of gluten
Fried gluten balls

Bread products

Gluten forms when glutenin molecules cross-link to form a sub-microscopic network attached to gliadin, which contributes viscosity (thickness) and extensibility to the mix.[3] If this dough is leavened with yeast, fermentation produces carbon dioxide bubbles, which, trapped by the gluten network, cause the dough to rise. Baking coagulates the gluten, which, along with starch, stabilizes the shape of the final product. Gluten content has been implicated as a factor in the staling of bread, possibly because it binds water through hydration.[4]

The development of gluten (i.e., enhancing its elasticity) affects the texture of the baked goods. Gluten's attainable elasticity is proportional to its content of glutenins with low molecular weights as this portion contains the preponderance of the sulfur atoms responsible for the cross-linking in the network.[5][6] More refining (of the gluten) leads to chewier products such as pizza and bagels, while less refining yields tender baked goods such as pastry products.[7]

Generally, bread flours are high in gluten (hard wheat); pastry flours have a lower gluten content. Kneading promotes the formation of gluten strands and cross-links, creating baked product that is chewier in proportion to the length of kneading. An increased moisture content in the dough enhances gluten development,[8] and very wet doughs left to rise for a long time require no kneading (see no-knead bread). Shortening inhibits formation of cross-links and is used, along with diminished water and less kneading, when a tender and flaky product, such as a pie crust, is desired.

The strength and elasticity of gluten in flour is measured in the baking industry using a farinograph. This gives the baker a measurement of quality for different varieties of flours in developing recipes for various baked goods.

Added gluten

Gluten, when dried and milled to a powder and added to ordinary flour dough, improves a dough's ability to rise and increases the bread's structural stability and chewiness.[9] Gluten-added dough must be worked vigorously to induce it to rise to its full capacity; an automatic bread machine or food processor may be required for kneading.[10] The added gluten provides supplemental protein to products with low or nonexistent protein levels.

Imitation meats

Gluten, especially wheat gluten, is often the basis for imitation meats resembling chicken, duck (mock duck), fish, pork and beef. When cooked in broth, gluten absorbs some of the surrounding liquid (including the taste) and becomes firm to the bite.

Added to other foods

The "Codex Alimentarius" international standards for food labeling has a standard relating to the labeling of products as "gluten-free", but this standard does not apply to foods that "...in their normal form do not contain gluten."[11] Gluten is used as a stabilizing agent in products like ice cream and ketchup, where it might be unexpected.[12][13]

Gluten may be present in beer and soy-sauce as well.

Foods of this kind present a problem because the hidden gluten constitutes a hazard for people with celiac disease: In the United States, at least, gluten might not be listed on the labels of such foods because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has classified gluten as GRAS (generally recognized as safe).[14] Requirements for proper labeling are being formulated by the USDA. In the United Kingdom, only cereals currently must be labeled, while labeling of other products is voluntary.[15]

Animal feed

The protein content of some pet foods may also be enhanced by adding gluten.[16]

Adverse reactions

Between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of people in the United States are sensitive to gluten due to celiac disease.[17][18] Celiac disease constitutes an abnormal immune reaction to partially digested gliadin. It probably occurs with comparable frequencies among all wheat-eating populations in the world.[19] Certain allergies and neuropathies are also caused by gluten consumption and inhalation.[citation needed] In some instances what is known as cross contamination can occur without the person even being aware that they are ingesting gluten. Reported examples occur when people share silverware or other eating instruments. [20][dead link] Wheat allergy and coeliac disease are different disorders.[21]

References

  1. ^ "Wheat Starch and Wheat Gluten". GEA Westfalia Separator Group. http://www.westfalia-separator.com/applications/renewable-resources/wheat-starch-wheat-gluten.html. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  2. ^ "Wheat". GEA Barr-Rosin. http://www.barr-rosin.com/applications/wheat.asp. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  3. ^ Woychick, JH; et al.. "The Gluten Proteins and Deamidated Soluble Wheat Protein". http://www.friedli.com/research/PhD/gluten/chap2.html. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  4. ^ Sahlstrom, S. & Brathen, E. (1997). "Effects of enzyme preparations for baking, mixing time and resting time on bread quality and bread staling". Food Chemistry, 58, 1, 75-80. Effects of wheat variety and processing conditions in experimental bread-baking studied by univariate and multivariate analysis.
  5. ^ Edwards, N. M.; Mulvaney, S. J.; Scanlon, M. G.; Dexter, J. E. (2003). "Role of gluten and its components in determining durum semolina dough viscoelastic properties". Cereal chemistry 80 (6): 755–763. doi:10.1094/CCHEM.2003.80.6.755. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15273405. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  6. ^ Tosi, Paola; Masci, Stefania; Giovangrossi, Angela2; D'Ovidio, Renato; Bekes, Frank; Larroque, Oscar; Napier, Johnathan; Shewry, Peter (September 2005). "Modification of the Low Molecular Weight (LMW) Glutenin Composition of Transgenic Durum Wheat: Effects on Glutenin Polymer Size and Gluten Functionality". Molecular Breeding 16 (2): 113–126. doi:10.1007/s11032-005-5912-1. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/molb/2005/00000016/00000002/00005912. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  7. ^ "Baking Technology, Bread". Bakersassist. http://www.bakersassist.nl/processing5-2.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  8. ^ "Baking Technology, Bread". Bakersassist. http://www.bakersassist.nl/processing5-2.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  9. ^ Amendola, J., Rees, N., & Lundberg, D. E. (2002). Understanding Baking.
  10. ^ Echkardt, LW & Butts, DC. (1997). Rustic European Breads from your Bread Machine
  11. ^ "Codex Standard For "Gluten-Free Foods" CODEX STAN 118-1981" (PDF). Codex Alimentarius. February 22, 2006. http://www.codexalimentarius.net/download/standards/291/CXS_118e.pdf. 
  12. ^ Pat Kendall, Ph.D., R.D. (March 31, 2003). "Gluten sensitivity more widespread than previously thought". Colorado State University Extension. http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/columnnn/nn030331.html. [dead link]
  13. ^ A Harvard teaching hospital. "Following a Gluten-free Diet". Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. http://bidmc.harvard.edu/default.asp?leaf_id=12799. [dead link]
  14. ^ "Sec. 184.1322 Wheat gluten". Code of Federal Regulations Center. April 1, 2007. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=184.1322. 
  15. ^ "Guidance Notes on the Food Labelling (Amendment) (No. 2) Regulations 2004" (PDF). Food Standards Agency. November 2005. http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/labelamendguid21nov05.pdf. 
  16. ^ "Pet Foods". International Wheat Gluten Association. Archived from the original on 2007-10-07. http://web.archive.org/web/20071007175039/http://www.iwga.net/04_pet.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  17. ^ "Celiac Disease". National Digestive Diseases Information Clearing House. National Institutes of Health (NIH). 2004. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/celiac/index.htm. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  18. ^ "Celiac disease". Consensus Development Panel on Celiac Disease. National Institutes of Health (NIH). 2005. http://www.guideline.gov/summary/summary.aspx?doc_id=5692&nbr=0. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  19. ^ van Heel D, West J (2006). "Recent advances in coeliac disease". Gut 55 (7): 1037–46. doi:10.1136/gut.2005.075119. PMC 1856316. PMID 16766754. http://gut.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/55/7/1037. 
  20. ^ David A. Nelsen. "Gluten Sensitive Enteropathy". http://www.uams.edu/celiac/review/GSE1.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-14. [dead link][dead link]
  21. ^ "Food intolerance and coeliac disease" (PDF). Food Standards Agency. September 2006. http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/allergyfactsheettwo.pdf. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 

Further reading