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The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. In English, the feature is represented, for example, by the hyphen in uh-oh! and by the apostrophe or ʻokina in Hawaiʻi among those using a preservative pronunciation[dubious ] of that name.
The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʔ⟩. It is called the glottal stop because the technical term for the gap between the vocal folds, which is closed up in the production of this sound, is the glottis.
Features of the glottal stop:
While this segment is not a written phoneme in English, it is present phonetically in nearly all dialects of English as an allophone of /t/ in the syllable coda. Speakers of Cockney, Scottish English and several other British dialects also pronounce an intervocalic /t/ between vowels as in city. Standard English inserts a glottal stop before a tautosyllabic voiceless stop, e.g. sto’p, tha’t, kno’ck, wa’tch, also lea’p, soa’k, hel’p, pin’ch.
In many languages that don't allow a sequence of vowels, such as Persian, the glottal stop may be used to break up such a hiatus. There are intricate interactions between falling tone and the glottal stop in the histories of such languages as Danish (cf. stød), Chinese and Thai.
In the traditional Romanization of many languages, such as Arabic, the glottal stop is transcribed with an apostrophe, ⟨’⟩, and this is the source of the IPA character ⟨ʔ⟩. In many Polynesian languages that use the Latin alphabet, however, the glottal stop is written with a reversed apostrophe, ⟨‘⟩ (called ‘okina in Hawaiian and Samoan), which, confusingly, is also used to transcribe the Arabic ayin and is the source of the IPA character for the voiced pharyngeal fricative ⟨ʕ⟩. In Malay the glottal stop is represented by the letter ⟨k⟩, in Võro and Maltese by ⟨q⟩.
Other scripts also have letters used for representing the glottal stop, such as the Hebrew letter aleph ⟨א⟩, and the Cyrillic letter palochka ⟨Ӏ⟩ used in several Caucasian languages. In Tundra Nenets it is represented by the letters apostrophe ⟨ʼ⟩ and double apostrophe ⟨ˮ⟩. In Japanese, glottal stops occur at the end of interjections of surprise or anger, and are represented by the character っ.
In the graphic representation of most Philippine languages, the glottal stop has no consistent symbolization. In most cases, however, a word that begins with a vowel-letter (e.g. Tagalog aso 'dog') is always pronounced with an unrepresented glottal stop before that vowel (as also in Modern German and Hausa). Some orthographies employ a hyphen, instead of the reverse apostrophe, if the glottal stop occurs in the middle of the word (e.g. Tagalog pag-ibig 'love'). When it occurs in the end of a Tagalog word, the last vowel is written with a circumflex accent (known as the pakupyâ), if both a stress and a glottal stop occurs at the final vowel (e.g. basâ, 'wet'); or a grave accent (known as the paiwà), if the glottal stop occurs at the final vowel, but the stress occurs at the penultimate syllable (e.g. batà, 'child').
Use of the glottal stop is a distinct characteristic of the Southern Mainland Argyll dialects of Scottish Gaelic. In a such a dialect, the standard Gaelic phrase Tha Gàidhlig agam (I have Gaelic), would be rendered Tha Gàidhlig a'am.
|Abkhaz||аи||[ʔaj]||'no'||See Abkhaz phonology|
|Arabic||Standard||أغاني||[ʔaˈɣaːniː]||'songs'||See Arabic phonology, Hamza|
|Metropolitan||شقة||[ˈʃæʔʔæ]||'apartment'||Metropolitan dialects including Egyptian Arabic. Corresponds to /q/ in Literary Arabic|
|Chechen||кхоъ / qo'||[qoʔ]||'three'|
|Czech||používat||[poʔuʒiːvat]||'to use'||See Czech phonology|
|Danish||hånd||[hɞnʔ]||'hand'||See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||beamen||[bəʔˈaːmə(n)]||'to confirm'||See Dutch phonology|
|English||Australian||cat||[kʰæʔ(t)]||'cat'||Allophone of /t/. See glottalization and English phonology|
|Esperanto||scii||[ˈst͡si.ʔi]||'to know'||See Esperanto phonology|
|Finnish||linja-auto||[ˈlinjɑʔˌɑuto]||'bus'||See Finnish phonology|
|German||Northern||Beamter||[bəˈʔamtɐ]||'civil servant'||See German phonology|
|Guaraní||avañe’ẽ||[ãʋ̃ãɲẽˈʔẽ]||'Guaraní'||Occurs only between vowels|
|Hawaiian||ʻeleʻele||[ˈʔɛlɛˈʔɛlɛ]||'black'||See Hawaiian phonology|
|Hebrew||מאמר||[maʔămaʁ]||'article'||See Modern Hebrew phonology|
|Javanese||anak||[änäʔ]||'child'||Allophone of /k/ in morpheme-final position|
|Indonesian||bakso||[ˌbäʔˈso]||'meatball'||Allophone of /k/ or /ɡ/ in the syllable coda|
|Korean||일||[ʔil]||'one'||In free variation with no glottal stop. Occurs only in initial position of word.|
|Malay||tidak||[ˈtidäʔ]||'no'||Allophone of final /k/ in the syllable coda, pronounced before consonants or at end of word|
|Nahuatl||tahtli||[taʔtɬi]||'father'||Often left unwritten|
|Nez Perce||yáakaʔ||[ˈjaːkaʔ]||'black bear'|
|Persian||معنی||[maʔni]||'meaning'||See Persian phonology|
|Portuguese||Vernacular Brazilian||ê-ê||[ˌʔe̞ˈʔeː]||ironic 'yeah, right!'||Marginal sound. Does not occur after or before a consonant. See Portuguese phonology|
|Tagalog||iihi||[ˌʔiːˈʔiːhɛʔ]||'will urinate'||See Tagalog phonology|
|Vietnamese||oi||[ʔɔj]||'sultry'||In free variation with no glottal stop. See Vietnamese phonology|
|Võro||piniq||[ˈpinʲiʔ]||'dogs'||q is Võro plural marker (maa, kala 'land, fish'; maaq, kalaq 'lands, fishes')|