Ginseng

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Ginseng
Panax quinquefolius foliage and fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Asterids
Order:Apiales
Family:Araliaceae
Subfamily:Aralioideae
Genus:Panax
L.
Species

Subgenus Panax

Section Panax
Series Notoginseng
Panax notoginseng
Series Panax
Panax bipinnatifidus
Panax ginseng
Panax japonicus
Panax quinquefolius
Panax vietnamensis
Panax wangianus
Panax zingiberensis
Section Pseudoginseng
Panax pseudoginseng
Panax stipuleanatus

Subgenus Trifolius

Panax trifolius
 
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Ginseng
Panax quinquefolius foliage and fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Asterids
Order:Apiales
Family:Araliaceae
Subfamily:Aralioideae
Genus:Panax
L.
Species

Subgenus Panax

Section Panax
Series Notoginseng
Panax notoginseng
Series Panax
Panax bipinnatifidus
Panax ginseng
Panax japonicus
Panax quinquefolius
Panax vietnamensis
Panax wangianus
Panax zingiberensis
Section Pseudoginseng
Panax pseudoginseng
Panax stipuleanatus

Subgenus Trifolius

Panax trifolius

Ginseng (pronounced /ˈɪnsɛŋ/[1]) is any one of 11 species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae.

Ginseng is found only in the Northern Hemisphere, in North America and in eastern Asia (mostly Korea, northeast China, Bhutan, and eastern Siberia), typically in cooler climates. Panax vietnamensis, discovered in Vietnam, is the southernmost ginseng known. This article focuses on the series Panax ginsengs, which are the adaptogenic herbs, principally Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolius. Ginseng is characterized by the presence of ginsenosides.

Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) is in the same family, but not genus, as true ginseng. Like ginseng, it is considered to be an adaptogenic herb. The active compounds in Siberian ginseng are eleutherosides, not ginsenosides. Instead of a fleshy root, Siberian ginseng has a woody root.

Etymology[edit]

The English word ginseng derives from the Chinese term rénshēn (simplified: 人参; traditional: 人蔘). Rén means "person" and shēn means "plant root"; this refers to the root's characteristic forked shape, which resembles the legs of a person.[2] The English pronunciation derives from a southern Chinese reading, similar to Cantonese yun sum (Jyutping: jan4sam1) and the Hokkien pronunciation "jîn-sim".

The botanical/genus name Panax means "all-heal" in Greek, sharing the same origin as "panacea", and was applied to this genus because Linnaeus was aware of its wide use in Chinese medicine as a muscle relaxant.

Besides P. ginseng, many other plants are also known as or mistaken for the ginseng root. The most commonly known examples are xiyangshen, also known as American ginseng 西洋参 (P. quinquefolius), Japanese ginseng 东洋参 (P. japonicus), crown prince ginseng 太子參 (Pseudostellaria heterophylla), and Siberian ginseng[3] 刺五加 (Eleutherococcus senticosus). Although all have the name ginseng, each plant has distinctively different functions. However, true ginseng plants belong only to the Panax genus.[4]

Ginseng (generic term)
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese人参
Traditional Chinese人蔘 or 人參
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetNhân Sâm
Korean name
Hangul인삼
Hanja人蔘
Japanese name
Kanji朝鮮人参
Kanaちょうせんにんじん
Ginseng species
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese人参属
Traditional Chinese人蔘屬
Korean name
Hangul인삼
Hanja人蔘
Japanese name
Kanjiトチバニンジン属
Ginseng field in Wisconsin

Ginseng is called Gunasingi (குணசிங்கி) in Tamil

Traditional uses[edit]

The root is most often available in dried form, either whole or sliced. Ginseng leaf, although not as highly prized, is sometimes also used; as with the root, it is most often available in dried form. Folk medicine attributes various benefits to oral use of American ginseng and Asian ginseng (P. ginseng) roots, including roles as an aphrodisiac, stimulant, type II diabetes treatment, or cure for sexual dysfunction in men.[5]

Ginseng may be included in small doses in energy drinks[6] or tisanes, such as ginseng coffee.[7] It may be found in hair tonics and cosmetic preparations, as well, but those uses have not been shown to be clinically effective.

Research[edit]

Ginsenosides, unique compounds of the Panax species, are under basic and clinical research to investigate their potential for use in medicine.[8]

Much research has been done on Ginseng with varying results. A study showed taking Siberian Ginseng daily can increase the number of white blood cells including activity of the T cells as well as the cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells that eliminate invading cells and those that have been virally infected.[9][10][11] A double blind-study with 93 volunteers with herpes simplex virus 2 (which can lead to genital herpes) found that there was a reduction (of 50%) in the number of outbreaks. Those that did occur were less severe and did not last as long.[9][10][11]

Ginseng is known to contain phytoestrogens.[12][13][14]

Side effects[edit]

A common side effect of P. ginseng may be insomnia,[15] but this effect is disputed.[16] Other side effects can include nausea, diarrhea, headaches, nose bleeds,[17] high blood pressure, low blood pressure, and breast pain.[18] Ginseng may also lead to induction of mania in depressed patients who mix it with antidepressants.[19]

Ginseng has been shown to have adverse drug reactions with phenelzine and warfarin; it has been shown to decrease blood alcohol levels.[20]

Overdose[edit]

The common adaptogen ginsengs (P. ginseng and P. quinquefolia) are generally considered to be relatively safe even in large amounts. One of the most common and characteristic symptoms of acute overdose of Panax ginseng is bleeding. Symptoms of mild overdose may include dry mouth and lips, excitation, fidgeting, irritability, tremor, palpitations, blurred vision, headache, insomnia, increased body temperature, increased blood pressure, edema, decreased appetite, dizziness, itching, eczema, early morning diarrhea, bleeding, and fatigue.[4]

Symptoms of gross overdose with Panax ginseng may include nausea, vomiting, irritability, restlessness, urinary and bowel incontinence, fever, increased blood pressure, increased respiration, decreased sensitivity and reaction to light, decreased heart rate, cyanotic (blue) facial complexion, red facial complexion, seizures, convulsions, and delirium.[4]

Patients experiencing any of the above symptoms are advised to discontinue the herbs and seek any necessary symptomatic treatment.[4]

Common classification[edit]

Ginseng roots in a market in Seoul, 2003

Asian ginseng (root)[edit]

Ginseng and reishi mushrooms in bottles being sold in Seoul, Korea

Panax ginseng is available commercially in four forms: fresh, red, white and sun ginsengs. Wild ginseng is used where available.

Red ginseng[edit]

Red ginseng

Red ginseng (Hangul: ; hanja: ; RR: hong-sam; traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: hóng shēn), P. ginseng, has been peeled, heated either through steaming at standard boiling temperatures of 100 °C (212 °F), and then dried or sun-dried. It is frequently marinated in an herbal brew which results in the root becoming extremely brittle. It is more common as herbal medicine than white ginseng. This version of ginseng is traditionally associated with stimulating sexual function and increasing energy. Red ginseng is always produced from cultivated roots, generally from Korea.

A study of ginseng's effects on rats found, while both white ginseng and red ginseng appear to reduce the incidence of cancer, the effects appear to be greater with red ginseng.[21]

Another study showed potentially beneficial effects of a combination of Korean red ginseng and highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients.[22]

Falcarinol, a 17-carbon diyne fatty alcohol isolated from carrot and red ginseng, was thought to have potent anticancer properties on primary mammary epithelial (breast cancer) cells.[23] Other acetylenic fatty alcohols in ginseng (panaxacol, panaxydol and panaxytriol) have antibiotic properties.[24]

Fresh ginseng[edit]

Fresh ginseng is the raw product. Its use is limited by availability.

White ginseng[edit]

White ginseng, native to America, is fresh ginseng which has been dried without being heated. It is peeled and dried to reduce the water content to 12% or less. White ginseng air-dried in the sun may contain less of the therapeutic constituents. It is thought by some that enzymes contained in the root break down these constituents in the process of drying. Drying in the sun bleaches the root to a yellowish-white color.

Sun ginseng[edit]

Sun ginseng is created from a heat processing method which increases ginsenoside components such as ginsenoside-[Rg.sub.3], -[Rk.sub.1] and -[Rg.sub.5] by steaming white ginseng at a higher temperature than red ginseng. The herb is steamed for three hours at 120 °C (248 °F). Sun ginseng has increased nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite scavenging activities compared with conventionally processed red or white versions. The increased steaming temperature produces an optimal amount of biological activity due to its ability to amplify specific ginsenosides.[citation needed]

Wild ginseng[edit]

Harvested ginseng in Germany

Wild ginseng grows naturally and is harvested from wherever it is found. It is relatively rare, and even increasingly endangered, due in large part to high demand for the product in recent years, which has led to the wild plants being sought out and harvested faster than new ones can grow (it requires years for a root to reach maturity). Wild ginseng can be either Asian or American, and can be processed to be red ginseng.

Woods-grown American ginseng programs in Vermont, Maine, Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina, West Virginia and Kentucky,[25][26] and United Plant Savers have been encouraging the planting of ginseng both to restore natural habitats and to remove pressure from any remaining wild ginseng, and they offer both advice and sources of rootlets. Woods-grown plants have a value comparable to wild-grown ginseng of similar age.

Partially germinated ginseng seeds harvested the previous Fall can be planted from early Spring until late Fall, and will sprout the following Spring. If planted in a wild setting and left to their own devices, they will develop into mature plants which cannot be distinguished from native wild plants. Both Asian and American partially germinated ginseng seeds can be bought from May through December on various eBay sales. Some seed sales come with planting and growing instructions.

P. quinquefolius American ginseng (root)[edit]

According to traditional Chinese medicine, American ginseng promotes yin energy, cleans excess yang and calms the body. The reason it has been claimed that American ginseng promotes yin (shadow, cold, negative, female) while Asian ginseng promotes yang (sunshine, hot, positive, male) is that, according to traditional Chinese medicine, things living in cold places or northern side of mountains or southern side of rivers are strong in yang and vice versa, so the two are balanced.[citation needed] Chinese/Korean ginseng grows in Manchuria and Korea, the coldest area known to many Koreans in ancient times. Thus, ginseng from there is supposed to be very yang.

Originally, American ginseng was imported into China via subtropical Guangzhou, the seaport next to Hong Kong, so Chinese doctors believed American ginseng must be good for yang, because it came from a hot area. They did not know, however, that American ginseng can only grow in temperate regions. Nonetheless, the root is legitimately classified as more yin because it generates fluids.[27]


Most North American ginseng is produced in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and British Columbia and the American state of Wisconsin, according to Agri-food Canada. P. quinquefolius is now also grown in northern China.

The aromatic root resembles a small parsnip that forks as it matures. The plant grows 6 to 18 in tall, usually bearing three leaves, each with three to five leaflets two to five inches long.

Other plants sometimes called ginseng[edit]

These mostly "adaptogenic" plants are sometimes referred to as ginsengs, but they are either from a different family or genus. Only jiaogulan actually contains compounds closely related to ginsenosides, although ginsenosides alone do not determine the effectiveness of ginseng. Since each of these plants has different uses, one should research their properties before using.[28]

Other plants which are referred to as ginsengs may not be adaptogens (although notoginseng is in the genus Panax):

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ginseng". Cambridge Dictionaries Online. Retrieved 2011-06-04. 
  2. ^ Oxford Dictionaries Online, s.v. "ginseng".
  3. ^ "The Sexy Health Benefits of Korean Panax Ginseng". Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d Chinese Medical Herbology and Pharmacology, by John K. Chen, Tina T. Chen
  5. ^ "As ginseng prices soar, diggers take to the backcountry". Retrieved 28 September 2012. 
  6. ^ "Do You Know What’s in Your Favorite Energy Drink?". Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  7. ^ Clauson KA, Shields KM, McQueen CE, Persad N (2008). "Safety issues associated with commercially available energy drinks". J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 48 (3): e55–63; quiz e64–7. doi:10.1331/JAPhA.2008.07055. PMID 18595815. 
  8. ^ Qi LW, Wang CZ, Yuan CS (June 2011). "Ginsenosides from American ginseng: chemical and pharmacological diversity". Phytochemistry 72 (8): 689–99. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2011.02.012. PMC 3103855. PMID 21396670. 
  9. ^ a b Heungsup, Sung. "Korean Red Ginseng Slows Depletion of CD4 T Cells in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients". NCBI. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  10. ^ a b Khan, Ayesha. "Siberian Ginseng and its infection fighting capabilities". Health Beacon. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  11. ^ a b Steven D, D. Ehrlich. "Asian ginseng". University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  12. ^ Lee YJ, Jin YR, Lim WC, et al. (January 2003). "Ginsenoside-Rb1 acts as a weak phytoestrogen in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells". Arch. Pharm. Res. 26 (1): 58–63. doi:10.1007/BF03179933. PMID 12568360. 
  13. ^ Chan RY, Chen WF, Dong A, Guo D, Wong MS (August 2002). "Estrogen-like activity of ginsenoside Rg1 derived from Panax notoginseng". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87 (8): 3691–5. doi:10.1210/jc.87.8.3691. PMID 12161497. 
  14. ^ Lee Y, Jin Y, Lim W, et al. (March 2003). "A ginsenoside-Rh1, a component of ginseng saponin, activates estrogen receptor in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 84 (4): 463–8. doi:10.1016/S0960-0760(03)00067-0. PMID 12732291. 
  15. ^ http://www.umass.edu/cnshp/faq.html
  16. ^ "The Ginseng Book." Stephen Fulder, PhD
  17. ^ "Ginseng definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of some medical terms defined on MedTerms". Medterms.com. 2012-09-20. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  18. ^ Kiefer D, Pantuso T (October 2003). "Panax ginseng". Am Fam Physician 68 (8): 1539–42. PMID 14596440. 
  19. ^ Fugh-Berman A (January 2000). "Herb-drug interactions". Lancet 355 (9198): 134–8. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)06457-0. PMID 10675182. 
  20. ^ Izzo AA, Ernst E (2001). "Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: a systematic review". Drugs 61 (15): 2163–75. doi:10.2165/00003495-200161150-00002. PMID 11772128. 
  21. ^ Yun TK, Lee YS, Lee YH, Kim SI, Yun HY (December 2001). "Anticarcinogenic effect of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and identification of active compounds". J. Korean Med. Sci. 16 (Suppl): S6–18. doi:10.3346/jkms.2001.16.S.S6 (inactive August 23, 2013). PMC 3202204. PMID 11748383. 
  22. ^ Sung H, Jung YS, Cho YK (August 2009). "Beneficial effects of a combination of Korean red ginseng and highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients". Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 16 (8): 1127–31. doi:10.1128/CVI.00013-09. PMC 2725544. PMID 19535541. 
  23. ^ "fatty alcohols and aldehydes". Cyberlipid.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  24. ^ "fatty alcohols and aldehydes". Cyberlipid.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  25. ^ state.tn.us TDEC: DNH: Ginseng Program
  26. ^ "Care and Planting of Ginseng Seed and Roots". Ces.ncsu.edu. 1914-06-30. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  27. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, Third Edition by Dan Bensky, Steven Clavey, Erich Stonger, and Andrew Gamble 2004
  28. ^ Winston, David; Maimes, Steven (2007). Adaptogens: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief. Healing Arts Press. 

External links[edit]