Gilead Sciences

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Gilead Sciences
TypePublic
Traded asNASDAQGILD
S&P 500 Component
NASDAQ Biotechnology Component
IndustryBiotechnology
Founded1987
HeadquartersFoster City, California, U.S.
Key peopleJohn C. Martin, President and Chief Executive Officer
ProductsAmBisome, Atripla, Cayston, Emtriva, Flolan, Hepsera, Letairis, Lexiscan, Macugen, Ranexa, Tamiflu, Truvada, Viread, Vistide
Revenue
  • Increase US$ 11.201688 billion (2013) [1]
  • Increase US$ 9.702517 billion (2012) [1]
Operating income
  • Increase US$ 4.523999 billion (2013) [1]
  • Increase US$ 4.010175 billion (2012) [1]
Net income
  • Increase US$ 3.074808 billion (2013) [1]
  • Decrease US$ 2.591566 billion (2012) [1]
Total assets
  • Increase US$ 22.496785 billion (2013) [2]
  • Increase US$ 21.239838 billion (2012) [1]
Total equity
  • Increase US$ 11.744501 billion (2013) [2]
  • Increase US$ 9.543722 billion (2012) [1]
Employees4,000 (2010)[3]
Websitewww.gilead.com
 
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Gilead Sciences
TypePublic
Traded asNASDAQGILD
S&P 500 Component
NASDAQ Biotechnology Component
IndustryBiotechnology
Founded1987
HeadquartersFoster City, California, U.S.
Key peopleJohn C. Martin, President and Chief Executive Officer
ProductsAmBisome, Atripla, Cayston, Emtriva, Flolan, Hepsera, Letairis, Lexiscan, Macugen, Ranexa, Tamiflu, Truvada, Viread, Vistide
Revenue
  • Increase US$ 11.201688 billion (2013) [1]
  • Increase US$ 9.702517 billion (2012) [1]
Operating income
  • Increase US$ 4.523999 billion (2013) [1]
  • Increase US$ 4.010175 billion (2012) [1]
Net income
  • Increase US$ 3.074808 billion (2013) [1]
  • Decrease US$ 2.591566 billion (2012) [1]
Total assets
  • Increase US$ 22.496785 billion (2013) [2]
  • Increase US$ 21.239838 billion (2012) [1]
Total equity
  • Increase US$ 11.744501 billion (2013) [2]
  • Increase US$ 9.543722 billion (2012) [1]
Employees4,000 (2010)[3]
Websitewww.gilead.com

Gilead Sciences is an American biotechnology company that discovers, develops and commercializes therapeutics. For many years since the company was founded, the company concentrated primarily on antiviral drugs to treat patients infected with HIV, hepatitis B, or influenza. In 2006, Gilead acquired two companies that were developing drugs to treat patients with pulmonary diseases. The company has fourteen commercially available products. Headquartered and founded in Foster City, California, Gilead has operations in North America, Europe and Australia. As of the end of 2009, the company had approximately 4,000 full-time employees.[4] The company's name and logo refer to the Balm of Gilead.

Gilead is a member of the NASDAQ Biotechnology Index and the S&P 500.

History[edit]

External video
Gregg Alton crop 2012 CHF HIV AIDS 058.jpg
Gregg Alton of Gilead Sciences & others, "The Evolution of HIV/AIDS Therapies: A Conversation", 2012, Chemical Heritage Foundation

Gilead Sciences was founded in June 1987 by Michael L. Riordan, a medical doctor who was 29 years old at the time.[5][6][7] Riordan graduated from the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and the Harvard Business School.[8][9][10] Three core scientific advisers worked with Riordan to create the company and establish its scientific vision. These were Peter Dervan of Caltech, Doug Melton of Harvard, and Harold Weintraub of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Riordan served as CEO from inception until 1996.[11] Menlo Ventures, a venture capital firm where Riordan worked for a year, made the first investment in Gilead, of $2 million, and Menlo's partner Dubose Montgomery served as Chairman of the Board until 1993, when Riordan became Chairman.[12] Riordan also recruited as scientific advisers Harold Varmus, a Nobel laureate who later became Director of the National Institutes of Health, and Jack Szostak, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2009.[13]

The company's primary therapeutic focus was, and continues to be, in antiviral medicines, a field that interested Riordan because he contracted dengue fever, an untreatable viral disease, while working in malnutrition clinics as a Henry Luce Scholar in the Philippines.[14][15] Riordan recruited Donald Rumsfeld to join the board of directors in 1988, followed by Benno C. Schmidt, Sr., Gordon Moore, and George P. Shultz. Riordan tried to recruit Warren Buffett as an investor and board member, but was unsuccessful.[16] Under the technical leadership of scientist Dr. Mark Matteucci, the company focused its early discovery research on making small strands of DNA (oligomers) to assess the potential of genetic code blockers (gene therapy). Its development of small molecule antiviral therapeutics began in 1991 when CEO Riordan and R&D head John C. Martin in-licensed a group of nucleotide compounds discovered in two European academic labs; one of the compounds was tenofovir, a pro-drug of which, trade named Viread, became one of the mostly widely used anti-AIDS drugs.[17]

In 1990, Gilead entered into a collaborative research agreement with Glaxo for the research and development of genetic code blockers, also known as antisense. This collaboration was terminated in 1998, and Gilead's antisense intellectual property portfolio was sold to Isis Pharmaceuticals.

Gilead debuted on the NASDAQ in January 1992. Its IPO raised $86.25 million in proceeds.

In June 1996, Gilead launched Vistide (cidofovir injection) for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with AIDS. The company cooperated with Pharmacia & Upjohn to market the product outside the United States.

In January 1997, Donald Rumsfeld, a Board member since 1988, was appointed Chairman of the company.[18] He stood down from the Board in January 2001 when appointed United States Secretary of Defense at the start of George W. Bush's first term as President. Federal disclosure forms indicate that Rumsfeld owned between US$5 million and US$25 million in Gilead stock. The rise in Gilead's share prices from US$35 to US$57 per share will have added between US$2.5 million to US$15.5 million to Rumsfeld's net worth.[19]

In March 1999, Gilead acquired NeXstar Pharmaceuticals of Boulder, Colorado following two years of negotiations with the company. At the time, NeXstar's annual sales of $130 million was three times Gilead's sales. NeXstar's two revenue-generating drugs were AmBisome, an injectable fungal treatment, and DaunoXome, an oncology drug taken by HIV patients. Also in 1999, Roche announced first approval of Tamiflu (oseltamivir) for the treatment of influenza. Tamiflu was originally discovered by Gilead and licensed to Roche for late-phase development and marketing. Viread (tenofovir) achieved first approval in 2001 for the treatment of HIV.

In January 2003, Gilead completed its acquisition of Triangle Pharmaceuticals. The company also announced its first full year of profitability. Later that year Hepsera (adefovir) was approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B, and Emtriva (emtricitabine) for the treatment of HIV.

In 2004, Gilead launched Truvada, a fixed-dose combination of tenofovir and emtricitabine.

In November 2005, George W. Bush urged Congress to pass $7.1 billion in emergency funding to prepare for the possible bird flu pandemic, of which $1 billion is solely dedicated to the purchase, and distribution of Tamiflu.

In July 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Atripla, a once a day single tablet regimen for HIV, combining Sustiva (efavirenz), a Bristol-Myers Squibb product, and Truvada (emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate), a Gilead product.[20][21]

Gilead purchased Raylo Chemicals, Inc. in November 2006 for a price of $133.3 million.[22] Raylo Chemical, based in Edmonton, Alberta, was a wholly owned subsidiary of Degussa AG, a German company. Raylo Chemical was a custom manufacturer of active pharmaceutical ingredients and advanced intermediates for the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries.

In 2009 the company received the award for one of the Fastest Growing Companies by Fortune. In the same year they were also named as one America's Top Companies to work for by Forbes.

On July 16, 2012, The Food and Drug Administration approved the first drug shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection manufactured by Gilead Sciences. The pill Truvada as a preventive measure (PrEP) for people who are at high risk of getting HIV through sexual activity.[23]

Citing a market capitalization of US$113 billion and stock appreciation of 100%, and describing their 2011 purchase of Pharmasset for $11 billion as “one of the best pharma acquisitions ever”, Gilead Sciences was reported as the number 4 ranked drug company of 2013 by Forbes Magazine.[24] The strong performance of Gilead in 2013 has also been linked to the FDA approval, and strong sales performance, of their “potentially revolutionary” Hepatitis-C drug Sovaldi.[25] with US 4Q’13 sales estimated by Deutsche Bank at $53M.[26]

Entry in the cardiovascular and respiratory therapeutic areas[edit]

In 2006, Gilead completed two acquisitions that allowed the company to branch out from its historical antiviral franchise into the cardiovascular and respiratory therapeutic arenas.

Myogen,[27] based in Boulder, Colorado, was completing Phase 3 studies of ambrisentan—now marketed as "Letairis"—an orally available endothelin receptor antagonist. The U.S. FDA subsequently approved ambrisentan for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in June 2007.[28][29][30]

Under an agreement with GlaxoSmithKline, Myogen marketed Flolan (epoprostenol sodium) in the United States for the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension. Additionally, Myogen was developing (in Phase 3 studies) darusentan,[31] also an endothelin receptor antagonist, for the potential treatment of resistant hypertension.

The other acquisition was Corus Pharma. Corus's lead product candidate, aztreonam lysine for inhalation, is an antibiotic with activity against gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can cause lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. The product is in Phase 3 studies.[32] Gilead also obtained an inhalation formulation of two antibiotics for treatment of respiratory infections.[33]

Gilead expanded its move into respiratory therapeutics in 2007 by entering into a licensing agreement with Parion for an epithelial sodium channel inhibitor for the treatment of pulmonary diseases, including cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.[34]

In 2009, Gilead acquired CV Therapeutics. This acquisition brought Ranexa and Lexiscan as commercial products. Ranexa is a cardiovascular drug used to treat chronic angina (chest pain related to coronary artery disease).

Current Gilead Sciences CEO is John C. Martin. Martin's 2010 compensation was $42.72 million and his five-year total is $204.24 million or $31,912 per hour. [10]

Timetable of mergers and acquisitions[edit]

Timetable of Mergers and Acquisitions
YearCompanyPriceNotes
1999NeXstar Pharmaceuticals$550 millionNeXstar had two drugs (AmBisome and DaunoXome) of which only AmBisome is still in Gilead's portfolio, although it is not a major source of income for the company. DaunoXome was sold to Diatos in 2006.[35] As important as the products, NeXstar also provided Gilead with a much-needed sales force and commercialization team in Europe and Australia, and a manufacturing plant in San Dimas, California.[36]
2003Triangle Pharmaceuticals$464 millionTriangle owned the development and commercialization rights to emtricitabine, which although marketed as a stand-alone product (Emtriva), is also a component of the more profitable combination products Atripla and Truvada.[37]
2006Corus Pharma, Inc.$365 millionThe acquisition of Corus signaled Gilead's entry into the respiratory arena. Corus was developing aztreonam lysine for the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis who are infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa
2006Myogen, Inc.$2.5 billionWith two drugs in development (ambrisentan and darusentan), and one marketed product (Flolan) for pulmonary diseases, the acquisition of Myogen has solidified Gilead's position in this therapeutic arena.
2006Raylo Chemicals, Inc.$148 millionThis Edmonton, Alberta site will be used for process research and for manufacturing compounds for both clinical studies and commercial products.[38]
2007Nycomed fr. Altana - Cork$47 millionThis commercial manufacturing site was purchased by Gilead in place of building out the site in Dublin. This site is formerly Altana in Cork which was purchased by Nycomed.
2009CV Therapeutics, Inc.$1.4 billionThis acquisition brings Ranexa and Lexiscan as commercial products. Ranexa is a cardiovascular drug used to treat chest pain related to coronary artery disease. These products and pipeline build out Gilead's cardiovascular franchise.
2010CGI Pharmaceuticals$120 millionThis acquisition helps to broaden Gilead's research expertise into kinase biology and chemistry.
2010Arresto Biosciences, Inc.$225 millionThis acquisition brings Gilead developmental-stage research for treating fibrotic diseases and cancer.[39]
2011Calistoga Pharmaceuticals$375 million ($225 million additional w/ milestones)Acquisition of Calistoga bolsters areas of oncology and inflammation.[40]
2011Pharmasset, Inc$10.4 billionThis acquisition helps Gilead take the lead in HCV with 7977 (Sofosbuvir).
2013YM Biosciences, Inc$510 millionThis acquisition brings drug candidate, CYT387, as an orally-administered, once-daily, selective inhibitor of the Janus kinase (JAK) family, specifically JAK1 and JAK2. The JAK enzymes have been implicated in a number of disorders including myeloproliferative diseases, inflammatory disorders and certain cancers.

Board of directors[edit]

Senior management[edit]

Gilead's Executive Committee is responsible for making the critical decisions that determine the company's future. Its members include:

NameTitle
John C. Martin, PhDChief Executive Officer and Chairman
Norbert W. Bischofberger, PhDExecutive Vice President, Research and Development and Chief Scientific Officer
John F. Milligan, PhDPresident and Chief Operating Officer
Robin L. Washington, MBAExecutive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
John Mc Hutchison, MDExecutive Vice President, Clinical Research
Gregg H. Alton, JDExecutive Vice President, Corporate and Medical Affairs
Paul CarterExecutive Vice President, Commercial Operations
William A. Lee, PhDSenior Vice President, Head of Antiviral Therapeutics
James R. MeyersSenior Vice President, Commercial Operations, North America
Taiyin Yang, PhDSenior Vice President, Pharmaceutical Development and Manufacturing
Muzammil Mansuri, PhDSenior Vice President, R&D Strategy
Katie L. WatsonSenior Vice President, Human Resources

Product portfolio[edit]

Gilead has 21 products on the market.

Product Portfolio
Brand NameDrug Name(s)IndicationDate Approved (USA)[41]Marketing Partner(s)U.S. Patent Expiration[4]European Patent Expiration[4]
AmBisomeliposomal amphotericin Bfungal infection, cryptococcal meningitis, Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus infections1997-08-11Astellas Pharma(USA)Rapiscan(EU)20162008
Atriplatenofovir, emtricitabine, and efavirenzHIV, AIDS2006-07-12Bristol-Myers Squibb20212018
CaystonAztreonamCystic Fibrosis2010-02-2220212021
Complera/Evipleratenofovir, emtricitabine, and rilpivirineHIV, AIDS2011-08-10Johnson and Johnson 
EmtrivaemtricitabineHIV, AIDS2003-07-02 20212016
Flolanepoprostenol sodiumpulmonary hypertension1995-09-20GlaxoSmithKlineexpiredexpired
Harvonisofosbuvir, ledipasvirHepatitis C2014-10-10
Hepseraadefovir dipivoxilhepatitis B (HBV)2002-09-20 20142011
LetairisambrisentanPulmonary arterial hypertension2007-06-15GlaxoSmithKline20152015
Lexiscanregadenosonmyocardial perfusion imaging2008-04-10Astellas20192020
Macugenpegaptanib sodium solutionage-related macular degeneration2004-12-17OSI and Pfizer20172017
Ranexaranolazineangina2006-01-27Hoffmann–La Roche20192019
SovaldisofosbuvirHepatitis C2013-12-06
Stribildelvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, tenofovirHIV, AIDS2012-08-27
Tamifluoseltamivir phosphateinfluenza1999-10-27Hoffmann–La Roche20162016
Truvadaemtricitabine and tenofovirHIV, AIDS2004-08-02 20212018
TybostcobicistatHIV, AIDS2013-09-25 (EU), 2014-09-24 (US)
VireadtenofovirHIV, AIDS, hepatitis B2001-10-26 20172018
VistidecidofovirCMV retinitis1996-06-26Pfizerexpiredexpired
VitektaelvitegravirHIV, AIDS2013-09-25 (EU), 2014-09-24 (US)
Zydeligidelalisiboncology, lymphoma2014-07-23

Product pipeline[edit]

Gilead's pipeline[42] focuses on HCV, HIV, cardiovascular and respiratory disorders.

Drug NameDescriptionPotential IndicationTesting Phase[43]
Cobicistat/Tybost (formerly GS-9350)Pharmacokinetic enhancerHIV/AIDSsubmitted for US + EU approval
Elvitegravir (formerly GS-9137)Integrase inhibitorHIV/AIDSsubmitted for US + EU approval
Single Tablet Regimenelvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide fumarateHIV/AIDSPhase III
Single Tablet Regimendarunavir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide fumarateHIV/AIDSPhase II
Single Tablet Regimensofosbuvir and ledipasvirHepatitis CPhase III
GS-5816pan-genotypic NS5A inhibitorHepatitis CPhase II
GS-9451NS3 Protease inhibitorHepatitis CPhase II
GS-9669non-nucleoside NS5B inhibitorHepatitis CPhase II
Ledipasvir (formerly GS-5885)NS5A inhibitorHepatitis CPhase III
GS-9620TLR-7 agonistHepatitis C/Hepatitis BPhase I
Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) (formerly GS-7340)nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitorHepatitis BPhase I
GS-4774Tarmogen T cell immunity stimulatorHepatitis BPhase I
Simtuzumab (formerly GS-6624)Humanized monoclonal antibodyLiver Fibrosis/Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/Myelofibrosis/Pancreatic CancerPhase II
IdelalisibPI3K delta inhibitorChronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Indolent non-Hodgkin’s LymphomaPhase III
GS-9973Syk inhibitorB-Cell MalignanciesPhase II
GS-9820 (formerly CAL-120)PI3K delta inhibitorLymphoid MalignanciesPhase II
GS-5745MMP9 mAb inhibitorUlcerative Colitis/Solid TumorsPhase I
MomelotinibJAK inhibitorMyelofibrosisPhase II
RanolazineLate sodium current inhibitorCoronary Artery Disease/DiabetesPhase III
Single Tablet RegimenRanolazine and DronedaroneParoxysmal Atrial FibrillationPhase II
GS-6615Ischemic Heart Disease and ArrhythmiasPhase I
GS-5806Respiratory Syncytial VirusPhase II

Terminated from product pipeline[edit]

Gilead no longer develops these products[42]

Drug NameDescriptionPotential IndicationDevelopment Terminated at
Aztreonaminhalation solutionBronchiectasisPhase II
GS-9256Protease inhibitorHepatitis CPhase II
GS-9310/11inhaled fosfomycin/tobramycinCystic Fibrosis/Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseasePhase II
GS-9667 (formerly CVT-3619)Partial A1 adenosine agonistDiabetes/Dyslipidemia?
GS-6201 (formerly CVT-6883)A2B adenosine antagonistPulmonary diseasesPhase I
GS-6620Nucleotide polymerase inhibitorHepatitis CPhase I
GS-9411Epithelial sodium channel blockerPulmonary diseasesPhase I
Tegobuvir (formerly GS-9190)Non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitorHepatitis CPhase II
CicletanineAntihypertensivePulmonary arterial hypertensionPhase II
CVT-10216ALDH-2 inhibitorDrug addictionpreclinical[44]
TecadenosonSelective A1 adenosine receptorAtrial fibrillation?
PerfanEnoximoneHeart failurePhase III[45]
GS-9219Nucleotide analogueNon-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and Chronic lymphocytic leukemiaPhase I[46]
GS-8374 (formerly TMC-126)Protease inhibitorHIV/AIDSpreclinical[47]
GS-424020Prodrug of Desisobutryl-ciclesonide and salmeterolAsthma and Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseasepreclinical[48]
GS-9148Nucleotide analog, phosphonomethoxy-2'-fluoro-2', 3'-dideoxydidehydroadenosineHIV/AIDSpreclinical[49]
GS-9131Prodrug of GS-9148HIV/AIDSpreclinical[49]
GS-9224Integrase inhibitorHIV/AIDSpreclinical[50]
CAL-263PI3K Delta selective inhibitorinflammatory diseasesPhase I
GS-9820 (formerly CAL-120)PI3K Delta selective inhibitorinflammatory diseasespreclinical
CAL-129PI3K Delta selective inhibitorinflammatory diseases and oncologypreclinical
CAL-253PI3K Delta selective inhibitorinflammatory diseases and oncologypreclinical

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "GILEAD SCIENCES INC 2013 Annual Report Form (10-K)" (XBRL). United States Securities and Exchange Commission. February 25, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "GILEAD SCIENCES INC 2014 Q1 Quarterly Report Form (10-Q)" (XBRL). United States Securities and Exchange Commission. May 7, 2014. 
  3. ^ Gilead Sciences (2011-02-28). "2010 Form 10-K Annual Report". SEC. Retrieved 2011-03-05. 
  4. ^ a b c Gilead Sciences (2010-03-01). "2009 Form 10-K Annual Report". SEC. Retrieved 2011-01-15. 
  5. ^ Gilead IPO prospectus 1992 [1] page 39
  6. ^ Forbes Admin [2] Gilead Sciences Board Resolution
  7. ^ Gilead Sciences, Inc. History
  8. ^ [3] "Balms From Gilead" Washington University Magazine, Spring 1997.
  9. ^ [4] Gilead SEC IPO prospectus January 1992
  10. ^ Engineering Awards [5] 1996
  11. ^ [6] 1996 SEC offering prospectus
  12. ^ Funding Universe article on History of Gilead Sciences
  13. ^ [7] page 37
  14. ^ Washington University Magazine [8] "Balms From Gilead", Spring 1997
  15. ^ Forbes Magazine,"The Golden Age of Antivirals", October 27, 2003 http://www.forbes.com/global/2003/1027/090_print.html
  16. ^ Buffett-Riordan Correspondence [9] 1998
  17. ^ [IPO prospectushttp://www.scribd.com/doc/176254938/Gilead-Sciences-Initial-Public-Offering-Prospectus-January-1992] January, 1992, page 7
  18. ^ "Donald H. Rumsfeld Named Chairman of Gilead Sciences" (Press release). Gilead Sciences. 1997-01-03. Retrieved 2007-06-03. 
  19. ^ Schwartz, Nelson D. (2005-10-31). "Rumsfeld's growing stake in Tamiflu". CNN. Retrieved 2007-06-03. 
  20. ^ Pollack, Andrew (2006-07-13). "F.D.A. Backs AIDS Pill to Be Taken Once a Day". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-09-20. 
  21. ^ "U.S. Food And Drug Administration (FDA) Approves Atripla" (Press release). Gilead Sciences and Bristol-Myers Squibb. 2006-07-12. Retrieved 2007-12-15. 
  22. ^ "Gilead Sciences Completes Acquisition of Raylo Chemicals Inc." (Press release). Gilead Sciences. 2006-11-03. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  23. ^ Perrone, Matthew. "FDA approves first pill to help prevent HIV". Today Health. NBC News. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  24. ^ "Grading Pharma in 2013". Forbes. December 31, 2013. 
  25. ^ "Stocks to Watch". Barrons. January 2, 2014. 
  26. ^ "Q4 Sovaldi Sales Tracking at $53 Million". Street Insider. January 3, 2014. 
  27. ^ "Gilead Sciences to Acquire Myogen, Inc. for $2.5 Billion" (Press release). Gilead Sciences. 2006-10-02. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  28. ^ Pollack, Andrew (2007-06-16). "Gilead’s Drug Is Approved to Treat a Rare Disease". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-06-16. 
  29. ^ "U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approves Gilead's Letairis Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension" (Press release). Gilead Sciences. 2007-06-15. Retrieved 2007-06-16. 
  30. ^ "FDA Approves New Orphan Drug for Treatment of Pulmonary arterial hypertension" (Press release). Food and Drug Administration. 2007-06-15. Retrieved 2007-06-22. 
  31. ^ "ClinicalTrials.gov - Information on Clinical Trials and Human Research Studies: Darusentan". Retrieved 2007-08-18. 
  32. ^ "Clinical Trial: Aztreonam Lysine for Inhalation in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Airway Infection". Retrieved 2007-08-18. 
  33. ^ "Gilead Invests $25 Million in Corus Pharma; Establishes Equity Position in Company With Late-Stage Product Candidate for Cystic Fibrosis" (Press release). Gilead Sciences. 2006-04-12. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  34. ^ "Parion Sciences and Gilead Sciences Sign Agreement to Advance Drug Candidates for Pulmonary Disease" (Press release). Gilead Sciences. 2007-08-15. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  35. ^ "Diatos Announces Acquisition of Specialty Cancer Product DaunoXome from Gilead" (pdf) (Press release). Diatos SA. 2006-03-28. Retrieved 2007-08-13. 
  36. ^ "Gilead Sciences and NeXstar Pharmaceuticals to Merge" (Press release). Gilead Sciences, Inc. 1999-03-01. Retrieved 2007-08-13. 
  37. ^ "Gilead Sciences to Acquire Triangle Pharmaceuticals for $464 Million" (Press release). Gilead Sciences. 2004-12-04. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  38. ^ "Gilead Sciences to Acquire Degussa's Raylo Chemicals Inc.; Purchase to Expand Gilead's Manufacturing Scale-Up Capacity for Investigational Therapies" (Press release). Gilead Sciences. 2006-06-06. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  39. ^ "Gilead Sciences to Acquire Arresto Biosciences for $225 Million; Deal Adds Pipeline Candidates for Fibrotic Diseases" (Press release). Gilead Sciences. 2010-12-20. Retrieved 2011-01-15. 
  40. ^ "Gilead Sciences to Acquire Calistoga Pharmaceuticals for $375 Million; Deal Adds Pipeline Candidates in Oncology and Inflammation --" (Press release). Gilead Sciences. 2011-02-22. Retrieved 2011-02-22. 
  41. ^ "Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products". Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2011-01-15. 
  42. ^ a b "Gilead Product Pipeline". Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  43. ^ "2009 Gilead 10-K". United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved 2011-01-16. 
  44. ^ Fox, Maggie (2010-08-22). "Kudzu extract may treat cocaine". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-01-16. 
  45. ^ = 2011-01-28 "The Studies of Oral Enoximone Therapy in Advanced Heart Failure". Clinical Trials. 
  46. ^ "2008 Gilead 10-K". United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved 2011-01-16. 
  47. ^ "GS-8374, a novel HIV protease inhibitor, does not alter glucose homeostasis in cultured adipocytes or in a healthy rodent model system". American Society for Microbiology. Retrieved 2011-01-29. 
  48. ^ "In Vitro Metabolism Of GS-424020, A Novel Mutual Prodrug Of Salmeterol And Desisobutryl-ciclesonide, BY AIR-liquid Interface HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. Retrieved 2011-01-29. 
  49. ^ a b "Update on Gilead Sciences Anti-HIV Development Programs". Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. Retrieved 2011-01-29. 
  50. ^ "Abstract, 2011 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections". Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Retrieved 2011-02-21. 

External links[edit]