Gil Scott-Heron

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Gil Scott-Heron
Gil Scott-Heron.jpg
Scott-Heron performing at the Göta Källare nightclub in Stockholm, Sweden in 2010
Background information
Birth nameGilbert Scott-Heron
Born(1949-04-01)April 1, 1949
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
DiedMay 27, 2011(2011-05-27) (aged 62)
New York City, U.S.[1]
GenresSoul,[2] jazz poetry,[3] jazz, blues,[4] jazz-funk, proto-rap
OccupationsPoet, singer, songwriter, author
InstrumentsVocals, electric piano, guitar
Years active1969–2011
LabelsRCA, Flying Dutchman, Strata East, Arista, TVT, XL
Associated actsBrian Jackson, Ron Holloway, Jamie xx, Musicians United for Safe Energy, Black and Blues
 
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Gil Scott-Heron
Gil Scott-Heron.jpg
Scott-Heron performing at the Göta Källare nightclub in Stockholm, Sweden in 2010
Background information
Birth nameGilbert Scott-Heron
Born(1949-04-01)April 1, 1949
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
DiedMay 27, 2011(2011-05-27) (aged 62)
New York City, U.S.[1]
GenresSoul,[2] jazz poetry,[3] jazz, blues,[4] jazz-funk, proto-rap
OccupationsPoet, singer, songwriter, author
InstrumentsVocals, electric piano, guitar
Years active1969–2011
LabelsRCA, Flying Dutchman, Strata East, Arista, TVT, XL
Associated actsBrian Jackson, Ron Holloway, Jamie xx, Musicians United for Safe Energy, Black and Blues

Gilbert "Gil" Scott-Heron (April 1, 1949 – May 27, 2011)[5] was an American soul and jazz poet,[2][3] musician, and author, known primarily for his work as a spoken word performer in the 1970s and '80s. His collaborative efforts with musician Brian Jackson featured a musical fusion of jazz, blues, and soul, as well as lyrical content concerning social and political issues of the time, delivered in both rapping and melismatic vocal styles by Scott-Heron. His own term for himself was "bluesologist",[4] which he defined as "a scientist who is concerned with the origin of the blues."[note 1][6] His music, most notably on Pieces of a Man and Winter in America in the early 1970s, influenced and helped engender later African-American music genres such as hip hop and neo soul.

Besides influencing contemporary musicians, Scott-Heron remained active until his death, and in 2010 released his first new album in 16 years, entitled I'm New Here. A memoir he had been working on for years up to the time of his death, The Last Holiday, was also published, posthumously in January 2012.[7][8]

His recording work received much critical acclaim, especially one of his best-known compositions "The Revolution Will Not Be Televised". His poetic style has influenced every generation of hip hop.[9]

Early years[edit]

Gil Scott-Heron was born in Chicago, Illinois.[4] His mother, Bobbie Scott-Heron, was an opera singer who performed with the New York Oratorio Society. Scott-Heron's father, Gil Heron, nicknamed "The Black Arrow," was a Jamaican football player in the 1950s who became the first black athlete to play for the Glasgow Celtic Football Club. Gil's parents separated in his early childhood[10] and he was sent to live with his maternal grandmother, Lillie Scott, in Jackson, Tennessee.[11][12] When Scott-Heron was 12 years old, his grandmother died and he returned to live with his mother in the Bronx, New York City. He enrolled at DeWitt Clinton High School,[10] but later transferred to The Fieldston School[4] after impressing the head of the English department with one of his writings and earning a full scholarship.[10] As one of five black students at the prestigious school, Scott-Heron was faced with alienation and a significant socioeconomic gap. During his admissions interview at Fieldston, an administrator asked him, “'How would you feel if you see one of your classmates go by in a limousine while you're walking up the hill from the subway?' And [he] said, 'Same way as you. Y'all can't afford no limousine. How do you feel?'"[13] This type of intractable boldness would become a hallmark of Scott-Heron’s later recordings.

Scott-Heron attended Lincoln University in Pennsylvania, as it was the college chosen by his biggest influence Langston Hughes. It was here that Scott-Heron met Brian Jackson with whom he formed the band Black & Blues. After about two years at Lincoln, Scott-Heron took a year off to write the novels The Vulture and The Nigger Factory.[14] The Last Poets performed at Lincoln in 1969 and Abiodun Oyewole of that Harlem group said Scott-Heron asked him after the performance, "Listen, can I start a group like you guys?"[10] Scott-Heron returned to New York City, settling in Chelsea, Manhattan. The Vulture was published in 1970 and well received. Although Scott-Heron never received his undergraduate degree, he received a Master's degree in Creative Writing in 1972 from Johns Hopkins University. His 1972 masters thesis was titled Circle of stone.[15]

Recording career[edit]

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The early live recording from Scott-Heron's debut album features spoken word vocal delivery and African-style congas.

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One of his best-known compositions contains hip hop elements such as rapping, cultural and political references, heavy drumbeats, and minimalist production.

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Winter in America's only single, a rhythmic social commentary with Scott-Heron on keyboards and Brian Jackson playing flute.

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Scott-Heron began his recording career in 1970 with the LP Small Talk at 125th and Lenox. Bob Thiele of Flying Dutchman Records produced the album, and Scott-Heron was accompanied by Eddie Knowles and Charlie Saunders on conga and David Barnes on percussion and vocals. The album's 15 tracks dealt with themes such as the superficiality of television and mass consumerism, the hypocrisy of some would-be Black revolutionaries, and white middle-class ignorance of the difficulties faced by inner-city residents. In the liner notes, Scott-Heron acknowledged as influences Richie Havens, John Coltrane, Otis Redding, Jose Feliciano, Billie Holiday, Langston Hughes, Malcolm X, Huey Newton, Nina Simone, and long-time collaborator Jackson.

Scott-Heron's 1971 album Pieces of a Man used more conventional song structures than the loose, spoken-word feel of Small Talk. He was joined by Jackson, Johnny Pate (conductor), Ron Carter on bass and bass guitar, drummer Bernard "Pretty" Purdie, Burt Jones playing electric guitar, and Hubert Laws on flute and saxophone, with Thiele producing again. Scott-Heron's third album, Free Will, was released in 1972. Jackson, Purdie, Laws, Knowles, and Saunders all returned to play on Free Will and were joined by Jerry Jemmott playing bass, David Spinozza on guitar, and Horace Ott (arranger and conductor). Carter later said about Scott-Heron's voice, "He wasn’t a great singer, but, with that voice, if he had whispered it would have been dynamic. It was a voice like you would have for Shakespeare.”[10]

1974 saw another LP collaboration with Brian Jackson, the critically acclaimed opus Winter in America, with Bob Adams on drums and Danny Bowens on bass. The album contained Scott-Heron's most cohesive material and featured more of Jackson's creative input than his previous albums had. Winter in America has been regarded by many critics as the two musicians' most artistic effort.[16][17] The following year, Scott-Heron and Jackson also released Midnight Band: The First Minute of a New Day. A live album, It's Your World, followed in 1976 and a recording of spoken poetry, The Mind of Gil Scott-Heron, was released in 1979.[citation needed] Another hit success followed with the hit single "Angel Dust", which he recorded as a single with producer Malcolm Cecil. "Angel Dust" peaked at No.15 on the R&B charts in 1978.

In 1979, Scott-Heron played at the No Nukes concerts at Madison Square Garden. The concerts were organized by Musicians United for Safe Energy to protest the use of nuclear energy following the Three Mile Island accident. Scott-Heron's song, "We Almost Lost Detroit" was included in the No Nukes album of concert highlights. It alluded to a previous nuclear power plant accident and was also the title of a book by John G. Fuller. Scott-Heron was also a frequent critic of President Ronald Reagan and his conservative policies.[18]

Scott-Heron recorded and released only four albums during the 1980s: 1980 and Real Eyes (1980), Reflections (1981) and Moving Target (1982). In February 1982, Ron Holloway joined the ensemble to play tenor saxophone. He toured extensively with Scott-Heron and contributed to his next album, Moving Target the same year. His tenor accompaniment is a prominent feature of the songs "Fast Lane" and "Black History/The World." Holloway continued with Scott-Heron until the summer of 1989, when he left to join Dizzy Gillespie. Several years later, Scott-Heron would make cameo appearances on two of Ron Holloway's CD's; Scorcher (1996) and Groove Update (1998), both on the Fantasy/Milestone label.[19]

Scott-Heron was dropped by Arista Records in 1985 and quit recording, though he continued to tour. The same year he helped compose and sang "Let Me See Your I.D." on the Artists United Against Apartheid album Sun City, containing the famous line, "The first time I heard there was trouble in the Middle East, I thought they were talking about Pittsburgh." The song compares racial tensions in the US with those in apartheid-era South Africa, implying that the US was not too far ahead in race relations. In 1993, he signed to TVT Records and released Spirits, an album that included the seminal track "'Message to the Messengers". The first track on the album criticized the rap artists of the day. Scott-Heron is known in many circles as "the Godfather of rap"[20][21] and is widely considered to be one of the genre's founding fathers. Given the political consciousness that lies at the foundation of his work, he can also be called a founder of political rap. Message to the Messengers was a plea for the new generation of rappers to speak for change rather than perpetuate the current social situation, and to be more articulate and artistic. Regarding hip hop music in the 1990s, he said in an interview:

They need to study music. I played in several bands before I began my career as a poet. There’s a big difference between putting words over some music, and blending those same words into the music. There’s not a lot of humor. They use a lot of slang and colloquialisms, and you don’t really see inside the person. Instead, you just get a lot of posturing.[22]

—Gil Scott-Heron

Later years[edit]

"Gil Scott-Heron released poems as songs, recorded songs that were based on his earliest poems and writings, wrote novels and became a hero to many for his music, activism and his anger. There is always the anger – an often beautiful, passionate anger. An often awkward anger. A very soulful anger. And often it is a very sad anger. But it is the pervasive mood, theme and feeling within his work – and around his work, hovering, piercing, occasionally weighing down; often lifting the work up, helping to place it in your face. And for all the preaching and warning signs in his work, the last two decades of Gil Scott-Heron's life to date have seen him succumb to the pressures and demons he has so often warned others about."

Fairfax New Zealand, February 2010[23]

In 2001, Scott-Heron was sentenced to one to three years imprisonment in New York State for possession of cocaine. While out of jail in 2002, he appeared on the Blazing Arrow album by Blackalicious. He was released on parole in 2003.[citation needed]

On July 5, 2006, Scott-Heron was sentenced to two to four years in a New York State prison for violating a plea deal on a drug-possession charge by leaving a drug rehabilitation center. Scott-Heron's sentence was to run until July 13, 2009. He was paroled on May 23, 2007.[24] The reason given for the violation of his plea deal was that the clinic refused to supply Scott-Heron with HIV medication. This story led to the presumption that the artist was HIV positive, subsequently confirmed in a 2008 interview.[25][26][27]

After his release, Scott-Heron began performing live again, starting with a show at "SOB's" restaurant and nightclub in New York on September 13, 2007. On stage, he stated that he and his musicians were working on a new album and that he had resumed writing a book titled The Last Holiday, previously on long-term hiatus, about Stevie Wonder and his successful attempt to have the birthday of Martin Luther King Jr. declared a federally recognized holiday in the United States.

Scott-Heron performing at the Regency Ballroom in San Francisco, 2009

Mark T. Watson, a student of Scott-Heron's work, dedicated a collection of poetry to Scott-Heron titled Ordinary Guy that contained a foreword by Jalal Mansur Nuriddin of The Last Poets. The book was published in the UK in 2004 by Fore-Word Press Ltd. Scott-Heron recorded one of the poems in Watson's book Black & Blue due for release in 2008 as part of the album Rhythms of the Diaspora by Malik & the OG's on the record label CPR Recordings.[citation needed]

In April 2009 on BBC Radio Four, poet Lemn Sissay presented a half-hour documentary on Gil Scott-Heron entitled Pieces of a Man.[28] Having interviewed Gil Scott-Heron in New York a month earlier, Pieces of a Man was the first UK announcement from Gil of his forthcoming album and return to form. In November 2009, the BBC's Newsnight interviewed Gil Scott-Heron for a feature titled The Legendary Godfather of Rap Returns.[29] In 2009, a new Gil Scott-Heron website, gilscottheron.net, was launched with a brand new track "Where Did The Night Go" made available as a free download from the site.

Scott-Heron released his new album I'm New Here on independent label XL Recordings on February 9, 2010. Produced by XL label owner Richard Russell, I'm New Here was Scott-Heron's first studio album in sixteen years. The pair started recording the album in 2007, with the majority of the record being recorded over the last twelve months with engineer Lawson White at Clinton Studios in New York. Some have called the record “reverent” and “intimate” due to Scott-Heron’s half-sung, half-talked delivery of his poetry. “I’m New Here” is 28 minutes long with 15 tracks. However, casual asides and observations collected during recording sessions are also included as interludes.[10] The album attracted substantial critical acclaim with The Guardian newspaper's Jude Rogers declaring it one of the next decade's best records.[30]

The first single from the album was "Me And The Devil", which was released on February 22, 2010. It was debuted by BBC Radio 1's Zane Lowe as his "Hottest Record In The World", along with other specialist DJs such as Gilles Peterson and Benji B. The album's remix, We're New Here, was released in 2011, featuring reworking by English music producer Jamie xx of material from the original album.[31] It was also very well received by music critics.[32]

In 2010 he had been booked to play a gig in Tel Aviv, but this attracted criticism from Palestinian groups who stated "Your performance in Israel would be the equivalent to having performed in Sun City during South Africa’s apartheid era... We hope that you will not play apartheid Israel." In response, he cancelled the performance.[33]

Death[edit]

New York City artist Chico painted this commemorative on the side of a building.

Scott-Heron died on the afternoon of May 27, 2011, at St. Luke's Hospital, New York City, after becoming ill upon returning from a European trip.[1][34] Scott-Heron had confirmed previous press speculation about his health, when he disclosed in a 2008 New York Magazine interview, that he had been HIV-positive for several years, and that he had been previously hospitalized for pneumonia.[27] The cause of Scott-Heron's death has yet to be announced.

He is survived by his daughter Nia Kelly from his relationship with Pat Kelly,[citation needed] his son Rumal Rackley from his relationship with Lurma Rackley,[35] daughter Gia Scott-Heron from his marriage to Brenda Sykes;[34] and daughters Raquiyah Kelly Heron[36] and Chegianna Newton.[35][37] He is also survived by his sister Gayle and a brother, Denis Heron, who once managed Scott-Heron;[38] an uncle, Roy Heron;[39] and by nephew Terrance Kelly, an actor and rapper who performs as Mr. Cheeks and who was a member of the Lost Boyz.[36]

In response, Public Enemy's Chuck D stated "RIP GSH...and we do what we do and how we do because of you." on his Twitter account.[40] His UK publisher, Jamie Byng, called him "one of the most inspiring people I've ever met".[34] On hearing of the death, R&B singer Usher stated "I just learned of the loss of a very important poet...R.I.P., Gil Scott-Heron. The revolution will be live!!".[41] Richard Russel, who produced Scott-Heron's final studio album, called him a "father figure of sorts to me".[42] Eminem stated that "He influenced all of hip-hop".[43] Lupe Fiasco wrote a poem about him and posted it on his website.[44] Scott-Heron's memorial service was held at Riverside Church in New York City on June 2, 2011, where in tribute to Scott-Heron, Kanye West performed "Lost in the World"[45] and "Who Will Survive in America",[46] songs from his last album, My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy.[45] "Who Will Survive in America" was co-written by Scott-Heron.[47]

Gil Scott-Heron was honored posthumously as a 2012 Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award winner by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences.[48] Charlotte Fox, member of the Washington, DC, NARAS and president of Genesis Poets Music, nominated Scott-Heron for the award. The letter of support came from Grammy award winner and Grammy Hall of Fame inductee Bill Withers.[49] Scott-Heron's memoir, The Last Holiday, published posthumously by Canongate in the UK and Grove Press in the US, went on sale in January 2012.[50]

Influence[edit]

Scott-Heron's work has influenced writers, academics and musicians from indie rockers to rappers.[51] His work during the 1970s influenced and helped engender later African-American music genres such as hip hop and neo soul. He has been described by music writers as "the godfather of rap" and "the black Bob Dylan".[52] Chicago Tribune writer Greg Kot comments on Scott-Heron's collaborative work with Jackson, "Together they crafted jazz-influenced soul and funk that brought new depth and political consciousness to ‘70s music alongside Marvin Gaye and Stevie Wonder. In classic albums such as 'Winter in America' and 'From South Africa to South Carolina,' Scott-Heron took the news of the day and transformed it into social commentary, wicked satire, and proto-rap anthems. He updated his dispatches from the front lines of the inner city on tour, improvising lyrics with an improvisational daring that matched the jazz-soul swirl of the music".[2] Of Scott-Heron's influence on hip hop, Kot writes that he "presag[ed] hip-hop and infus[ed] soul and jazz with poetry, humor and pointed political commentary".[2] Ben Sisario of The New York Times writes that "He preferred to call himself a "bluesologist," drawing on the traditions of blues, jazz and Harlem renaissance poetics".[4] Tris McCall of The Star-Ledger writes that "The arrangements on Gil Scott-Heron's early recordings were consistent with the conventions of jazz poetry – the movement that sought to bring the spontaneity of live performance to the reading of verse".[53] On his influence, a music writer later noted that "Scott-Heron's unique proto-rap style influenced a generation of hip-hop artists".[9] The Washington Post wrote that "Scott-Heron's work presaged not only conscious rap and poetry slams, but also acid jazz, particularly during his rewarding collaboration with composer-keyboardist-flutist Brian Jackson in the mid- and late '70s."[54] The Observer's Sean O'Hagan discussed the significance of Scott-Heron's music with Brian Jackson, stating:

Together throughout the 1970s, Scott-Heron and Jackson made music that reflected the turbulence, uncertainty and increasing pessimism of the times, merging the soul and jazz traditions and drawing on an oral poetry tradition that reached back to the blues and forward to hip-hop. The music sounded by turns angry, defiant and regretful while Scott-Heron's lyrics possessed a satirical edge that set them apart from the militant soul of contemporaries such as Marvin Gaye and Curtis Mayfield.[52]

—Sean O'Hagan

Will Layman of PopMatters writes of the significance of Scott-Heron's early musical work, "In the early 1970s, Gil Scott-Heron popped onto the scene as a soul poet with jazz leanings; not just another Bill Withers, but a political voice with a poet’s skill. His spoken-voice work had punch and topicality. 'The Revolution Will Not Be Televised' and 'Johannesburg' were calls to action: Stokely Carmichael if he’d had the groove of Ray Charles. 'The Bottle' was a poignant story of the streets: Richard Wright as sung by a husky-voiced Marvin Gaye. To paraphrase Chuck D, Gil Scott-Heron’s music was a kind of CNN for black neighborhoods, prefiguring hip-hop by several years. It grew from the Last Poets, but it also had the funky swing of Horace Silver or Herbie Hancock—or Otis Redding. Pieces of a Man and Winter in America (collaborations with Brian Jackson) were classics beyond category".[55] Scott-Heron's influence over hip hop is primarily exemplified by his definitive single "The Revolution Will Not Be Televised," sentiments from which have been explored by various rappers, including Aesop Rock, Talib Kweli and Common. In addition to his vocal style, Scott-Heron's indirect contributions to rap music extend to his and co-producer Brian Jackson's compositions, which have been sampled by various hip hop artists. "We Almost Lost Detroit" has been sampled by Brand Nubian member Grand Puba ("Keep On"), Native Tongues duo Black Star ("Brown Skin Lady"), and underground notable MF DOOM ("Camphor").[56] Scott-Heron's 1980 song "A Legend in His Own Mind" was sampled on Mos Def's "Mr. Nigga".[57] The opening lyrics from his 1978 recording "Angel Dust" were appropriated by rapper RBX on the 1996 song "Blunt Time" by Dr. Dre.[58] CeCe Peniston's 2000 song "My Boo" samples Scott-Heron's 1974 recording "The Bottle".[59]

Among the most notable is rapper/producer Kanye West, who has sampled Scott-Heron and Jackson's "Home is Where the Hatred Is" and "We Almost Lost Detroit" for his song "My Way Home" and the single "The People," respectively, both of which are collaborative efforts between West and Common.[60] Scott-Heron, in turn, has acknowledged West's contributions, sampling the latter's 2007 single "Flashing Lights" on his final album, 2010's I'm New Here.[61] Scott-Heron admitted ambivalence about his association with rap, remarking in 2010 in an interview for the Daily Swarm, "I don't know if I can take the blame for it", referring to rap music. He preferred the moniker of "bluesologist". Referring to reviews of his last album and references to him as the "godfather of rap", he said, "It’s something that’s aimed at the kids." He added, "I have kids, so I listen to it. But I would not say it’s aimed at me. I listen to the jazz station.”[4]

Discography[edit]

Studio albums[edit]

YearAlbumLabel
1970Small Talk at 125th and LenoxFlying Dutchman Records
1971Pieces of a ManFlying Dutchman Records
1972Free WillFlying Dutchman Records
1974Winter in AmericaStrata-East Records
1975The First Minute of a New DayArista Records
1976From South Africa to South CarolinaArista Records
1976It's Your WorldArista Records
1977BridgesArista Records
1978SecretsArista Records
19801980Arista Records
1980Real EyesArista Records
1981ReflectionsArista Records
1982Moving TargetArista Records
1994SpiritsTVT Records
2010I'm New HereXL Recordings

Live albums[edit]

YearAlbumLabel
1976It's Your WorldArista Records
1990Tales of Gil Scott-Heron and His Amnesia ExpressCastle Music UK/Peak Top Records
1994Minister of Information: LivePeak Top Records
2004The Best Of Gil Scott-Heron LiveIntersound
2004Tour De ForcePhantom Sound & Vision
2004Save The ChildrenDelta Music
2004Winter In America, Summer In EuropePickwick
2005Greatest Hits LiveIntersound
2008Live At The Town & Country 1988Acadia / Evangeline Records

Compilations[edit]

YearAlbumLabel
1974The Revolution Will Not Be TelevisedFlying Dutchman
1979The Mind of Gil Scott-HeronArista Records
1984The Best of Gil Scott-HeronArista Records
1988The Revolution Will Not Be TelevisedBluebird Records
1990Glory: The Gil Scott-Heron CollectionArista Records
1998The Gil Scott-Heron Collection Sampler: 1974–1975TVT Records
1998Ghetto StyleCamden Records
1999Evolution and Flashback: The Very Best of Gil Scott-HeronRCA Records
2005Gil Scott-Heron & Brian Jackson – Messages (Anthology)Soul Brother Records
2006The Best of Gil Scott-HeronSony/BMG
2010Storm Music (The Best of Gil Scott-Heron)Phantom Sound & Vision
2012The Revolution Begins: The Flying Dutchman MastersBGP

Collaboration albums[edit]

YearAlbumLabelArtist
2011We're New HereXL Recordings / Young TurksJamie xx
YearAlbumLabelArtist
2008Rhythms of the Diaspora Vol 1MCPR Music UnreleasedMalik & the OG's

Bibliography[edit]

YearTitleISBN
1970The Vulture0862415284
1970Small Talk at 125th and Lenox
1972The Nigger Factory0862415276
1990So Far, So Good0883781336
2001Now and Then: The Poems of Gil Scott-Heron086241900X
2012The Last Holiday0857863010

Filmography[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Onstage at the Black Wax Club in Washington, D.C. in 1982, Scott-Heron cited Harlem Renaissance writers Langston Hughes, Sterling Brown, Jean Toomer, Countee Cullen and Claude McKay as among those who had "taken the blues as a poetry form" in the 1920s and "fine-tuned it" into a "remarkable art form".

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Gil Scott-Heron, Spoken-Word Musician, Dies at 62". The New York Times. May 28, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d Kot, Greg (May 26, 2011). Turn It Up: Gil Scott-Heron, soul poet, dead at 62. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on June 6, 2011.
  3. ^ a b Preston, Rohan B (September 20, 1994). Scott-heron's Jazz Poetry Rich In Soul – Chicago Tribune. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on June 6, 2011.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Ben Sisario, "Gil Scott-Heron, Voice of Black Protest Culture, Dies at 62" The New York Times (May 28, 2011). Retrieved May 29, 2011
  5. ^ Gil Scott-Heron, Poet And Musician, Has Died Daoud Tyler-Ameen, NPR.org
  6. ^ Gil Scott-Heron in a live performance in 1982 with the Amnesia Express at the Black Wax Club, Washington, D.C. Black Wax (DVD) Directed by Robert Mugge.
  7. ^ Garner, Dwight (January 9, 2012). "‘The Last Holiday: A Memoir' by Gil Scott-Heron - Review". The New York Times. 
  8. ^ Scott-Heron, Gil (January 8, 2012). "How Gil Scott-Heron and Stevie Wonder set up Martin Luther King Day". The Guardian (London). 
  9. ^ a b Azpiri, Jon. Review: Pieces of a Man. Allmusic. Retrieved on July 31, 2009.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Alec Wilkinson, "New York is Killing Me" The New Yorker (August 9, 2010). Retrieved May 29, 2011
  11. ^ Dacks, David Pioneering Poet: Gil Scott-Heron at Exclaim! March 2010.
  12. ^ Harold, Claudrena Deep in the Cane: The Southern Soul of Gil Scott-Heron, Southern Spaces 12 July 2011.
  13. ^ Weiner, Jonah (23 June 2011). "TRIBUTE: Gil Scott-Heron". Rolling Stone (1133): 30. 
  14. ^ "Gil Scott-Heron Jazz Man – Biography". Home.clara.net. January 21, 2010. Retrieved May 28, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Circle of stone: a novel". 
  16. ^ "Gil Scott-Heron > Discography > Main Albums". All Media Guide, LLC. Retrieved July 9, 2008. 
  17. ^ Weisbard, Eric; Marks, Craig (October 10, 1995). Spin Alternative Record Guide (Ratings 1–10) (1st edi. ed.). New York, NY: Vintage Books. pp. s. 267–268. ISBN 0-679-75574-8. OCLC 32508105. Retrieved July 17, 2008. "his finest work" 
  18. ^ "'Black Arrow' Gil Heron a trailblazer at Celtic – Father of famous jazz musician dies aged 87" The Scotsman (December 2, 2008). Retrieved June 2, 2011
  19. ^ Encyclopedia of Jazz Musicians
  20. ^ Feeney, John (February 5, 2007). "Economic "HIS-story" à la Gil Scott-Heron Growth is Madness!". Growthmadness.org. Retrieved May 28, 2011. 
  21. ^ "Gil Scott-Heron Jazz Man – Biography". Home.clara.net. January 21, 2010. Retrieved May 28, 2011. 
  22. ^ Salaam, Mtume ya, and Salaam, Kalamu ya Breath of Life Presents – Gil Scott-Heron & His Music: Reviews by Mtume ya Salaam & Kalamu ya Salaam. ChickenBones: A Journal. Retrieved on August 23, 2008.
  23. ^ "The anger and poetry of Gil Scott-Heron". Stuff.co.nz. February 10, 2010. Retrieved October 1, 2011. 
  24. ^ "Inmate Information NYS Department of Correctional Services for Scott-Heron". Nysdocslookup.docs.state.ny.us. Retrieved May 28, 2011. 
  25. ^ "Scott-Heron To Serve Time For Breaking Rehab Deal". Contactmusic.com. Retrieved May 28, 2011. 
  26. ^ "Genius Burning Brightly: The Unraveling of Gil Scott-Heron". Black Agenda Report. May 13, 2009. Retrieved May 28, 2011. 
  27. ^ a b Baram, Marcus (June 22, 2008). "The Weary Blues: Hip-hop godfather Gil Scott-Heron’s out on parole, trying to stay clean, and ready for Carnegie Hall". New York Magazine. Retrieved May 28, 2011. 
  28. ^ "Radio 4 Programmes – Pieces of a Man". BBC. April 21, 2009. Retrieved May 28, 2011. 
  29. ^ Stephen Smith (November 16, 2009). "The Legendary Godfather of Rap Returns". BBC News. Retrieved January 22, 2010. 
  30. ^ Jude Rogers (November 19, 2009). "Best of the next decade: Gil Scott-Heron's I'm New Here". The Guardian (London). Retrieved January 22, 2010. 
  31. ^ Richter, Mischa (January 28, 2011). Jamie Smith of the xx on Remixing Gil Scott-Heron, Working With Drake, New Music From the xx. Pitchfork Media. Retrieved on February 24, 2011.
  32. ^ We're New Here Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic. Metacritic. Retrieved on February 24, 2011.
  33. ^ "US activist, poet and singer dies". Al Jazeera. May 28, 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2011. 
  34. ^ a b c "Gil Scott-Heron". London: The Telegraph. May 28, 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2011. 
  35. ^ a b "Gil Scott-Heron Remembered as Tortured Genius" blAck Americaweb (May 31, 2011). Retrieved June 2, 2011
  36. ^ a b Mr. Cheeks' Twitter feed Twitter (May 29, 2011). Retrieved June 2, 2011
  37. ^ Courtland Milloy, "Protest poet was more than “The Revolution" The Washington Post (June 1, 2011). Retrieved June 2, 2011
  38. ^ Norman Otis Richmond, "Gil Heron, 81, father of Gil Scott-Heron, joins the ancestors" BlackVoices (November 2008). Retrieved June 2, 2011
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