Ghost in the Shell

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Ghost in the Shell
Ghost in the Shell.jpg
Cover of The Ghost in the Shell, the first volume of the manga
攻殻機動隊
(Kōkaku Kidōtai)
GenreCyberpunk
Manga
Written byMasamune Shirow
Published byKodansha
English publisher
DemographicSeinen
MagazineYoung Magazine
Original runMay 1989August 1997
Volumes3 (List of volumes)
Anime film
Ghost in the Shell
Directed byMamoru Oshii
Produced byYoshimasa Mizuo
Ken Matsumoto
Ken Iyadomi
Mitsuhisa Ishikawa
Written byKazunori Itō
Music byKenji Kawai
StudioProduction I.G
Released
  • November 18, 1995 (1995-11-18)
Runtime82 minutes
Game
Ghost in the Shell
DeveloperExact
Publisher
GenreAction, third-person shooter
PlatformPlayStation
Released
  • JP July 17, 1997
  • NA October 31, 1997
  • EU July 1, 1998
Anime television series
Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex
Directed byKenji Kamiyama
Written byKenji Kamiyama
Music byYoko Kanno
StudioProduction I.G
Licensed by
Bandai Entertainment
Manga Entertainment
NetworkPerfect Choice (PPV)
English network
Original runOctober 1, 2002October 1, 2003
Episodes26 (List of episodes)
Anime television series
Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG
Directed byKenji Kamiyama
Written byKenji Kamiyama
Music byYoko Kanno
StudioProduction I.G
NetworkPerfect Choice (PPV)
NTV
English network
Original runJanuary 1, 2004January 8, 2005
Episodes26 (List of episodes)
Anime film
Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence
Directed byMamoru Oshii
Produced byMitsuhisa Ishikawa
Toshio Suzuki
Written byMamoru Oshii
Music byKenji Kawai
StudioProduction I.G
Released
  • June 24, 2004 (2004-06-24)
Runtime98 minutes
Anime film
Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex - Solid State Society
Directed byKenji Kamiyama
Tomohiko Ishii
Produced byMitsuhisa Ishikawa
Toshio Suzuki
Written byKenji Kamiyama
Shotaro Suga
Yoshiki Sakurai
Music byYoko Kanno
StudioProduction I.G
Released
  • November 1, 2006 (2006-11-01)
Runtime110 minutes
Original video animation
Ghost in the Shell: Arise
Directed byKazuchika Kise
Produced byProduction I.G
Written byTow Ubukata
Music byCornelius
StudioProduction I.G
Licensed by
ReleasedJune 22, 2013 (2013-06-22) – ongoing
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This article is about the media franchise. For other uses, see Ghost in the Shell (disambiguation).
Ghost in the Shell
Ghost in the Shell.jpg
Cover of The Ghost in the Shell, the first volume of the manga
攻殻機動隊
(Kōkaku Kidōtai)
GenreCyberpunk
Manga
Written byMasamune Shirow
Published byKodansha
English publisher
DemographicSeinen
MagazineYoung Magazine
Original runMay 1989August 1997
Volumes3 (List of volumes)
Anime film
Ghost in the Shell
Directed byMamoru Oshii
Produced byYoshimasa Mizuo
Ken Matsumoto
Ken Iyadomi
Mitsuhisa Ishikawa
Written byKazunori Itō
Music byKenji Kawai
StudioProduction I.G
Released
  • November 18, 1995 (1995-11-18)
Runtime82 minutes
Game
Ghost in the Shell
DeveloperExact
Publisher
GenreAction, third-person shooter
PlatformPlayStation
Released
  • JP July 17, 1997
  • NA October 31, 1997
  • EU July 1, 1998
Anime television series
Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex
Directed byKenji Kamiyama
Written byKenji Kamiyama
Music byYoko Kanno
StudioProduction I.G
Licensed by
Bandai Entertainment
Manga Entertainment
NetworkPerfect Choice (PPV)
English network
Original runOctober 1, 2002October 1, 2003
Episodes26 (List of episodes)
Anime television series
Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG
Directed byKenji Kamiyama
Written byKenji Kamiyama
Music byYoko Kanno
StudioProduction I.G
NetworkPerfect Choice (PPV)
NTV
English network
Original runJanuary 1, 2004January 8, 2005
Episodes26 (List of episodes)
Anime film
Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence
Directed byMamoru Oshii
Produced byMitsuhisa Ishikawa
Toshio Suzuki
Written byMamoru Oshii
Music byKenji Kawai
StudioProduction I.G
Released
  • June 24, 2004 (2004-06-24)
Runtime98 minutes
Anime film
Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex - Solid State Society
Directed byKenji Kamiyama
Tomohiko Ishii
Produced byMitsuhisa Ishikawa
Toshio Suzuki
Written byKenji Kamiyama
Shotaro Suga
Yoshiki Sakurai
Music byYoko Kanno
StudioProduction I.G
Released
  • November 1, 2006 (2006-11-01)
Runtime110 minutes
Original video animation
Ghost in the Shell: Arise
Directed byKazuchika Kise
Produced byProduction I.G
Written byTow Ubukata
Music byCornelius
StudioProduction I.G
Licensed by
ReleasedJune 22, 2013 (2013-06-22) – ongoing
Portal icon Anime and Manga portal

Ghost in the Shell (攻殻機動隊 Kōkaku Kidōtai?, literally "Mobile Armored Riot Police") is a Japanese media franchise originally published as a seinen manga series of the same name written and illustrated by Masamune Shirow. The manga, first serialized in 1989 under the subtitle of The Ghost in the Shell, and later published as its own tankōbon volumes by Kodansha, told the story of the fictional counter-cyberterrorist organization Public Security Section 9, led by protagonist Major Motoko Kusanagi, in the mid 21st century of Japan.

Animation studio Production I.G has produced several different anime adaptations of Ghost in the Shell, starting with the 1995 film of the same name, telling the story of Section 9's investigation of the Puppet Master. The television series Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex followed in 2002, telling an alternate story from the manga and first film, featuring Section 9's investigations of government corruption in the Laughing Man and Individual Eleven incidents. The year 2013 saw the start of the Ghost in the Shell: Arise film series with the release of the first two episodes. The third episode of the four-part series is set to be released on June 28, 2014.

Title[edit]

Shirow has stated that he had always wanted the title of his manga to be "GHOST IN THE SHELL", even in Japan, but his original publishers preferred Kōkaku Kidōtai (攻殻機動隊?). He had chosen "Ghost in the Shell" in homage to Arthur Koestler's The Ghost in the Machine, from which he also drew inspiration.[1]

Setting[edit]

Primarily set in the mid-twenty-first century in the fictional Japanese city of Niihama, Niihama Prefecture (新浜県新浜市 Niihama-ken Niihama-shi?),[Note 1] otherwise known as New Port City (ニューポートシティ Nyū Pōto Shiti?), the manga and the many anime adaptations follow the members of Public Security Section 9, a special-operations task-force made up of former military officers and police detectives. Political intrigue and counter-terrorism operations are standard fare for Section 9, but the various actions of corrupt officials, companies, and cyber-criminals in each scenario are unique and require the diverse skills of Section 9's staff to prevent a series of incidents from escalating.

In this post-cyberpunk iteration of a possible future, computer technology has advanced to the point that many members of the public possess cyberbrains, technology that allows them to interface their biological brain with various networks. The level of cyberization varies from simple minimal interfaces to almost complete replacement of the brain with cybernetic parts, in cases of severe trauma. This can also be combined with various levels of prostheses, with a fully prosthetic body enabling a person to become a cyborg. The heroine of Ghost in the Shell, Major Motoko Kusanagi, is such a cyborg, having had a terrible accident befall her as a child that ultimately required that she use a full-body prosthesis to house her cyberbrain. This high level of cyberization, however, opens the brain up to attacks from highly skilled hackers, with the most dangerous being those who will hack a person to bend to their whims.

Media[edit]

Original manga[edit]

The Ghost in the Shell originally ran from April 1989 to November 1990 in Kodansha's manga anthology Young Magazine, and was released in tankobon format on October 2, 1991.[2] Ghost in the Shell 2: Man-Machine Interface ran in Young Magazine from September 1991 to August 1997.[3] Four chapters that were not released in tankobon format from previous releases were later collected into a single volume titled Ghost in the Shell 1.5: Human-Error Processor serving as an interquel. The manga was published on July 23, 2003 by Kodansha.[4] Several art books have also been published for the manga.

Animated films[edit]

Two animated films based on the original manga have been released, both directed by Mamoru Oshii and animated by Production I.G. Ghost in the Shell was released in 1995 and follows the "Puppet Master" storyline from the manga. It was re-released in 2008 as Ghost in the Shell 2.0 with new audio and updated 3D computer graphics in certain scenes.[5] Innocence, otherwise known as Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence, was released in 2004, with its story based on a chapter from Man-Machine Interface.

Video games[edit]

Ghost in the Shell was developed by Exact and released for the PlayStation on July 17, 1997, in Japan by Sony Computer Entertainment.[6] It is a third-person shooter featuring an original storyline where the character plays a rookie member of Section 9. The video game's soundtrack Megatech Body features various electronica artists.[7]

Live-action adaptation[edit]

In 2008, DreamWorks and Steven Spielberg acquired the rights to produce a live-action film adaptation of the original manga. Avi Arad, Ari Arad, and Steven Paul were later confirmed as producers, with Jamie Moss (Street Kings) to write the screenplay.[8] In October, 2009, it was announced that Laeta Kalogridis (Alexander, Shutter Island) had replaced Moss as writer.[9] On January 24, 2014, it was reported that Rupert Sanders (Snow White and the Huntsman) will direct the film, with a screenplay by William Wheeler (The Hoax, The Reluctant Fundamentalist).[10]

Stand Alone Complex[edit]

In 2002, Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex premiered on Animax, presenting a new telling of Ghost in the Shell independent from the original manga, focusing on Section 9's investigation of the Laughing Man hacker.[11] It was followed in 2004 by a second season titled Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG, which focused on the Individual Eleven terrorist group.[12] Both seasons' primary storylines were compressed into OVAs broadcast as Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex The Laughing Man in 2005 and Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Individual Eleven in 2006.[13][14] Also in 2006, Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex - Solid State Society, featuring Section 9's confrontation with a hacker known as the Puppeteer, was broadcast, serving as a finale to the anime series.[15]

In addition to the anime, there were published works on the series as well. Staff writer Junichi Fujisaku wrote a three-volume novel series based on the series, with the books The Lost Memory,[16][17] Revenge of the Cold Machines,[18][19] and White Maze.[20][21] There were also two different manga series based on the Stand Alone Complex story: Tachikomatic Days and Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex, both published by Kodansha.[22][23][24]

Several video games were also released to tie in with the Stand Alone Complex anime. The PlayStation 2 had Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex developed by Cavia,[25] while the PlayStation Portable had Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex -Domain of the Hunters- developed by G-Artist,[26] both released internationally. Within Japan, the GREE and Mobage social networks released several video games based on Stand Alone Complex, with Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. Cyber Mission on GREE[27] and both Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex[28] and Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. Tachikoma Wars![29] on Mobage's services. In addition, Nexon has been developing a massively multiplayer online game tentatively titled Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex - Online, with the last updates on development in February 2013.[30][31][32]

The extensive score for the series and its films was composed by Yoko Kanno.

Arise[edit]

Ghost in the Shell: Arise is another animated iteration that takes place in yet another alternate setting, set before the original manga. It is being released as a series of OVAs (with limited theatrical releases), with Kazuchika Kise as chief director and Tow Ubukata as head writer.[33] Cornelius was brought onto the project to compose the score for the OVAs. A manga adaptation began serialization in Kodansha's Young Magazine's April 2013 issue, released March 13, 2013.[34][35]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ There is a real-world Niihama, located in Ehime Prefecture, but its name is written differently in kanji: 新居浜市.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Official Log 1", p. 9. Young Magazine Pirate Edition, 2003.
  2. ^ "攻殻機動隊(1)" (in Japanese). Kodansha. Retrieved 2012-10-13. 
  3. ^ "攻殻機動隊SOLID BOX" (in Japanese). 7net. Retrieved 2012-10-13. 
  4. ^ "攻殻機動隊 1.5" (in Japanese). Kodansha. Retrieved 2012-10-13. 
  5. ^ "Ghost in the Shell to Return to Japanese Theaters". Anime News Network. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 
  6. ^ "攻殻機動隊 GHOST IN THE SHELL". Sony Computer Entertainment. Retrieved 2012-12-19. 
  7. ^ "世界中で絶賛されている近未来SFコミックス「攻殻機動隊」のプレイステーション・ゲームのSound [Techno] Trax。". Sony Music Entertainment Japan. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  8. ^ Siegel, Tatiana; Fleming, Michael (April 14, 2008). "DreamWorks to make 'Ghost' in 3-D". Variety.com. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 
  9. ^ Siegel, Tatiana (October 22, 2009). "Kalogridis to adapt 'Ghost in the Shell'". Variety.com. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 
  10. ^ Bishop, Bryan. "Live-action 'Ghost in the Shell' movie signs the director of 'Snow White and the Huntsman'". The Verge. Retrieved 2014-3-3. 
  11. ^ "Animax's official GitS:SAC webpage" (in Japanese). Animax. Archived from the original on 2011-01-29. Retrieved 09-02-2011. 
  12. ^ "Into the Network: The Ghost in the Shell Universe". Production I.G. Archived from the original on 2011-01-29. Retrieved 2011-01-29. 
  13. ^ "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex The Laughing Man". Production I.G. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  14. ^ "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Individual Eleven". Production I.G. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  15. ^ "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Solid State Society". Production I.G. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  16. ^ "攻殻機動隊 虚夢回路" (in Japanese). Tokuma Shoten. Retrieved 11-06-2011. 
  17. ^ "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Volume 1 The Lost Memory (Novel)". Dark Horse. Retrieved 11-06-2011. 
  18. ^ "攻殻機動隊 凍える機械" (in Japanese). Tokuma Shoten. Retrieved 11-06-2011. 
  19. ^ "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Volume 2 Revenge of the Cold Machines (Novel)". Dark Horse. Retrieved 11-06-2011. 
  20. ^ "攻殻機動隊 眠り男の棺" (in Japanese). Tokuma Shoten. Retrieved 11-06-2011. 
  21. ^ "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Volume 3 White Maze (Novel)". Dark Horse. Retrieved 11-06-2011. 
  22. ^ "Ghost in the Shell: SAC to Spawn 2 New Manga in Japan (Updated)". Anime News Network. November 7, 2009. Retrieved 11-04-2011. 
  23. ^ "攻殻機動隊 STAND ALONE COMPLEX" (in Japanese). Kodansha. Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  24. ^ "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex 1". Kodansha. Retrieved 10-09-2011. 
  25. ^ "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex (PS2)". GameSpy. Retrieved 10-09-2012. 
  26. ^ "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex (PSP)". GameSpy. Retrieved 10-09-2012. 
  27. ^ "「攻殻機動隊 S.A.C. サイバーミッション」 SNSゲームでGREEに登場" (in Japanese). Animeanime.jp. Retrieved 2012-12-23. 
  28. ^ "『攻殻機動隊 STAND ALONE COMPLEX』ソーシャルゲームで捜査開始! Mobageで事前登録受付がスタート" (in Japanese). Famitsu. Retrieved 2012-12-23. 
  29. ^ "タチコマがソーシャルゲームに 「攻殻機動隊」の世界を描く" (in Japanese). Animeanime.jp. Retrieved 11-05-2012. 
  30. ^ "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Online Game Coming From Nexon". Siliconera. Ishaan. 2012-12-13. Retrieved 2013-02-20. 
  31. ^ YJ (2013-02-13). "Nexon provides a brief on their upcoming Ghost in the Shell MMO". Saint-ism. Retrieved 2013-07-29. 
  32. ^ "Ghost in the Shell Online Game Is An FPS With A Focus On Hacking". Siliconera. Siliconera. 2013-02-12. Retrieved 2013-02-20. 
  33. ^ "Ghost in the Shell Arise Anime to Launch in 2013". Anime News Network. January 15, 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-15. 
  34. ^ "6月22日から映画「攻殻機動隊ARISE GHOST IN THE SHELL」全4部作公開". Gigazine. Retrieved 2013-03-13. 
  35. ^ "「攻殻機動隊ARISE」コミカライズ 月刊ヤングマガジンで連載開始 公安9課以前を描く | アニメ!アニメ!". Animeanime.jp. Retrieved 2013-03-13. 

External links[edit]