German Army

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German Army
Deutsches Heer
Bundeswehr Logo Heer with lettering.svg
Logo of the German Army
CountryFederal Republic of Germany
RoleLand force
MottoTo protect, help, moderate, and fight
Schützen, helfen, vermitteln, kämpfen
ColorsGreen, "Sand" and White
AnniversariesNovember 12, 1955
EngagementsUnited Nations Operations in Somalia
Aftermath of the Balkan Wars 1995-1999
Kosovo War
Battle of Tetovo
Operation Essential Harvest
War in Afghanistan
North Kosovo crisis
DecorationsBadge of Honour of the Bundeswehr
Military Proficiency Badge
Badge of Marksmanship
Service Medal
Flood Service Medal
Lieutenant General Werner Freers

General Ulrich de Maizière
General Ernst Ferber, COMAFCENT 1973–1975

Lieutenant General Jörg Schönbohm, later Undersecretary of Defense
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German Army
Deutsches Heer
Bundeswehr Logo Heer with lettering.svg
Logo of the German Army
CountryFederal Republic of Germany
RoleLand force
MottoTo protect, help, moderate, and fight
Schützen, helfen, vermitteln, kämpfen
ColorsGreen, "Sand" and White
AnniversariesNovember 12, 1955
EngagementsUnited Nations Operations in Somalia
Aftermath of the Balkan Wars 1995-1999
Kosovo War
Battle of Tetovo
Operation Essential Harvest
War in Afghanistan
North Kosovo crisis
DecorationsBadge of Honour of the Bundeswehr
Military Proficiency Badge
Badge of Marksmanship
Service Medal
Flood Service Medal
Lieutenant General Werner Freers

General Ulrich de Maizière
General Ernst Ferber, COMAFCENT 1973–1975

Lieutenant General Jörg Schönbohm, later Undersecretary of Defense

The German Army (German: Deutsches Heer) is the land component of the armed forces of the Federal Republic of Germany. The German Army was founded in 1955 as part of the newly formed West German Bundeswehr along with the Marine (Navy) and the Luftwaffe (Air Force). As of June 2013, the German Army has a strength of 62,279 soldiers.



A German Army, equipped, organized and trained following a single doctrine, and permanently unified under one command dates from 1871, and the unification of Germany under the leadership of Prussia. From 1871 to 1919 the title Deutsches Heer (German Army) was the official name of the German land forces. Following the German defeat in World War I and the end of the German Empire the name army dissolved. From 1921 to 1935 the name of the German land forces was Reichsheer (Army of the Realm) and from 1935 to 1945 the name Heer was used. The Heer was one of two ground forces of the Third Reich during World War II, but unlike the Heer the Waffen SS was not a branch of the Wehrmacht. The Heer ceased to exist in 1945.

After World War II Germany was split into two sovereign states and both formed their own militaries: on 12 November 1955 the first recruits began their service in the West German Heer, while on 1 March 1956 the East German Landstreitkräfte der NVA (Land Forces of the National People's Army) were founded. During the Cold War the West German Army was fully integrated into NATOs command structure, while the Landstreitkräfte were part of the Warsaw Pact. Following the German reunification in 1990 the Landstreitkräfte were partially integrated into the German Army. Since then the German Army has been employed in peacekeeping operations worldwide and since 2002 also in combat operations in Afghanistan as part of NATOs International Security Assistance Force.

Traditions can be traced between the Imperial Deutsches Heer, the Weimar Reichsheer and the Third Reich Heer. However after World War II the architects of the new Heer chose not to continue any traditions of any of the previous armies. The only permitted historical antecedents for today's Heer are the 1807 to 1814 Prussian military reformers and the servicemen who participated actively in the resistance against the Nazi regime, specifically the officers involved in the 20 July plot.

Founding of the Army[edit]

Bundeswehr soldiers with MG1 and HK G3 during a 1960s maneuver. In the background is a Schützenpanzer Kurz.

Following World War II the Allies dissolved the Wehrmacht with all its branches on 20 August 1946. However already one year after the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany in May 1949 and because of its increasing links with the West under German chancellor Konrad Adenauer, the Consultative Assembly of Europe began to consider the formation of a European Defence Community with German participation on 11 August 1950. Former high-ranking German Wehrmacht officers outlined in the Himmeroder memorandum a plan for a "German contingent in an international force for the defense of Western Europe." For the German land forces the memorandum envisioned the formation of a 250,000 strong army. The officers saw the need for the formation of twelve Panzer divisions and six corps staffs with accompanying Corps troops, as only armored divisions could muster a fighting force to throw back the numerically far superior forces of the Warsaw Pact.[2]

On 26 October 1950 Theodor Blank was appointed "officer of the Federal Chancellor for the Strengthening of Allied Troops questions". This Defence Ministry forerunner was known somewhat euphemistically as the Blank Office (Amt Blank), but explicitly used to prepare for the rearmament of West Germany (Wiederbewaffnung).[3] By March 1954 the Blank Office had finished plans for a new German army. Plans foresaw the formation of six infantry, four armoured, and two mechanised infantry divisions, as the German contribution to the defense of Western Europe in the framework of a European Defence Community.[2] On 8 February 1952 the Bundestag approved a German contribution to the defense of Western Europe and on 26 February 1954 the Basic Law of the Republic was amended with the insertion of an article regarding the defence of the sovereignty of the federal government.[4] Following a decision at the London Nine Power Conference of 28 September to 3 October 1954, Germany's entry into NATO effective from 9 May 1955 was accepted as a replacement for the failed European Defence Community plan. Afterwards the Blank Office was converted to the Defence Ministry and Theodor Blank became the first Defence Minister. The nucleus of army was the so-called V Branch of the Department of Defence. Subdivisions included were VA Leadership and Training, VB Organisation and VC Logistics.

The army saw itself explicitly not as a successor to the defeated Wehrmacht, but as in the traditions of the Prussian military reformers of 1807 to 1814 and the members of the military resistance during National Socialism; such as the officers which undertook the failed 20 July plot to assassinate Hitler in 1944. Nevertheless, for lack of alternatives the officer corps was made up largely of former Wehrmacht officers. The first Chief of the Army was the former Wehrmacht General der Panzertruppe Hans Rottiger, who had been involved in the drafting of the Himmeroder memorandum.

The official date of the founding of the army is 12 November 1955 when the first soldiers began their service in Andernach.[5] In 1956 the first troops set up seven training companies in Andernach and began the formation of schools and training centers. On 1 April 1957, the first conscripts arrived for service in the army. The first military organisations created were instructional battalions, officer schools, and the Army Academy, the forerunner to the Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr in Hamburg.[4] In total of twelve armoured and infantry divisions were to be established by 1959, as planned in Army Structure I. To achieve this goal existing units were split approximately every six months. However the creation of all twelve divisions did not take place until 1965. At the end of 1958 the strength of the army was about 100,000 men. The army was equipped at first with American material, such as the M-47 Patton main battle tank. Three corps commands were formed beginning in 1957: the I Corps, II Corps, and the III Corps.

Also in 1957 the "Office for Territorial Defence" was established as the highest Territorial Army authority. The Office for Territorial Defence was under the direct command of the Federal Ministry of Defence and commanded the Territorialheer a reserve formation. While the Heer along with the Marine and Luftwaffe were firmly integrated into NATO command structures the Territorialheer remained under national command. The main function of the Territorialheer was to maintain the operational freedom of NATO forces through providing rear area defence against saboteurs, enemy special forces, and the like.

M47 Patton tank in service with the Bundeswehr, 1960

The development of Soviet tactical nuclear weapons required the development of a new Army structure even before Army Structure I was fully achieved. To minimize the effects of attacks with tactical nuclear weapons on massed forces, the 28,000 strong divisions of the Heer were broken up into smaller and more mobile brigades. These smaller units were also to be capable of self-sustainment on an atomic battlefield for several days, and to be capable of to move quickly from defense and to attack. The new armoured and mechanized brigades were capable of combined arms combat. Each division was composed of three brigades. The armoured brigades consisted of an armoured infantry battalion, two armoured battalions, an armoured artillery battalion and a supply battalion. The mechanized brigades consisted of a motorized infantry battalion, two mechanized infantry battalions, an armored battalion, a field artillery battalion and a supply battalion. The motorized brigades consisted of three motorized infantry battalions, an anti-tank battalion, a field artillery battalion and a supply battalion. The alpine brigades consisted of three alpine battalions, a mountain artillery battalion and a supply battalion. By 1959 the Heer cosisted of 11 divisions of 27 brigades, four Panzer (armoured), four Panzergrenadier (mechanized), two Jäger (motorized), and one Gebirgsjäger (alpine).

Post Cold War[edit]

Helicopter of the German Army Aviation Corps in Northern Iraq in 1991

After 1990, the Heer absorbed the army of socialist East Germany, a part of the Nationale Volksarmee. The former East German forces were initially commanded by the Bunderwehr Command East under command of Lieutenant General Jörg Schönbohm and disbanded on 30 June 1991.[6] In the aftermath of the merger, the German Army consisted of four Corps (including IV Corps at Potsdam in the former DDR) with a manpower of 360,000 men. It was continuously downsized from this point. In 1994 III Corps was reorganised as the German Army Forces Command. In 1996, the 25th Airborne Brigade was converted into a new command leading the Army's special forces, known as the Kommando Spezialkräfte.

The 2001 onwards restructuring of the German Army saw it move to a seven division structure – 5 mechanized (each with two mechanized brigades), 1 special forces, and one airmobile.

In 2003, three Corps still existed, each including various combat formations and a maintenance brigade. I. German/Dutch Corps, a joint German-Netherlands organization, used to control in peacetime the 1st Panzer and 7th Panzer Divisions as well as Dutch formations. The 1st Panzer would have reported to the corps in wartime while the 7th would be posted to the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps. II Corps was German in peacetime but would have exchanged a division with the V U.S. Corps in time of war (the 5th Panzer). 5th Panzer Division disbanded as of 30 June 2001. In peacetime it also commanded the 10th Panzer Division, which was allocated to Eurocorps and which parents the German half of the Franco-German Brigade. The 1st Mountain Division at Munich was also under this headquarters.

The IV Corps was headquartered at Potsdam in eastern Germany and controlled two Panzer-Grenadier Divisions, the 13th and 14th. The 14th Panzer-Grenadier Division also took control of units in Western Germany re-subordinated from the 6th Panzer-Grenadier Division when it lost its command function. It would have made up the German contribution to the Multinational Corps Northeast in time of war. IV Corps also used to have under its command the Military District Command I, the 1st Air Mechanised Brigade, and the Berlin Command (de:Standortkommando Berlin).

Current army[edit]

All corps have now been disbanded or transferred to a multinational level such as Multinational Corps North East. IV Corps was reorganized and on 31 March 2002 became an overseas deployment command, the Einsatzführungskommando der Bundeswehr, like the British Permanent Joint Headquarters.

A total of 62,279 soldiers are currently (February 2013) on active service in the German Army.[1]

A planned army reorganisation/reduction in 2012 will see the disbandment of the 13th Mechanized Infantry Division headquarters, a merge of the Airmobile Operations Division and Special Operations Division headquarters, the disbandment of the 1st Airmobile Brigade, and reshuffling of units between divisions.[citation needed] No heavy brigades will be disbanded, but the two remaining heavy divisions will command three rather than two brigades.

Current structure of the German Army[edit]

German Army is located in Germany
German Army - major combat units
large pin - division, small pin - brigade
Structure of the German Army (click to enlarge)

The German Army is commanded by the Inspector of the Army (Inspekteur des Heeres) based at the Federal Ministry of Defence in Berlin and Bonn. The major commands are the German Army Office in Cologne and the German Army Command in Koblenz. In 2002 a number of army units and their personnel were transferred to the newly formed Joint Support Service (Streitkräftebasis) and Joint Medical Service branches.[7]

German Army Office[edit]

The German Army Office in Cologne (Heeresamt) is the superior authority for all supporting elements of the Army, such as schools and education centres. It is commanded by a Major General, currently MajGen Joachim Clauß.

German Army Command[edit]

German Army soldiers from Paratrooper Battalion 261 on board an armoured personnel carrier in Somalia in 1993
German ISAF soldiers involved in combat in Northern Afghanistan in 2009
A German Army soldier demonstrates the equipment of the IdZ program.

The German Army Command in Koblenz (Heeresführungskommando) exercises command and control over all combat units. It is commanded by a Lieutenant General. These units include two armour divisions, two mechanized infantry divisions, the Division for Specialized Operations and the Airmobile Division. Depending on their size and role, brigades can be commanded either by a Brigadier General alike or a Colonel. Unlike other European armies such of neighbouring Netherlands and France, regiments are not a common form of organization and are thus rare in the German army. Battalions are directly subordinate to brigades or to divisions as divisional troops.


The German Army has eleven different branches of troops, designated as Truppengattungen. Each Truppengattung is responsible for training and readiness of its units and disposes of its own schools and centres of excellence for doing so. Optically this distinction can be made by the branch colour, called Waffenfarbe which is displayed by a cord attached to the rank insignia, and the colour of their beret with a specific badge attached to it.

Beret Colour (Army only and Security Units of Navy and Air Force)

Grey mountain cap (Bergmütze): Mountain Troops Gebirgsjäger

Waffenfarbe (Army and army support branch only)

Rank structure[edit]

The rank structure of the German army is adjusted to the rank structure of the NATO. Unlike its predecessors, the modern German Army does not use the rank of Colonel General. The highest rank for an army officer is Lieutenant General, as the rank of Full General is reserved for the Armed Forces chief of staff or officers serving as NATO officers. Officer cadets do not pass through all enlisted ranks, but are directly promoted to Lieutenant after 36 months of service.
Equivalent US Army ranks are shown below according to "STANAG 2116 NSA MC LO (EDITION 6) – NATO CODES FOR GRADES OF MILITARY PERSONNEL":

Officers of the German ArmyBundeswehr Heer.jpg
Lieutenant General (Generalleutnant)
Major General (Generalmajor)
Brigadier General (Brigadegeneral)
Lieutenant Colonel
Officers of the German ArmyBundeswehr Heer.jpg
Staff Captain
1st Lieutenant
2nd Lieutenant
Non-Commissioned Officers of the German Army Bundeswehr Heer.jpg
Sergeant Major (Oberstabsfeldwebel)
Master Sergeant
Sergeant 1st Class (officer cadet)
Sergeant 1st Class
Staff Sergeant
Non-Commissioned Officers of the German Army Bundeswehr Heer.jpg
Staff Sergeant (officer cadet)
Staff Sergeant
Corporal (officer cadet)
Enlisted Ranks of the German ArmyBundeswehr Heer.jpg
Corporal Specialist (Oberstabsgefreiter)
Lance Corporal
Private 1st Class (NCO cadet)
(Obergefreiter UA)
Private 1st Class
Enlisted Ranks of the German ArmyBundeswehr Heer.jpg
Private 1st Class (officer cadet)
(Gefreiter OA)
Private 1st Class (Sergeant cadet) (Gefreiter FA)
Private 1st Class (NCO cadet)
(Gefreiter UA)
Private 1st Class

Aircraft inventory[edit]

Eurocopter TigerAttack helicopterUHT2757 ordered.[9] One lost on 4 March 2013.[10]
Eurocopter Tiger 2.jpg
NHI NH90Transport helicopterNH90 TTH2262 planned.[11] 18 NH90 TTH of originally ordered total of 80 will be changed to NH90 NFH helicopter type for German Navy.
NH-90 ILA-2006 2.jpg
UH-1 IroquoisUtility helicopterUH-1D82Built by Dornier, being phased out and replaced by NH90 TTH.
UH-1D Luftwaffe A29 Ahlhorn 1984.JPEG
Bölkow Bo 105Utility helicopter105P104Mostly Anti-Tank-Helicopter version, being replaced by Eurocopter Tiger.
Bölkow Bo 105 (aka).jpg
Eurocopter EC 135Utility helicopterEC13515
Eurocopter EC 135 Bundeswehr.jpg

Combat vehicles[edit]

Land vehicles[edit]

Land vehicles
Leopard 2Main Battle Tank408Only the 225 Leopard 2A6s are planned to remain in service. A4 A5 A6
Leopard 2A6, PzBtl 104.jpg
Marder 1 A3/A5Infantry fighting vehicle521
Schützenpanzer PumaInfantry fighting vehicle5Replaces the Marder in the Mechanized Infantry, being delivered 350.
SPz Puma Mobilitätsversuchfahrzeug VS2.jpg
Wiesel 1Armoured weapons carrier/Tankette272
  • as a reconnaissance vehicle for the airborne troops
  • with autocannon 20 mm
  • with TOW anti-tank guided missile
  • with mortar 120 mm
  • as a radar vehicle for the light air defence system (LeFlaSys)
  • as a command vehicle for the LeFlaSys
  • as an engineer reconnaissance vehicle
  • with Stinger equipped for the LeFlaSys
  • as a medical vehicle for the airborne troops
GTK BoxerArmoured fighting vehicle272To replace M113 and TPz Fuchs (planned) Developed with Dutch Army.
120-2048 IMG.JPG
Dingo 1/2Infantry mobility vehicle533
  • 147 Dingo 1
  • 386 Dingo 2
Dingo 2.jpg
Eagle IV/Eagle VArmored personnel carrier/Infantry mobility vehicle495475 have been ordered so far + 20 vehicles as armored ambulance.
Bundeswehr mowag eagle IV front.JPG
EnokLight armoured patrol vehicle247
Bundeswehr LAPV Enok.png
FennekLight armoured reconnaissance & Patrol vehicle222178 reconnaissance, 24 combat engineer, 20 joint fire support teams (JFST). Developed with Dutch Army.
KMW GrizzlyArmored car (military)
Grizzly er.jpg
AGF ServalLight Utility Vehicle21+
Serval 2.jpg
DURO IIIArmored car (military)
Kdo DURO M2+M1 o. 2xM2+ - Schweizer Armee - Steel Parade 2006.jpg
YAKAmbulance Vehicle296Based on DURO III.
Duro3 MSPO2004.jpg
Mungo ESKArmoured Transport vehicle396
Krauss Maffai Mungo.jpg
TPz FuchsArmoured Personnel Carrier1003144 upgraded
TPz 1 Fuchs NBC reconnaissance vehicle.jpg
BV 206SArmoured personnel carrier
Hagglunds Bv206 25th US Marines 2.jpg


M270 MLRSMultiple rocket launcher252227 mm multiple rocket launcher
MLRS in REFORGER 1985.jpg
PzH 2000Self-propelled artillery185To be reduced to 154 with 31 to be kept in storage for possible conversion to AGM mobile artillery module.
PzH2000 houwitser.png
Wiesel 2 lePzMrsMortarLightweight Armoured Mortar of Advanced Mortar System
W2 lepzmrs.jpg
Mortar TAMPELLAMortar
COBRACounter artillery radar system
ABRAArtillery radar systemBeing phased out.
Mortar "R"Mortar120mm
ATMASArtillery weather measure system
SMAArtillery sound measure system

Air defence systems[edit]

Air defence systems
Flakpanzer GepardSelf-propelled anti-aircraft gun94377 originally built for the Bundeswehr, 94 remained in service until 2010 and are currently stored until SysFla is fully introduced.
Gepard 1a2 overview.jpg
LeFlaSysLight anti-aircraft missile systemBased on Wiesel 2.
Wiesel2 radar.jpg
MANTISCounter Rocket, Artillery, and Mortar
SysFlaSystem air defence – mobile and stationary platforms using the LFK NG and MANTIS), under development.
LÜRRadarBeing phased out.

Engineer equipment[edit]

Engineer equipment
DachsMilitary engineering vehicle
Pionierpanzer Dachs (2008).jpg
BüffelTracked salvage tank
Bergepanzer Bueffel.jpg
BiberBridge layer
Panzerschnellbruecke Biber auf Brueckenleger.jpg
Panzerschnellbrücke 2Bridge layerReplacing the Biber.
PSB 2 with bridge.jpg
Mine SkorpionMinelayer
Minenwerfer Skorpion 04.JPG
KeilerMine breaker
Minenräumpanzer Keiler.jpg
M3 Amphibious RigAmphibious Bridge layer
M3G ferry 2.jpg
Motorboot 3Motorboat
Medium Girder BridgeBridge system
FaltfestbrückeSolid bridge system
FaltschwimmbrückeBridge system
Pontoon bridgePontoon bridge
FaltstraßensystemMobile roadway system


Standard light weapons[edit]

Standard light weapons
Heckler & Koch G36Assault rifle5.56×45mmVersions G36K, G36C, and MG36 for several branches including Special Forces
Domok g36.JPG
Heckler & Koch MG4Light machine gun5.56×45mm
HK MG4 01.jpg
Rheinmetall MG3General-purpose machine gun7.62×51mm
Heckler & Koch HK21General-purpose machine gun7.62×51mmAutomatic rifle, only used by special forces.
M3MHeavy machine gun12.7 mm x 99Used on armoured vehicles and CH-53 helicopters.
Machine gun M2 1.jpg
Heckler & Koch MP7Submachine gunHK 4.6×30mmReplacing the MP2.
MP2Submachine gun9×19mm
Uzi 1.jpg
Heckler & Koch MP5Submachine gun9×19mmUsed by various units like the Feldjäger and special forces.
Heckler & Koch 8Pistol9×19mm
Remington Model 870ShotgunUsed in small numbers by special forces and the military police (Feldjäger).
Flickr - ~Steve Z~ - 870.jpg
G22Sniper rifle7.62 mm x 66.5B
G22 ohne Schalldaempfer.jpg
G24Sniper rifleOnly used by special forces.
G82Sniper rifle12.7×99mm NATO
Heckler & Koch G3Battle rifle7.62×51mmModified version of the HK G3.
DCB Shooting G3 pictures.jpg
G28Designated marksman rifle7.62×51mmModified version of the HKMR308, designated marksman rifle.

Rocket launchers/Grenade launchers/Missiles[edit]

Rocket launchers/Grenade launchers/Missiles
M320Grenade launcher
PEO M320 Grenade Launcher.jpg
Panzerfaust 3Anti-tank Rocket launcher
RGW 90 ASAnti-tank missile
MATADOR Stand.jpg
Raytheon Fliegerfaust 2Man-portable air-defense systems
Stinger (dummy) and case.png
MILANAnti-tank missile
Milan 501607 fh000004.jpg
Granatpistole 40mmGrenade launcher
Heckler & Koch GMGAutomatic grenade launcher
HK GMW.jpg
Heckler & Koch AG36Grenade launcher


KM2000Combat knife

Reconnaissance systems[edit]

Reconnaissance systems
FennekWheeled armoured reconnaissance vehicle
EMT Luna X-2000UAV reconnaissance drone
KZOUAV reconnaissance drone
Rheinmetall KZO - ILA 2010 (2).jpg
AladinUAV reconnaissance drone
Schiebel Camcopter S-100VTOL UAV reconnaissance drone
Schiebel CAMCOPTER S-100.jpg
MIKADOMini reconnaissance drone system
AirRobot AR-100B.jpg
FancopterMini reconnaissance drone system
FanCopter 1024x768.jpg
RASITRadar systemBeing phased out.
BÜRGround surveillance radar systemBased on Dingo 2
ATF Dingo 2 mit BÜR.jpg

Logistic equipment[edit]

Logistic equipment
SLT 50 ElefantTank transporter,heavy tractor trailer.
Slt Elefant.jpg
BKF 30.40Salvage vehicle

Non-combat vehicles[edit]

Non-combat vehicles
Mercedes-Benz 250 GD "Wolf"Bundeswehr MB Wolf.jpg
KTM LC4 Military 27 PSMotorcycle
ATV Yamaha Kodiak 400Quad
LKW 2t mil gl, 4x4 (Unimog)Multi-purpose auto
Zetrosarmoured truckMercedes-Benz Zetros GTF 6x6.JPG
LKW 5t mil gl, 4x4
LKW 5t mil, 4x4
LKW 7t mil gl, 6x6
LKW 7t mil, 6x6
LKW 10t mil gl, 8x8
LKW 15t mil gl, 8x8
LKW 15t mil gl MULTI, 8x8
Volkswagen T platform (T3/T4)
Snowmobile Ski-Doo

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Die Stärke der Streitkräfte
  2. ^ a b For a discussion on German defence planning in the context of the EDC, see Abenheim, Reforging the Iron Cross, Chap. 5 (Zilian, p.41)
  3. ^ See Frederick Zilian Jr., 'From Confrontation to Cooperation: The Takeover of the National People's (East German) Army by the Bundeswehr,' Praeger, Westport, Conn., 1999, ISBN 0-275-96546-5, p.40-41, for a discussion of this period
  4. ^ a b Zilian, p.41
  5. ^ Adenauers Geheimnis
  6. ^ See Jorg Schonbohm, 'Two Armies and One Fatherland', Berghahn Books, Providence & Oxford, 1996
  7. ^ "Die Streitkräftebasis" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-02-26. [dead link]
  8. ^ "World Military Aircraft Inventory". Aviation Week & Space Technology 2009. 13 September 2009. 
  9. ^ "Tiger & N90 orders" (in German). German MOD. 2013-03-15. Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
  10. ^ Air Forces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. April 2013. p. 32. 
  11. ^ MOD Helicopter orders

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Historical links[edit]