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Roßbach was born in Kehrberg, Pomerania. During the Baltic fighting of 1919, his Freikorps made an extremely long march from Berlin across Eastern Europe to rescue the Iron Division (another Freikorps) from destruction by the Latvian Army. It went on to participate in the Kapp Putsch in 1920, get banned, and reform under various front organizations. Money came from the Landbund, Heavy Industry, and arms dealing. In the early 20s he was arrested for trying to overthrow the government.
He also joined the Nazi Party. He took part in the Beer Hall putsch of 1923 mobilising students, cadets and officer candidates of the Reichswehr Infantry, fleeing to Austria after the putsch failed. He was then recruited by Hitler to help organize the SA By 1928, he could claim to have killed "a number of Mecklenburg laborers and Spartacist sympathizers". He later fell out with Adolf Hitler during his rise to power and was arrested but not killed during the Roehm Purge of 1934.
He helped start the Schilljugend, a youth organization, to get rid of "intellectual elements" in the youth movements and instill children with "nationalistic, socialistic, authoritative, and militaristic" ideas.
Roßbach organised music festivals which combined folk and classical music to instil national pride and construct conservative community values.
After World War II he operated an export-import company near Frankfurt and wrote his memoirs in 1950. In his last years he took a prominent part in organising the Bayreuth festivals of Richard Wagner's music.