George R. R. Martin

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George R. R. Martin
George R R Martin 2011 Shankbone.JPG
Martin at the 2011 Time 100 gala.
BornGeorge Raymond Martin
(1948-09-20) September 20, 1948 (age 65)[1]
Bayonne, New Jersey, USA
EducationNorthwestern University
GenresScience fiction, horror, fantasy
Notable work(s)A Song of Ice and Fire
Spouse(s)Gale Burnick (1975–1979)
Parris McBride (2011–present)
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George R. R. Martin
George R R Martin 2011 Shankbone.JPG
Martin at the 2011 Time 100 gala.
BornGeorge Raymond Martin
(1948-09-20) September 20, 1948 (age 65)[1]
Bayonne, New Jersey, USA
EducationNorthwestern University
GenresScience fiction, horror, fantasy
Notable work(s)A Song of Ice and Fire
Spouse(s)Gale Burnick (1975–1979)
Parris McBride (2011–present)

George Raymond Richard Martin[2] (born September 20, 1948), sometimes referred to as GRRM,[3] is an American author of fantasy, horror, and science fiction prose, as well as a screenwriter and television producer. He is best known for A Song of Ice and Fire, his international bestselling series of epic fantasy novels that HBO adapted for their dramatic series Game of Thrones. Martin serves as the series' co-executive producer, while also scripting one of each season's 10 episodes. Martin was selected by Time magazine as one of the "2011 Time 100", a list of the "most influential people in the world".[4][5]

Early life[edit]

George Raymond Martin (he later adopted the Confirmation name Richard at the age of 13)[6] was born on September 20, 1948, in Bayonne, New Jersey,[7] the son of longshoreman Raymond Collins Martin and his wife Margaret Brady Martin, who also had two daughters, sisters Darleen and Janet; the family's heritage is Irish.[8] They lived in a federal housing project near the Bayonne docks.

The young Martin began writing and selling monster stories for pennies to other neighborhood children, dramatic readings included. He also wrote stories about a mythical kingdom populated by his pet turtles; the turtles died frequently in their toy castle, so he finally decided they were killing each other off in "sinister plots".[9] Martin attended Mary Jane Donohoe School and then later Marist High School. While there he became an avid comic-book fan, developing a strong interest in the innovative superheroes being published by Marvel Comics.[10] Fantastic Four No. 20 (Nov 1963) printed a letter Martin wrote to the editor, the first of many sent, e.g., FF #32, #34, and others from his family's home at 35 E. First Street, Bayonne, NJ. Other fans wrote him letters, and through such contacts Martin joined the fledgling comics fandom of the era, writing fiction for various fanzines.[11] In 1965 Martin won comic fandom's Alley Award for his prose superhero story "Powerman vs. The Blue Barrier," the first of many awards he would go on to win for his fiction.

In 1970 Martin earned a B. S. in Journalism from Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, graduating summa cum laude; he went on to complete his M. S. in Journalism in 1971, also from Northwestern. Eligible for the draft during the Vietnam War, to which he objected, Martin applied for and obtained conscientious-objector status;[12] he instead did alternative service work for two years (1972–1974) as a VISTA volunteer, attached to the Cook County Legal Assistance Foundation. He also directed chess tournaments for the Continental Chess Association from 1973 to 1976. Then from 1976 to 1978 he was an English and journalism instructor at Clarke University (then Clarke College) in Dubuque, IA, becoming Writer In Residence at the college from 1978 to 1979.


Martin began selling science fiction short stories professionally in 1970, at age 21. His first story, "The Hero", sold to Galaxy magazine and was published in its February 1971 issue; other sales soon followed. The first story of his nominated for the Hugo Award[13] and the Nebula Award was With Morning Comes Mistfall, published in 1973 by Analog magazine. A member of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA), Martin became the organization's Southwest Regional Director from 1977 to 1979; from 1996 to 1998 he served as its vice-president.

In 1976, for Kansas City's MidAmeriCon, the 34th World Science Fiction Convention (Worldcon), Martin and his friend and fellow writer-editor Gardner Dozois conceived of and organized the first Hugo Losers Party for the benefit of all past and present Hugo-losing writers, their friends and families the evening following the convention's Hugo Awards ceremony. Martin was nominated for two Hugos that year but ultimately wound up losing both awards, for the novelette "...and Seven Times Never Kill Man" and the novella The Storms of Windhaven, co-written with Lisa Tuttle.[14] The Hugo Losers Party became an annual Worldcon event thereafter, its formal title eventually evolving into something a little more politically correct as both its size and prestige grew.

Although Martin often writes fantasy or horror, a number of his earlier works tell science-fiction tales occurring in a loosely defined future history, known informally as "The Thousand Worlds" or "The Manrealm". He has also written at least one piece of political-military fiction, "Night of the Vampyres", collected in Harry Turtledove's anthology The Best Military Science Fiction of the 20th Century.[15]

The unexpected commercial failure of Martin's fourth book, The Armageddon Rag (1983), "essentially destroyed my career as a novelist at the time", he recalled. It began his career in television, however,[9] as a result of a Hollywood option on that novel that then led to him being hired, first as a staff writer and then as an Executive Story Consultant, for the revival of the Twilight Zone. When the CBS series ran its course, Martin migrated over to the already underway satirical science fiction series Max Headroom. He worked on scripts and created the show's "Ped Xing" character (the president of the Zic Zak corporation, Network 23's primary sponsor). Before his scripts could go into production, however, the ABC show was canceled in the middle of its second season. Martin was then hired as a writer-producer on the dramatic fantasy series Beauty and the Beast; in 1989 he became the show's co-supervising producer. He also wrote 14 episodes.[16]

During this same period, he continued working in print media as a book-series editor, this time overseeing the development of the lengthy and still on-going Wild Cards series, which takes place in a shared universe in which a small slice of post–World War II humanity gains superpowers after the release of an alien-engineered virus. In Second Person Martin "gives a personal account of the close-knit role-playing game (RPG) culture that gave rise to his Wild Cards shared-world anthologies".[17] Martin ran a campaign of Chaosium's 1983 role-playing game Superworld in Albuquerque, which eventually gave rise to the multiple author series.[18] Martin's own contributions to Wild Cards have included Thomas Tudbury, "The Great and Powerful Turtle", a powerful psychokinetic whose flying "shell" consisted of an armored VW Beetle. As of June 2011, 21 Wild Cards volumes had been published in the series; earlier that same year, Martin signed the contract for the 22nd volume, Low Ball, which has since been completed and will be published by Tor Books in mid-summer of 2014. In early 2012 Martin signed another Tor contract for the 23rd Wild Cards volume, High Stakes.

Martin's novella, Nightflyers, was adapted into a 1987 feature film of the same title; he was not happy about having to cut plot elements for the screenplay's scenario in order to accommodate the film's small budget.[19]

A Song of Ice and Fire[edit]

Teaching at Clarion West, 1998.

In 1991 Martin briefly returned to writing novels and began what would eventually turn into his epic fantasy series A Song of Ice and Fire inspired by the Wars of the Roses and Ivanhoe, which will comprise seven volumes. The first, A Game of Thrones, was published in 1996. In November 2005, A Feast for Crows, the fourth novel in this series, became The New York Times No. 1 Bestseller and also achieved No. 1 ranking on The Wall Street Journal bestseller list. In addition, in September 2006, A Feast for Crows was nominated for both a Quill Award and the British Fantasy Award.[20] The fifth book, A Dance with Dragons, was published in July 12, 2011 quickly becoming an international bestseller, including a No. 1 ranking on the New York Times Bestseller List and many others; it remained on the NY Times list for 88 weeks and still continues to sell well. The series has received praise from authors, readers, and critics alike. In 2012 A Dance With Dragons made the final ballot for science fiction and fantasy's Hugo Award, World Fantasy Award, Locus Poll Award, and the British Fantasy Award; the novel went on to win the Locus Poll Award for Best Fantasy Novel. Two more novels are planned and still being written in the Ice and Fire series: The Winds of Winter and A Dream of Spring.

HBO series production[edit]

During completion of A Dance With Dragons and other projects, George R. R. Martin was also heavily involved in the production of a television series adaptation of the A Song of Ice and Fire books named after the first book, A Game of Thrones. Martin's involvement included the selection of a production team and participation in scriptwriting; the opening credits list him as a co-executive producer of the series.

HBO Productions purchased the television rights for the entire A Song of Ice and Fire series in 2007 and began airing the fantasy series (titled "Game of Thrones") on their U. S. premium cable channel April 17, 2011; it ran weekly for ten episodes, each approximately an hour long.[21] The series was renewed shortly after the first episode aired. The first season was nominated for thirteen Emmy Awards, ultimately winning two, one for its opening title credits and for Peter Dinklage as Best Supporting Actor. The second season of ten episodes, based on the second Ice and Fire novel A Clash of Kings, began airing on HBO in the U. S. April 1, 2012; the second season was nominated for twelve Emmy Awards, including another Supporting Actor nomination for Dinklage. It went on to win six of those Emmys in the Technical Arts categories, which were awarded the week before the regular televised 2012 awards show. The first season of 10 episodes was also nominated for a 2012 Hugo Award, fantasy and science fiction's oldest award, presented by the World Science Fiction Society each year at the annual worldcon; the show went on to win the 2012 Hugo for Best Dramatic Presentation, Long Form, at Chicon 7, the 70th World Science Fiction Convention, in Chicago, IL; Martin took home one of the three Hugo Award trophies given in that collaborative category, the other two going to Game of Thrones showrunners' Benioff and Weiss. The second season episode, "Blackwater," written by George R.R. Martin, was nominated the following year for the 2013 Hugo Award in the Best Dramatic Presentation, Short Form category; that episode went on to win the Hugo Award at LoneStarCon 3, the 71st World Science Fiction Convention, in San Antonio, Texas.


George R. R. Martin in July 2013.

Martin's work has been described by the Los Angeles Times as having "complex story lines, fascinating characters, great dialogue, perfect pacing",[22] while the New York Times sees it as "fantasy for grown ups",[23] others feel it is dark and cynical.[24] His first novel, Dying of the Light, set the tone for some of his future work; it unfolds on a mostly abandoned planet that is slowly becoming uninhabitable as it moves away from its sun. This story has a strong sense of melancholy. His characters are often unhappy or, at least, unsatisfied – in many cases holding on to idealisms in spite of an otherwise chaotic and ruthless world, in many cases troubled by their own self-seeking or violent actions in spite of undertaking them anyway. Many have elements of tragic heroes in them - reviewer T M Wagner writes, "Let it never be said Martin doesn't share Shakespeare's fondness for the senselessly tragic."[25]

The overall gloominess of A Song of Ice and Fire can be an obstacle for some readers—the Inchoatus Group writes, "If this absence of joy is going to trouble you, or you're looking for something more affirming, then you should probably seek elsewhere".[26] For many fans, however, it is precisely this level of "realness" and "completeness", including characters' imperfections and moral / ethical ambiguity and tragic plot twists, that is endearing about Martin's work and keeps the story arc compelling enough to keep following despite its sheer brutality - as TM Wagner points out, "There's great tragedy here, but there's also excitement, humor, heroism even in weaklings, nobility even in villains, and, now and then, a taste of justice after all. It's a rare gift when a writer can invest his story with that much humanity".[27]

Martin's characters are multi-faceted—each with surprisingly intricate pasts, aspirations, and ambitions. Publishers Weekly writes of his ongoing epic fantasy A Song of Ice and Fire, "The complexity of characters such as Daenerys, Arya and the Kingslayer will keep readers turning even the vast number of pages contained in this volume, for the author, like Tolkien or Jordan, makes us care about their fates."[28] No one is given an unrealistic string of luck, however; so misfortune, injury, and death (including false death and reanimation) can befall any character, major or minor, no matter how attached the reader has become. Martin has described his penchant for killing off important characters as being necessary for the story's depth: "...when my characters are in danger, I want you to be afraid to turn the page, (so) you need to show right from the beginning that you're playing for keeps".[29]

In distinguishing his work from others, Martin makes a point of emphasizing realism and plausible social dynamics above an overreliance on magic and a simplistic "good vs evil" dichotomy that is often a criticism of contemporary fantasy writing. Notably, Martin's work makes a sharp departure from the prevalent "heroic knights and chivalry" schema that has become a mainstay in fantasy as derived from the Lord of the Rings series of J R R Tolkien, which Martin himself admires and from which he finds inspiration nevertheless.[30] However, he specifically critiques the oversimplification of Tolkien's themes and devices by imitators in ways that he has humorously described as "Disneyland Middle Ages"[31] that gloss over or even ignore major differences between medieval and modern societies - particularly social structures, ways of living, and political arrangements. (Martin is at times considered "the American Tolkien" by literary critics.[32]) The author makes a point of grounding his work on a foundation of historical fiction, which he channels to evoke important social and political elements of the medieval era that differed markedly from modern times, including the multi-generational, rigid, and often brutally consequential nature of the hierarchical class system of feudal societies[33] that is in many cases overlooked in fantasy writing. Even as A Song of Ice and Fire is a fantasy series that employs magic and the surreal as is central to the genre, Martin is keen to ensure that magic is merely one element of many that moves his work forward,[34] not a generic deus ex machina that is itself the focus of his stories. Martin's ultimate aim is an exploration of the internal conflicts that define the human condition, which - in deriving inspiration from William Faulkner[35] - he ultimately describes as the only reason to read any literature, regardless of genre.[36]

Major themes in Martin's main series are multi-faceted and multi-layered, encompassing the long and winding journey that the characters experience much as Martin envisions for himself and his readers[37] - these include idealism versus duty, romantic love versus primacy of family, the extent individuals can go in order to protect family (or enhance themselves within family), the conflicts that arise from different levels of societal obligation, why people are driven to "evil", the nature of redemption, realpolitik versus "doing the right thing", the ethics of political actions and their consequences, the brutality of war, the ways in which members of differing social classes successfully (or unsuccessfully) navigate an ancient / feudal class structure, and the meaning of religion and belief among many competing alternatives. Major themes and areas of exploration in his short fiction include loneliness, connection, tragically doomed love, idealism, romanticism, and hard truth versus comforting deceit. Many of these occur in his magnum opus as well, but most of them are more abundant and obvious in his shorter works.

Relationship with fans[edit]

GRRM signing books in a bookstore in Ljubljana, Slovenia (June 2011)

Martin is known for his regular attendance through the decades at science fiction conventions and comics conventions and his accessibility to fans. In the early 1980s, critic and writer Thomas Disch identified Martin as a member of the "Labor Day Group", writers who regularly congregated at the annual Worldcon,[38] usually held on or around the Labor Day weekend. Since the early 1970s he has also attended regional science fiction conventions, and since 1986 Martin has participated annually in Albuquerque's smaller regional convention Bubonicon, near his New Mexico home.[39]

Martin's official fan club is the "Brotherhood Without Banners," who have a regular posting board at the Forum of the large website,, which is focused on his Song of Ice and Fire fantasy series. At the annual World Science Fiction Convention every year, the BWB hosts a large, on-going hospitality suite that is open to all members of the Worldcon;[40] their suite frequently wins by popular vote the convention's best party award.[citation needed]

Martin has been criticized by some of his readers for the long periods between books in the Ice and Fire series, notably the six-year gap between the fourth volume, A Feast for Crows (2005), and the fifth volume, A Dance with Dragons (2011).[41][42] The previous year, in 2010, Martin had responded to fan criticisms by saying he was unwilling to write only his Ice and Fire series, noting that working on other prose and compiling and editing different book projects has always been part of his working process.[43] The band Dinosaur Feathers published their song "Please, Please George" on June 23, 2011, discussing their desire and impatience for the publication of his next novel.[44] By that time, however, Martin had previously announced, in spring of 2011, that Dragons was finished; the novel was published on July 12, 2011, three weeks after the appearance of Dinosaur Feathers' song.

Martin is strongly opposed to fan fiction, believing it to be copyright infringement and a bad exercise for aspiring writers.[45][46]

Personal life[edit]

In the early 1970s Martin was in a relationship with fellow science-fiction/fantasy author Lisa Tuttle,[47] with whom he co-wrote Windhaven.

While attending an east coast science fiction convention he met his first wife, Gale Burnick; they were married in 1975, but the marriage ended in divorce, without children, in 1979.

Since 1979 Martin has made Santa Fe, New Mexico his home. In early 2013 he purchased Santa Fe's Jean Cocteau Cinema and Coffee House, which had been closed since 2006. He had the property completely restored, rebuilding its concession area, enlarging its screen, and adding digital projection to the landmark cinema's 35mm capability. The Cocteau officially re-opened for business with great fanfare on Friday, August 9, 2013 as both a general and special events theater and a coffee house with rotating art and photo exhibits.[48][49]

Signing for the fans at LoneStarCon 3 (the 71st World Science Fiction Convention) in San Antonio, Texas.

On February 15, 2011, Martin married his longtime paramour Parris McBride during a small ceremony at their Santa Fe, New Mexico, home; the couple exchanged Celtic-inspired wedding rings custom-made for them by local artisans. Area friends were in attendance and helped them celebrate the occasion.[50] On August 19, 2011, they held a larger wedding ceremony and reception at Renovation, the 69th World Science Fiction Convention, in Reno, Nevada for their larger circle of friends within the fantasy and science fiction fields.[51]

Martin maintains a LiveJournal account called "Not A Blog" where he posts about his works and various unrelated topics such as politics and the NFL: he is a lifelong supporter of the Democratic Party and claimed Jimmy Carter, during an interview with Authors@Google, to be "clearly the best human being to be president during my lifetime". He has recently expressed admiration for Barack Obama and strongly condemned attempts at voter suppression, likening it to the behavior of Democrats of the Solid South and citing the pro-voting rights Republicans of his youth as a far better rolemodel for the conservative movement, citing youthful admiration for specifically Everett Dirksen, Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., Clifford Case, William Scranton and Barry Goldwater.[52] Martin is an avid, lifelong fan of both the New York Jets and New York Giants. His LJ "Not a Blog" posts have been reposted at times by someone else to a George R. R. Martin Facebook page, but Martin has never been a member of that online community or a reader of its posts; he also does not use Twitter.

Martin spends his spare time reading voraciously on a variety of topics, collecting medieval-themed miniatures and dioramas, watching professional football on television (in season), reading and collecting science fiction, fantasy, and horror books, and treasuring his large comics collection, which includes the first issues of Marvel's "silver age" Spider-Man and Fantastic Four.

He and his wife Parris are supporters of the Wild Spirit Wolf Sanctuary in New Mexico.[53] Martin has noted his admiration for wolves not only in his books but also through fundraising.[54][55]

In response to a question on his religious views, Martin replied, "I suppose I'm a lapsed Catholic. You would consider me an atheist or agnostic. I find religion and spirituality fascinating. I would like to believe this isn't the end and there's something more, but I can't convince the rational part of me that makes any sense whatsoever. That's what Tolkien left out — there's no priesthood, there's no temples; nobody is worshiping anything in the Rings."[56]




1A Song for Lya1976Short story collection
2Dying of the Light1977Novel
3Songs of Stars and Shadows1977Short story collection
4The Ice Dragon1980Juvenile fiction
5Windhaven1981Novelwith Lisa Tuttle
6Sandkings1981Short story collection
7Fevre Dream1982Novel
8Songs the Dead Men Sing1983Short story collection
9The Armageddon Rag1983Novel
10Nightflyers1985Short story collection
11Tuf Voyaging1986Fix-up novel
12Portraits of His Children1987Short story collection
13A Game of Thrones1996NovelA Song of Ice and Fire, Book 1
14A Clash of Kings1998NovelA Song of Ice and Fire, Book 2
15The Hedge Knight1998NovellaTales of Dunk and Egg, Part 1
16A Storm of Swords2000NovelA Song of Ice and Fire, Book 3
17Quartet2001Short story collectionNESFA Press
18GRRM: A RRetrospective2003Thick,1-volume stories/essays collectionSubterranean Press
19The Sworn Sword2003NovellaTales of Dunk and Egg, Part 2
20A Feast for Crows2005NovelA Song of Ice and Fire, Book 4
21Hunter's Run2007Novelwith Gardner Dozois and Daniel Abraham
22The Mystery Knight2010NovellaTales of Dunk and Egg, Part 3
23A Dance with Dragons2011NovelA Song of Ice and Fire, Book 5
24The Wit and Wisdom of Tyrion Lannister2013Quote collectionfrom A Song of Ice and Fire
25The Princess and the Queen2013NovellaA Song of Ice and Fire, Prequel[57]
26The Skin Trade2013NovellaWSFA Press hardcover
27A Knight of the Seven Kingdoms2014CollectionA Song of Ice and Fire, Dunk and Egg novellas
28The Winds of WinterForthcomingNovelA Song of Ice and Fire, Book 6
29A Dream of SpringForthcomingNovelA Song of Ice and Fire, Book 7



Wild Cards series editor (also contributor to many volumes)[edit]

Cross-genre anthologies edited (with Gardner Dozois)[edit]


  1. ^ "Monitor". Entertainment Weekly (1277/1278). Sep 20/27, 2013. p. 36. 
  2. ^ Richards, Linda (January 2001). "January interview: George R.R. Martin". Archived from the original on April 4, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2012.  (Interview approved by GRRM.)
  3. ^ Choate, Trish (September 22, 2011). "Choate: Quest into world of fantasy books can be hobbit-forming". Times Record News. Retrieved February 28, 2012. 
  4. ^ a b The 2011 TIME 100: George R.R. Martin, John Hodgman, April 21, 2011
  5. ^ The 2011 TIME 100: Full List Retrieved June 5, 2011
  6. ^ "Author George R.R. Martin Is Visiting Texas A&M, Talks ‘Game of Thrones' and Texas A&M Libraries". TAMUTimes (Texas A&M University). March 22, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Life & Times of George R.R. Martin". George R.R. Martin (official website). Retrieved February 27, 2012.
  8. ^ Poniewozik, James (20 April 2011). "GRRM Interview Part 4: Personal History". TIME. Retrieved 20 August 2013. "We had no money and we lived in the projects, but my mother came from a family that had had money. An Irish family, Irish American family, the Bradys." 
  9. ^ a b Berwick, Isabel (2012-06-01). "Lunch with the FT: George RR Martin". Financial Times. Retrieved June 1, 2012. 
  10. ^ Rutkoff, Aaron. "Garden State Tolkien: Q&A With George R.R. Martin", The Wall Street Journal, July 8, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011. "Mr. Martin, 62 years old, says that he grew up in a federal housing project in Bayonne, which is situated on a peninsula.... My four years at Marist High School were not the happiest of my life,” the author admits, although his growing enthusiasm for writing comics and superhero stories first emerged during this period."
  11. ^ Dent, Grace (interviewer); Martin, George R. R. (2012-06-12). Game Of Thrones – Interview with George R.R. Martin. YouTube. 
  12. ^ "George Stroumboulopoulos Tonight, interview with Martin". George Stroumboulopoulos Tonight ( March 14, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2012. ,
  13. ^ "With Morning Comes Mistfall". Hugo Awards. Retrieved May 22, 2012. 
  14. ^ The Locus Index to SF Awards. Retrieved Aug 14, 2012
  15. ^ Turtledove, Harry, ed., with Martin H. Greenberg. The Best Military Science Fiction of the 20th Century. New York: Ballantine, May 2001, p. 279–306.
  16. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. ^ Kerr, John Finlay. 2009. Second person: Role-playing and story in games and playable media, edited by Pat Harrigan and Noah Wardrip-Fruin [book review]. Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 2.
  18. ^ Shannon Appelcline (2011). Designers & Dragons. Mongoose Publishing. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-907702-58-7. 
  19. ^ Peter Sagal (September 15, 2012). "'Thrones' Author George R.R. Martin Plays Not My Job". NPR. Retrieved September 16, 2012. 
  20. ^ A Feast for Crows award nominations
  21. ^ HBO greenlights Game of Thrones to series (pic), The Hollywood Reporter, November 30, 2010
  22. ^ VanderMeer, Jeff (July 12, 2011). "Book review: 'A Dance With Dragons' by George R.R. Martin". Los Angeles Times. 
  23. ^ Jennings, Dana (July 14, 2011). "In a Fantasyland of Liars, Trust No One, and Keep Your Dragon Close". New York Times. 
  24. ^ "The American Tolkien" by Lev Grossman, a Times article on Martin. Retrieved on 2007-11-03.
  25. ^ T. M. Wagner. (2003),Review of A Storm of Swords. Retrieved on 2007-11-03.
  26. ^ "Review of A Game of Thrones". Archived from the original on 2008-03-25. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
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  28. ^ Review of A Storm of Swords by Publishers Weekly
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  31. ^ "GRRM Interview Part 2: Fantasy and History". Time. April 18, 2011. 
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  36. ^ "‘Game of Thrones' Author George R.R. Martin Spills the Secrets of ‘A Dance with Dragons'". The Wall Street Journal. July 8, 2011. 
  37. ^ Time. April 19, 2011 |url= missing title (help). 
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  41. ^ Miller, Laura (April 11, 2011). "Onward and Upward with the Arts: Just Write It!: A fantasy author and his impatient fans.". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2012-02-12. 
  42. ^ Kay, Guy Gavriel (April 10, 2009). "Restless readers go bonkers". Globe and Mail (Canada). Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
  43. ^ Flood, Alison (February 16, 2010). "Excitement as George RR Martin announces he's 1,200 pages into new book". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
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  45. ^ Martin, George R R. "Frequently Asked Questions - George R. R. Martin's Official Website". Retrieved January 16, 2013. 
  46. ^ Martin, George R R (May 7, 2010). "Not A Blog - Someone Is Angry On the Internet". LiveJournal. Retrieved January 16, 2013. 
  47. ^ "In Love With Lisa". Life & Times. George R.R. Martin Official Website. Retrieved July 8, 2012. 
  48. ^ and special events ://
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  50. ^ "Big, Big, BIG News". Not A Blog. LiveJournal. 17 February 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2012. 
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  58. ^ IDW's November Previews, IDW Publishing, August 18, 2010
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  61. ^ "Dangerous Women Arrives on". July 24, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2013. 
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