George Marshall

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General of the Army
George Marshall
General George C. Marshall, official military photo, 1946.JPEG
50th United States Secretary of State
In office
January 21, 1947 – January 20, 1949
PresidentHarry S. Truman
Preceded byJames F. Byrnes
Succeeded byDean G. Acheson
3rd United States Secretary of Defense
In office
September 21, 1950 – September 12, 1951
PresidentHarry S. Truman
Preceded byLouis A. Johnson
Succeeded byRobert A. Lovett
15th United States Army Chief of Staff
In office
September 1, 1939 – November 18, 1945
PresidentFranklin D. Roosevelt
Harry S. Truman
Preceded byMalin Craig
Succeeded byDwight D. Eisenhower
1st General of the Army (United States)
PresidentFranklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded byposition established
Succeeded byDouglas MacArthur
Personal details
BornGeorge Catlett Marshall, Jr.
(1880-12-31)December 31, 1880
Uniontown, Pennsylvania, United States
DiedOctober 16, 1959(1959-10-16) (aged 78)
Washington, D.C., United States
Political partyNonpartisan[1]
Spouse(s)Elizabeth Carter Coles Marshall
(m. 1902 - d. 1927)
Katherine Boyce Tupper Brown Marshall
(1882 - 1978)
Alma materVirginia Military Institute
ProfessionSoldier
Statesman
ReligionEpiscopal[2]
Signature
Military service
AllegianceUnited States of America
Service/branchUnited States Army
Years of service1902–1959[3]
RankUS-O11 insignia.svg General of the Army
CommandsFlag US Army Chief of Staff.svg Chief of Staff of the United States Army
Battles/warsPhilippine–American War

World War I

World War II
Chinese Civil War

AwardsDistinguished Service Medal (2)
Silver Star
Nobel Peace Prize
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB)
 
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General of the Army
George Marshall
General George C. Marshall, official military photo, 1946.JPEG
50th United States Secretary of State
In office
January 21, 1947 – January 20, 1949
PresidentHarry S. Truman
Preceded byJames F. Byrnes
Succeeded byDean G. Acheson
3rd United States Secretary of Defense
In office
September 21, 1950 – September 12, 1951
PresidentHarry S. Truman
Preceded byLouis A. Johnson
Succeeded byRobert A. Lovett
15th United States Army Chief of Staff
In office
September 1, 1939 – November 18, 1945
PresidentFranklin D. Roosevelt
Harry S. Truman
Preceded byMalin Craig
Succeeded byDwight D. Eisenhower
1st General of the Army (United States)
PresidentFranklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded byposition established
Succeeded byDouglas MacArthur
Personal details
BornGeorge Catlett Marshall, Jr.
(1880-12-31)December 31, 1880
Uniontown, Pennsylvania, United States
DiedOctober 16, 1959(1959-10-16) (aged 78)
Washington, D.C., United States
Political partyNonpartisan[1]
Spouse(s)Elizabeth Carter Coles Marshall
(m. 1902 - d. 1927)
Katherine Boyce Tupper Brown Marshall
(1882 - 1978)
Alma materVirginia Military Institute
ProfessionSoldier
Statesman
ReligionEpiscopal[2]
Signature
Military service
AllegianceUnited States of America
Service/branchUnited States Army
Years of service1902–1959[3]
RankUS-O11 insignia.svg General of the Army
CommandsFlag US Army Chief of Staff.svg Chief of Staff of the United States Army
Battles/warsPhilippine–American War

World War I

World War II
Chinese Civil War

AwardsDistinguished Service Medal (2)
Silver Star
Nobel Peace Prize
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB)

George Catlett Marshall, Jr. GCB (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959), was an American military leader, Chief of Staff of the Army, Secretary of State, and the third Secretary of Defense. Once noted as the "organizer of victory" by Winston Churchill for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II,[4] Marshall served as the United States Army Chief of Staff during the war and as the chief military adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Marshall's name was given to the Marshall Plan, subsequent to a commencement address he presented as Secretary of State at Harvard University in the spring of 1947. The speech broadly outlined for Europeans to create their own plan for rebuilding Europe after WWII, funded by the United States. Marshall received the Nobel Peace Prize for the plan in 1953.[5]

Early life[edit]

George Catlett Marshall, Jr., was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, the son of George Catlett Marshall, Sr. and Laura Emily (née Bradford) Marshall.[6] Marshall was a scion of an old Virginia family, as well as a distant relative of former Chief Justice John Marshall. Marshall graduated from the Virginia Military Institute (VMI),[7] where he was initiated into the Kappa Alpha Order, in 1901.

Entry into the Army and the Philippines[edit]

Following graduation from VMI, Marshall was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the U.S. Army. Until World War I, he was posted to various positions in the US and the Philippines. He served as an infantry platoon leader and company commander in the Philippines during the Philippine–American War and several other guerrilla uprisings. He was schooled and trained in modern warfare. His pre-war service included a tour at Fort Leavenworth, KS from 1906 to 1910 as both a student and an instructor.[8]

World War I[edit]

During the First World War, he had roles as a planner of both training and operations. He went to France in mid-1917 as the director of training and planning for the 1st Infantry Division. In mid-1918, he was promoted to American Expeditionary Forces headquarters, where he worked closely with his mentor General John J. Pershing and was a key planner of American operations. He was instrumental in the design and coordination of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, which contributed to the defeat of the German Army on the Western Front.[9]

Between World War I and II[edit]

In 1919, he became an aide-de-camp to General John J. Pershing. Between 1920 and 1924, while Pershing was Army Chief of Staff, Marshall worked in a number of positions in the US Army, focusing on training and teaching modern, mechanized warfare. Between World Wars I and II, he was a key planner and writer in the War Department, commanded the 15th Infantry Regiment (United States) for three years in China, and taught at the Army War College. In 1927, as a Lieutenant Colonel, he was appointed assistant commandant of Fort Benning, where he initiated major changes. From June 1932 to June 1933 he was the Commanding Officer at Fort Screven, Savannah Beach, Georgia, now named Tybee Island. In 1934, Col. Marshall put Edwin F. Harding in charge of the Infantry School's publications, and Harding became editor[10]:41 of Infantry in Battle, a book that codified the lessons of World War I. Infantry in Battle is still used as an officer's training manual in the Infantry Officer's Course and was the training manual for most of the infantry officers and leaders of World War II. Marshall was promoted to Brigadier General in October 1936. He commanded the Vancouver Barracks in Vancouver, Washington, from 1936–1938. In July 1938, Marshall was assigned to the War Plans Division in Washington D.C. and subsequently reassigned as Deputy Chief of Staff. In that capacity, then-Brigadier General Marshall attended a conference at the White House at which President Roosevelt proposed a plan to provide aircraft to England in support of the war effort, lacking forethought with regard to logistical support or training. With all other attendees voicing support of the plan, Marshall was the only person to voice his disagreement. Despite the common belief that he had ended his career, this action resulted in his being nominated by President Franklin Roosevelt to be Army Chief of Staff. Marshall was promoted to General and sworn in on September 1, 1939, the day German forces invaded Poland.[11] He would hold this post until the end of the war in 1945.

World War II[edit]

As Chief of Staff, Marshall organized the largest military expansion in U.S. history, inheriting an outmoded, poorly equipped army of 189,000 men and, partly drawing from his experience teaching and developing techniques of modern warfare as an instructor at the Army War College, coordinated the large-scale expansion and modernization of the U.S. Army. Though he had never actually led troops in combat, Marshall was a skilled organizer with a talent for inspiring other officers.[12] Many of the American generals who were given top commands during the war were either picked or recommended by Marshall, including Dwight D. Eisenhower, Jacob L. Devers, George S. Patton, Terry de la Mesa Allen, Sr., Lloyd Fredendall, Leslie McNair, Mark Wayne Clark and Omar Bradley.[13]

Expands military force forty fold[edit]

Faced with the necessity of turning an army of former civilians into a force of over eight million soldiers by 1942 (a fortyfold increase within three years), Marshall directed General Leslie McNair to focus efforts on rapidly producing large numbers of soldiers. With the exception of airborne forces, Marshall approved McNair's concept of an abbreviated training schedule for men entering Army land forces training, particularly in regard to basic infantry skills, weapons proficiency, and combat tactics.[14][15] At the time, most U.S. commanders at lower levels had little or no combat experience of any kind. Without the input of experienced British or Allied combat officers on the nature of modern warfare and enemy tactics, many resorted to formulaic training methods emphasizing static defense and orderly large-scale advances by motorized convoys over improved roads.[16] In consequence, Army forces deploying to Africa suffered serious initial reverses when encountering German armored combat units in Africa at Kasserine Pass and other major battles.[17] Even as late as 1944, U.S. soldiers undergoing stateside training in preparation for deployment against German forces in Europe were not being trained in combat procedures and tactics currently being employed there.[18]

Replacement system criticized[edit]

Originally, Marshall had planned a 200-division Army with a system of unit rotation such as practiced by the British and other Allies.[19] By mid-1943, however, after pressure from government and business leaders to preserve manpower for industry and agriculture, he had abandoned this plan in favor of a 90-division Army using individual replacements sent via a circuitous process from training to divisions in combat.[19] The individual replacement system (IRS) devised by Marshall and implemented by McNair greatly exacerbated problems with unit cohesion and effective transfer of combat experience to newly trained soldiers and officers.[17][20] In Europe, where there were few pauses in combat with German forces, the individual replacement system had broken down completely by late 1944.[21] Hastily trained replacements or service personnel re-assigned as infantry were given six weeks' refresher training and thrown into battle with Army divisions locked in front-line combat. The new men were often not even proficient in the use of their own rifles or weapons systems, and once in combat, could not receive enough practical instruction from veterans before being killed or wounded, usually within the first three or four days.[17][22][23] Under such conditions, many replacements suffered a crippling loss of morale, while veteran soldiers were kept in line units until they were killed, wounded, or incapacitated by battle fatigue or physical illness. Incidents of soldiers AWOL from combat duty as well as battle fatigue and self-inflicted injury rose rapidly during the last eight months of the war with Germany.[17][20][22] As one historian later concluded, "Had the Germans been given a free hand to devise a replacement system..., one that would do the Americans the most harm and the least good, they could not have done a better job."[22][24]

Marshall's abilities to pick competent field commanders during the early part of the war was decidedly mixed. While he had been instrumental in advancing the career of the able Dwight D. Eisenhower, he had also recommended the swaggering Lloyd Fredendall to Eisenhower for a major command in the American invasion of North Africa during Operation Torch. Marshall was especially fond of Fredendall, describing him as "one of the best" and remarking in a staff meeting when his name was mentioned, "I like that man; you can see determination all over his face." Eisenhower duly picked him to command the 39,000-man Central Task Force (the largest of three) in Operation Torch. Both men would later come to regret that decision after the U.S. Army debacle at Kasserine Pass.[13]

Planned invasion of Europe[edit]

Cover to the book Infantry in Battle, the World War II officer's guide to infantry combat operations. Marshall directed production of the book, which is still used as a reference today.

During World War II, Marshall was instrumental in preparing the U.S. Army and Army Air Forces for the invasion of the European continent. Marshall wrote the document that would become the central strategy for all Allied operations in Europe. He initially scheduled Operation Overlord for April 1, 1943, but met with strong opposition from Winston Churchill, who convinced Roosevelt to commit troops to Operation Husky for the invasion of Italy. Some authors think that World War II could have ended one year earlier if Marshall had had his way; others think that such an invasion would have meant utter failure. But it is true that the German Army in 1943 was overstretched, and defense works in Normandy were not ready.[citation needed]

It was assumed that Marshall would become the Supreme Commander of Operation Overlord, but Roosevelt selected Dwight Eisenhower as Supreme Commander. While Marshall enjoyed considerable success in working with Congress and President Franklin D. Roosevelt, he refused to lobby for the position. President Roosevelt didn't want to lose his presence in the states. He told Marshall, "I didn't feel I could sleep at ease if you were out of Washington."[25] When rumors circulated that the top job would go to Marshall, many critics viewed the transfer as a demotion for Marshall, since he would leave his position as Chief of Staff of the Army and lose his seat on the Combined Chiefs of Staff.[citation needed]

On December 16, 1944, Marshall became the first American general to be promoted to five-star rank, the newly created General of the Army – the American equivalent rank to field marshal. He was the second American to be promoted to a five-star rank, as William Leahy was promoted to fleet admiral the previous day.

Throughout the remainder of World War II, Marshall coordinated Allied operations in Europe and the Pacific. He was characterized as the organizer of Allied victory by Winston Churchill. Time magazine named Marshall Man of the Year for 1943. Marshall resigned his post of Chief of Staff in 1945, but did not retire, as regulations[citation needed] stipulate that Generals of the Army remain on active duty for life.

Analysis of Pearl Harbor intelligence failure[edit]

After World War II ended, the Congressional Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack received testimony on the intelligence failure. It amassed 25,000 pages of documents, 40 volumes, and included nine reports and investigations, eight of which had been previously completed. Among these documents was a report critical of Marshall for his delay in sending General Walter Short, the Army commander in Hawaii, important information concerning a possible attack on December 6 and 7. The report also criticized Marshall’s admitted lack of knowledge of the readiness of the Hawaiian Command during November and December 1941. Ten days after the attack, Lt. General Short and Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, commander of the Navy at Pearl Harbor, were both relieved of their duties. The final report of the Joint Committee did not single out and fault Marshall. While the report was critical of the overall situation, the committee noted that subordinates had failed to pass on important information to their superiors, including Marshall. The report noted that once General Marshall received information about the impending attack, he immediately passed it on.[26][27]

Post War: China[edit]

In December 1945, President Harry Truman sent Marshall to China to broker a coalition government between the Nationalist allies under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and Communists under Mao Zedong. Marshall had no leverage over the Communists, but he threatened to withdraw American aid essential to the Nationalists. Both sides rejected his proposals and the Chinese Civil War escalated, with the Communists winning in 1949. His mission a failure, he returned to the United States in January 1947.[28][29] Chiang Kai-shek and some historians later claimed that cease-fire, under pressure of Marshall, saved the Communists from defeat.[30][31] As Secretary of State in 1947–48, Marshall seems to have disagreed with strong opinions in The Pentagon and State department that Chiang's success was vital to American interests, insisting that U.S. troops not become involved.

Secretary of State and Nobel Peace Prize[edit]

Medallion issued in 1982 to honor George Marshall's post-war work for Europe

After Marshall's return to the U.S. in early 1947, Truman appointed Marshall Secretary of State. He became the spokesman for the State Department's ambitious plans to rebuild Europe. On June 5, 1947 in a speech[32] at Harvard University, he outlined the American plan. The European Recovery Program, as it was formally known, became known as the Marshall Plan. Clark Clifford had suggested to Truman that the plan be called the Truman Plan, but Truman immediately dismissed that idea and insisted that it be called the Marshall Plan.[33][34] The Marshall Plan would help Europe quickly rebuild and modernize its economy along American lines. The Soviet Union forbade its satellites to participate.

Marshall was again named Time's Man of the Year for 1947. He received the Nobel Peace Prize for his post-war work in 1953, the only United States Army General to ever receive this honor.

As Secretary of State, Marshall strongly opposed recognizing the state of Israel. Marshall felt that if the state of Israel was declared that a war would break out in the Middle East (which it did in 1948 one day after Israel declared independence). Marshall saw recognizing the Jewish state as a political move to gain Jewish support in the upcoming election, in which Truman was expected to lose to Dewey. He told President Truman in May 1948, "If you (recognize the state of Israel) and if I were to vote in the election, I would vote against you."[35][36][37]

Marshall resigned from the State Department because of ill health on January 7, 1949, and the same month became chairman of American Battle Monuments Commission.[38] In September 1949, Marshall was named president of the American National Red Cross.

Secretary of Defense[edit]

When the early months of the Korean War showed how poorly prepared the Defense Department was, President Truman fired Secretary Louis A. Johnson and named Marshall as Secretary of Defense in September 1950. On September 30, Defense Secretary George Marshall sent an eyes-only message to MacArthur saying "We want you to feel unhampered tactically and strategically to proceed north of the 38th parallel."[39] His main role was to restore confidence and rebuild the armed forces from the post-war state of demobilization. He served in that post for one year, retiring from public office for good in September 1951. In 1953, he represented America at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.

Death and legacy[edit]

Gravesite of George Marshall at Arlington National Cemetery

He died at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D.C. on October 16, 1959. He was 78 years old. He is interred at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia.

After leaving office, in a television interview, Harry S. Truman was to asked, who he thought was the American who made the greatest contribution of the last thirty years. Without hesitation, Truman picked Marshall, adding "I don't think in this age in which I have lived, that there has been a man who has been a greater administrator; a man with a knowledge of military affairs equal to General Marshall."[40]

Orson Welles, in an interview with Dick Cavett, said that "Marshall is the greatest man I ever met... I think he was the greatest human being who was also a great man... He was a tremendous gentleman, an old fashioned institution which isn't with us anymore."[41]

In spite of world-wide acclaim, dozens of national and international awards and honors and the Nobel Peace prize, public opinion became bitterly divided along party lines on Marshall's record. While campaigning for president in 1952, Eisenhower denounced the Truman administration's failures in Korea, campaigned alongside McCarthy, and refused to defend Marshall's policies. Marshall, who assisted Eisenhower in his promotions, and in refusing to lobby for the position of supreme commander effectively stood aside, thus allowing Eisenhower an opportunity to be chosen for that role, was surprised at the lack of a positive statement supporting him from Eisenhower during the McCarthy hearings.[42][43]

Family life[edit]

Marshall married Elizabeth Carter Coles in San Antonio, Texas, in 1902. Elizabeth Coles Marshall died in 1927.

In 1930, Marshall married Katherine Boyce Tupper (October 8, 1882 - December 18, 1978), widow of Baltimore lawyer Clifton Stevenson Brown and the mother of three children. One of Marshall's stepsons with Tupper was US Army Lieutenant Allen Tupper Brown, who was killed by a German sniper in Italy on May 29, 1944. Another stepson was Major Clifton Stevenson Brown, Jr. (1914-1952). Step-daughter Molly Brown Winn, who is the mother of actress Kitty Winn, was married to US Army Major James J. Winn (former aide to General Marshall).

George Marshall maintained a home, known as Dodona Manor (now restored), in Leesburg, Virginia.

Dramatic portrayals[edit]

Dates of rank[edit]

No pin insignia in 1902Second Lieutenant, United States Army: February 2, 1902
US-O2 insignia.svgFirst Lieutenant, United States Army: March 7, 1907
US-O3 insignia.svgCaptain, United States Army: July 1, 1916
US-O4 insignia.svgMajor, National Army: August 5, 1917
US-O5 insignia.svgLieutenant Colonel, National Army: January 5, 1918
US-O6 insignia.svgColonel, National Army: August 27, 1918
US-O3 insignia.svgCaptain, Regular Army (reverted to peacetime rank): June 30, 1920
US-O4 insignia.svgMajor, Regular Army : July 1, 1920
US-O5 insignia.svgLieutenant Colonel, Regular Army: August 21, 1923
US-O6 insignia.svgColonel, Regular Army: September 1, 1933
US-O7 insignia.svgBrigadier General, Regular Army: October 1, 1936
US-O8 insignia.svgMajor General, Regular Army: September 1, 1939
US-O10 insignia.svgGeneral, Regular Army, for service as Army Chief of Staff: September 1, 1939
US-O11 insignia.svgGeneral of the Army, Army of the United States: December 16, 1944
General of the Army rank made permanent in the Regular Army: April 11, 1946

Awards and decorations[edit]

U.S. military honors[edit]

Bronze oak leaf cluster
Distinguished Service Medal with one Oak Leaf Cluster
Silver Star ribbon.svgSilver Star
Philippine Campaign Medal ribbon.svgPhilippine Campaign Medal
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
World War I Victory Medal with four campaign clasps
Army of Occupation of Germany ribbon.svgArmy of Occupation of Germany Medal
American Defense Service ribbon.svgAmerican Defense Service Medal
American Campaign Medal ribbon.svgAmerican Campaign Medal
World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svgWorld War II Victory Medal
National Defense Service Medal ribbon.svgNational Defense Service Medal

Foreign orders[edit]

Foreign decorations and medals[edit]

Civilian honors[edit]

The George C. Marshal European Center for Security Studies in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany

Bibliography[edit]

http://www.touchstonemag.com/archives/article.php?id=26-02-041-f

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Marshall Papers Pentagon Office Selected Correspondence Box 69 Folder 18 George C. Marshall Foundation http://www.marshallfoundation.org
  2. ^ George Catlett Marshall, General of the Army
  3. ^ U.S. officers holding five-star rank never retire; they draw full active duty pay for life.Spencer C. Tucker (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 1685. ISBN 978-1-85109-961-0. 
  4. ^ "George Catlett Marshall, U.S. Army Chief of Staff, Secretary of State". CNN. Archived from the original on 2007-11-13. Retrieved 2007-12-12. 
  5. ^ W. Del Testa, David; Florence Lemoine and John Strickland (2001). Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists. p. 120. 
  6. ^ George Marshall Childhood
  7. ^ Uldrich, Jack (2005). Soldier, Statesman, Peacemaker: Leadership Lessons From George C. Marshall. pp. 14–15. 
  8. ^ Stoler, Mark (1989). George C. Marshall: Soldier-Statesman of the American Century. pp. 21–25. 
  9. ^ Lengel, Edward G. (2008). To Conquer Hell. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-7931-9. Check |isbn= value (help). 
  10. ^ Campbell, James (September 30, 2008). The Ghost Mountain Boys: Their Epic March and the Terrifying Battle for New Guinea—The Forgotten War of the South Pacific. Three Rivers Press. p. 400. ISBN 978-0-307-33597-5. 
  11. ^ http://www.georgecmarshall.org/Meet-General-Marshall/Early-Career
  12. ^ Bland, Larry I., George C. Marshall and the Education of Army Leaders, Military Review 68 (October 1988) 27–51, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas
  13. ^ a b Ossad, Steven L., Command Failures: Lessons Learned from Lloyd R. Fredendall, Army Magazine, March 2003
  14. ^ Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers: The U.S. Army from the Normandy Beaches to the Bulge to the Surrender of Germany June 7, 1944 – May 7, 1945, New York: Simon & Schuster (1997), pp. 271–284
  15. ^ Keast, William R. (Maj), Provision of Enlisted Replacements, Army Ground Forces Study No. 7, Washington, D.C.: Historical Section – Headquarters Army Ground Forces, 314.7(1 Sept 1946)GNHIS September 1, 1945
  16. ^ George, John B. (Lt. Col), Shots Fired In Anger, NRA Press (1981), ISBN 0-935998-42-X, pp. 13–21
  17. ^ a b c d Keast, William R. (Maj), Provision of Enlisted Replacements
  18. ^ Hanford, William B., A Dangerous Assignment, Stackpole Books, ISBN 978-0-8117-3485-1, p. viii
  19. ^ a b Vandergriff, Donald E., Seven Wars and a Century Later, a Failed System, Article
  20. ^ a b Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers, pp. 277–284
  21. ^ Henry, Mark R., The US Army in World War II: Northwest Europe, Osprey Publishing (2001), ISBN 1-84176-086-2, ISBN 978-1-84176-086-5, pp. 12–14
  22. ^ a b c Henry, Mark R., The US Army in World War II: Northwest Europe, Osprey Publishing (2001), ISBN 1-84176-086-2, ISBN 978-1-84176-086-5, pp. 12–14
  23. ^ Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers, pp. 271–284
  24. ^ Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers, p. 277
  25. ^ Buell, Thomas B.; John H. Bradley. The Second World War: Europe and the Mediterranean. p. 258. 
  26. ^ Hearings before the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, Congress of the United States, Seventy-Ninth Congress (Washington, D.C.), Part 39, P 144-145.
  27. ^ Conclusions and Recommendations of the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, Congress of the United States, Seventy-Ninth Congress (Washington, D.C.)P. 252, 265
  28. ^ Stoler, Mark A. (1989). George C. Marshall. pp. 145–51. 
  29. ^ Tsou, Tang (1963). America's Failure in China, 1941–50. 
  30. ^ Harold M. Tanner (18 March 2013). The Battle for Manchuria and the Fate of China: Siping, 1946. Indiana University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-253-00734-6. 
  31. ^ "蔣介石敗退台灣最恨誰?日記顯示並非毛澤東" [Who did Chiang Kai-shek hate most with his withdraw to Taiwan? Diary says it's not Mao Zedong]. Xin Hua Net. July 31, 2013. 
  32. ^ "The Marshall Plan". Retrieved 2009-02-17. [dead link]
  33. ^ McCullough, David (1992). Truman. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 717. ISBN 0-671-86920-5. 
  34. ^ Behrman, Greg (2007). The Most Noble Adventure: The Marshall Plan and the Time When America Helped Save Europe. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-8263-9. 
  35. ^ "President Truman's Decision to Recognize Israel". Retrieved 2009-02-17. 
  36. ^ "Truman Adviser Recalls May 14, 1948 US Decision to Recognize Israel". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. May/June 1991. p. 17. Retrieved 2009-02-17. 
  37. ^ "Recognition of Israel". The Truman Library. Retrieved 2009-02-17. 
  38. ^ New York Times: January 8, 1949, p. 1.
  39. ^ Weintraub, Stanley. MacArthur’s war: Korea and the Undoing of an American Hero, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-684-83419-7. p.157:158.
  40. ^ "The David Susskind Show: Interview with President Harry S. Truman". 
  41. ^ "Orson Welles talks about Cornelia Lunt". YouTube. 
  42. ^ "American Experience: The Presidents: Dwight D. Eisenhower". 
  43. ^ "American Experience: The Presidents: Dwight D. Eisenhower (Film Script". 
  44. ^ Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives

Primary sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Malin Craig
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
1939 – 1945
Succeeded by
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Political offices
Preceded by
James F. Byrnes
U.S. Secretary of State
Served under: Harry S. Truman

1947–1949
Succeeded by
Dean Acheson
Preceded by
Louis A. Johnson
U.S. Secretary of Defense
Served under: Harry S. Truman

1950–1951
Succeeded by
Robert A. Lovett
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Prince Konoye
Cover of Time Magazine
July 29, 1940
Succeeded by
Sir Alan F. Brooke
Preceded by
Ed Flynn
Cover of Time Magazine
October 19, 1942
Succeeded by
John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort
Preceded by
Patriarch Sergius I of Moscow
Cover of Time Magazine
January 3, 1944
Succeeded by
Erich von Manstein