Geneva Bible

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Geneva Bible
Full name:Geneva Bible
NT published:1557
Complete Bible published:1560
Textual basis:Textus Receptus
Religious affiliation:Protestant
 
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Geneva Bible
Full name:Geneva Bible
NT published:1557
Complete Bible published:1560
Textual basis:Textus Receptus
Religious affiliation:Protestant

The Geneva Bible is one of the most historically significant translations of the Bible into English, preceding the King James translation by 51 years.[1] It was the primary Bible of 16th century Protestantism and was the Bible used by William Shakespeare, Oliver Cromwell, John Knox, John Donne, and John Bunyan, author of Pilgrim's Progress.[2] It was one of the Bibles taken to America on the Mayflower, it was used by many English Dissenters, and it was still respected by Oliver Cromwell's soldiers at the time of the English Civil War in the booklet Cromwell's Soldiers' Pocket Bible.[3]

This version of the Holy Bible is significant because, for the very first time, a mechanically printed, mass-produced Bible was made available directly to the general public which came with a variety of scriptural study guides and aids (collectively called an apparatus), which included verse citations which allow the reader to cross-reference one verse with numerous relevant verses in the rest of the Bible, introductions to each book of the Bible which acted to summarize all of the material that each book would cover, maps, tables, woodcut illustrations, indexes, as well as other included features — all of which would eventually lead to the reputation of the Geneva Bible as history's very first study Bible.[citation needed]

Because the language of the Geneva Bible was more forceful and vigorous, most readers preferred this version strongly over the Great Bible. In the words of Cleland Boyd McAfee, "it drove the Great Bible off the field by sheer power of excellence".[4]

History[edit]

During the reign of Queen Mary I of England (1553–58), a number of Protestant scholars fled from England to Geneva, Switzerland, which was then ruled as a republic in which John Calvin and, later, Theodore Beza provided the primary spiritual and theological leadership. Among these scholars was William Whittingham, who supervised the translation now known as the Geneva Bible, in collaboration with Myles Coverdale, Christopher Goodman, Anthony Gilby, Thomas Sampson, and William Cole; several of this group later became prominent figures in the Vestments controversy. Whittingham was directly responsible for the New Testament, which was complete and published in 1557,[5] while Gilby oversaw the Old Testament.

The first full edition of this Bible, with a further revised New Testament, appeared in 1560,[5] but it was not printed in England until 1575 (New Testament[5]) and 1576 (complete Bible[5]). Over 150 editions were issued; the last probably in 1644.[5] The very first Bible printed in Scotland was a Geneva Bible, which was first issued in 1579.[5] In fact, the involvement of Knox and Calvin in the creation of the Geneva Bible made it especially appealing in Scotland, where a law was passed in 1579 requiring every household of sufficient means to buy a copy.[6]

Some editions from 1576 onwards[5] included Laurence Tomson's revisions of the New Testament. Some editions from 1599 onwards[5] used a new "Junius" version of the Book of Revelation, in which the notes were translated from a new Latin commentary by Franciscus Junius.

The annotations which are an important part of the Geneva Bible were Calvinist and Puritan in character, and as such they were disliked by the ruling pro-government Anglicans of the Church of England, as well as King James I, who commissioned the "Authorized Version", or King James Bible, in order to replace it. The Geneva Bible had also motivated the earlier production of the Bishops' Bible under Elizabeth I, for the same reason, and the later Rheims-Douai edition by the Catholic community. The Geneva Bible remained popular among Puritans and remained in widespread use until after the English Civil War. The Geneva notes were surprisingly included in a few editions of the King James version, even as late as 1715.[5]

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Translation[edit]

Like most English translations of the time, the Geneva Bible was translated from scholarly editions of the Greek New Testament and the Hebrew Scriptures that comprise the Christian Old Testament. The English rendering was substantially based on the earlier translations by William Tyndale and Myles Coverdale (more than 80 percent of the language in the Genevan Bible is from Tyndale).[7] However, the Geneva Bible was the first English version in which all of the Old Testament was translated directly from the Hebrew (cf. Coverdale Bible, Matthew Bible).

Format[edit]

Geneva Bible
Example of the blackletter version (1608).

The Geneva Bible was the first English Bible to use verse numbers based on the work of Stephanus (Robert Estienne of Paris). It also had an elaborate system of commentary in marginal glosses. This annotation was done by Laurence Tomson, who translated (for the 1560 Geneva Bible) L'Oiseleur's notes on the Gospels, which themselves came from Camerarius. In 1576 Tomson added L'Oiseleur's notes for the Epistles, which came from Beza's Greek and Latin edition of the Bible (1565 and later). Beginning in 1599 Franciscus Junius' notes on Revelation were added, replacing the original notes deriving from John Bale and Heinrich Bullinger. Bale's The Image of both churches had a great effect on these notes as well as Foxe's Book of Martyrs. Both the Junius and Bullinger-Bale annotations are explicitly anti-Roman Catholic and representative of much popular Protestant apocalypticism during the Reformation.

The 1560 Geneva Bible was printed in Roman type—the style of type regularly used today—but many editions used the older black-letter ("Gothic") type. Of the various later English Bible translations, the next to use Roman type was the Douay-Rheims Bible of 1582 (New Testament) and 1609–10 (Old Testament).

The Geneva Bible was also issued in more convenient and affordable sizes than earlier versions. The 1560 Bible was in quarto format (218 × 139 mm type area), but pocketable octavo editions were also issued, and a few large folio editions. The New Testament was issued at various times in sizes from quarto down to 32º (the smallest, 70×39 mm type area[5]). In the late sixteenth century it is likely that the Geneva New Testament cost less than a week's wages even for the lowest-paid labourers.

The 1560 Geneva Bible contained a number of study aids, including woodcut illustrations, maps and explanatory 'tables', i.e. indexes of names and topics, in addition to the famous marginal notes. Each book was preceded by an 'argument' or introduction, and each chapter by a list of contents giving verse numbers. Smaller-format editions might be unillustrated and lack the marginal notes, but some large folio editions had additional illustrations, such as one showing Adam and Eve, where Adam wears a typical Elizabethan beard and moustache.

Modern spelling version of the 1599 Geneva Bible[edit]

In 2006, Tolle Lege Press released a version of the 1599 Geneva Bible with modern spellings as part of their 1599 Geneva Bible restoration project.[8] The original cross references were retained as well as the study notes by the Protestant Reformation leaders.[8] In addition, the Old English glossary was included in the updated version.[8] The advisory board of the restoration project included several Protestant Christian leaders and scholars.[8]

Sample[edit]

To compare the Geneva Bible with the King James, here is Revelation 6:12–17 in both versions (with spelling modernized). The differences have been italicized (in both extracts):

Geneva Bible

And I beheld when he had opened the sixth seal, and lo, there was a great earthquake, and the sun was as black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon was like blood. And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, as a fig tree casteth her green figs, when it is shaken of a mighty wind. And heaven departed away, as a scroll, when it is rolled, and every mountain and isle were moved out of their places. And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free man, hid themselves in dens, and among the rocks of the mountains, and said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the presence of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb. For the great day of his wrath is come, and who can stand?

King James Bible

And I beheld when he had opened the sixth seal, and, lo, there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood; and the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a fig tree casteth her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind. And the heaven departed as a scroll when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island was moved out of their places. And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains; and said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb; for the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?
The title page of the 1560 edition of the Geneva Bible; the illustration depicts the Israelites before the Red Sea.

The two versions are very similar to each other. Examination of the differences shows that the earlier Geneva version is often more direct and modern in style than the later King James, e.g.

“and the moon was like blood” (Geneva) versus “and the moon became as blood” (King James)

“as a fig tree casteth her green figs” (Geneva) versus “even as a fig tree casteth her untimely figs” (King James)

By and large, the difference is that the KJV lacked footnotes that the Geneva Bible contained.

As can be seen by the text below, Daniel chapter 4 in the Geneva Bible appears to have removed two verses. In reality, the Geneva Bible places those two verses at the end of chapter 3, as the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin verses all did. It wasn't until the King James Version that those verses were placed with chapter 4 as opposed to chapter 3:

Geneva Bible – Daniel 3King James Bible – Daniel 3
30Then the King promoted Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego in the province of Babel.30Then the king promoted Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, in the province of Babylon.
King James Bible – Daniel 4
31Nebuchad-nezzar King unto all people, nations and languages, that dwell in all the world, Peace be multiplied unto you:1Nebuchad-nezzar the king, unto all people, nations, and languages that dwell in all the earth, Peace be multiplied unto you.
32I thought it good to declare the signes and wonders, that the hie God hath wrought toward me.2I thought it good to shew the signes, and wonders, that the high God hath wrought toward me.
33How great are his signes, and how mightie are his wonders! his kingdome is an everlasting kingdome, and his dominion is from generation to generation.3How great are his signes? and how mighty are his wonders? his kingdome is an everlasting kingdome, and his dominion is from generation to generation.
Geneva Bible – Daniel 4
1I Nebuchad-nezzar being at rest in mine house, and flourishing in my palace,4I Nebuchadnezzar was at rest in mine house, and flourishing in my palace.
2Saw a dreame, which made me afraide, and the thoughtes upon my bed, and the visions of mine head troubled me.5I saw a dreame which made me afraid, and the thoughts upon my bed, and the visions of my head troubled me.
3Therefore made I a decree, that they should bring all the wise men of Babel before mee, that they might declare unto me the interpretation of the dreame.6Therefore made I a decree, to bring in all the wise men of Babylon before mee, that they might make knowen unto me the interpretation of the dreame.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Metzger, Bruce (1). "The Geneva Bible of 1560". Theology Today 17 (3): 339. 
  2. ^ 1599 Geneva Bible .
  3. ^ Metzger, Bruce (1). "The Geneva Bible of 1560". Theology Today 17 (3): 351. 
  4. ^ McAfee, Cleland Boyd, Study of the King James Bible, Project Gutenberg .
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Herbert, AS (1968), Historical Catalogue of Printed Editions of the English Bible 1525–1961, London, New York: British and Foreign Bible Society, American Bible Society, SBN 564-00130-9 .
  6. ^ A Chronology of the English Bible, Bible researcher .
  7. ^ Daniell, David (2003) The Bible in English: history and influence. New Haven and London: Yale University Press ISBN 0-300-09930-4, p. 448 and see the Wikipedia article for David Daniell
  8. ^ a b c d "Restoration project", 1599 Geneva Bible .

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