General Hospital

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

General Hospital
General Hospital Opening 2012.jpg
GenreSoap opera
Created byFrank and Doris Hursley
Written byRon Carlivati
StarringList of cast members
Country of originUnited States
Language(s)English
No. of seasons49
No. of episodes12,706[1] (as of November 30, 2012)
Production
Executive producer(s)Selig J. Seligman (1963)
James Young (1963–75)
Tom Donovan (1975–77)
Gloria Monty (1978–87, 1991–92)
H. Wesley Kenney (1987–89)
Joseph Hardy (1989–91)
Wendy Riche (1992–2001)
Jill Farren Phelps (2001–12)
Frank Valentini (2012–present)
Camera setupMultiple-camera setup
Running time30 minutes (1963–76)
45 minutes (1976–78)
60 minutes (1978–present)
Production company(s)Selmur Productions (1963–68)
ABC (1968–present)
Broadcast
Original channelABC
Picture format480i (SDTV) (1963–2009)
720p (HDTV) (2009–present)[2]
Original runApril 1, 1963 (1963-04-01) – present
Chronology
Related showsThe Young Marrieds
Port Charles
General Hospital: Night Shift
External links
Website
 
Jump to: navigation, search
General Hospital
General Hospital Opening 2012.jpg
GenreSoap opera
Created byFrank and Doris Hursley
Written byRon Carlivati
StarringList of cast members
Country of originUnited States
Language(s)English
No. of seasons49
No. of episodes12,706[1] (as of November 30, 2012)
Production
Executive producer(s)Selig J. Seligman (1963)
James Young (1963–75)
Tom Donovan (1975–77)
Gloria Monty (1978–87, 1991–92)
H. Wesley Kenney (1987–89)
Joseph Hardy (1989–91)
Wendy Riche (1992–2001)
Jill Farren Phelps (2001–12)
Frank Valentini (2012–present)
Camera setupMultiple-camera setup
Running time30 minutes (1963–76)
45 minutes (1976–78)
60 minutes (1978–present)
Production company(s)Selmur Productions (1963–68)
ABC (1968–present)
Broadcast
Original channelABC
Picture format480i (SDTV) (1963–2009)
720p (HDTV) (2009–present)[2]
Original runApril 1, 1963 (1963-04-01) – present
Chronology
Related showsThe Young Marrieds
Port Charles
General Hospital: Night Shift
External links
Website

General Hospital (commonly abbreviated GH) is an American daytime television medical drama that is credited by the Guinness Book of World Records as the longest-running American soap opera currently in production and the third longest-running drama in television in American history after Guiding Light and As the World Turns.[3][4] Concurrently, it is the world's third longest-running scripted drama series currently in production after British serials The Archers and Coronation Street, as well as the world's second-longest televised soap opera still in production. General Hospital premiered on the ABC television network on April 1, 1963. Broadcast weekdays and currently repeated nightly on SOAPnet, it is the longest-running serial produced in Hollywood, and the longest-running entertainment program in ABC television history. It holds the record for most Daytime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Drama Series, with 11 wins.

The show was created by husband-and-wife soap writers Frank and Doris Hursley, who originally set it in a general hospital (hence the title) in an unnamed fictional city; this city was named Port Charles, New York in the 1970s. Upon its beginning, General Hospital starred John Beradino and Emily McLaughlin, and both actors stayed with the show until their deaths in the 1990s. They were joined a year later by Rachel Ames who remains to date the longest serving actress on an ABC soap opera, having been continuously on the show from 1964 to 2007. General Hospital was the second soap to air on ABC (after the short-lived Road to Reality, which aired for several months during the 1960–61 season). In 1964, a sister soap was created for General Hospital, The Young Marrieds; it ran for two years, and was canceled due to low ratings. General Hospital also spawned a prime time spinoff with the same name in the United Kingdom from 1972 to 1979, as well as the daytime series Port Charles (1997–2003) and the prime-time spin-off General Hospital: Night Shift (2007–2008) in the United States. Currently taped at The Prospect Studios, General Hospital originally aired for a half-hour until July 23, 1976. The series was expanded from 30 minutes to 45 minutes on July 26, 1976, and then to a full hour on January 16, 1978.[5]

Ever since the late 1970s, most of the storylines have revolved on the environment of Quartermaines and the Spencers. From 1979 to 1988, General Hospital had more viewers than any other daytime soap opera. It rose to the top of the ratings in the early 1980s in part thanks to the monumentally popular "supercouple" Luke and Laura, whose 1981 wedding brought in 30 million viewers and remains the highest-rated hour in American soap opera history.[6][7] The soap opera is also known for its high profile celebrity guest stars which have included, among others, Roseanne Barr, James Franco and the late Elizabeth Taylor. In 2003, TV Guide named General Hospital the 'Great Soap Opera of All Time.'[8] In 2007, the program was listed as one of Time magazine's "100 Best TV Shows of All-TIME."[9] On April 23, 2009, General Hospital broadcasting in high definition, making it the first ABC soap opera to make such transition.[2]

General Hospital became the oldest American soap opera on September 17, 2010, when As the World Turns ended. On April 14, 2011, ABC announced the cancellation of both All My Children and One Life to Live, leaving General Hospital as the only soap opera airing on the network after January 13, 2012.[10] ABC confirmed on June 26, 2012, that General Hospital would change schedule and move from 3 p.m. to the 2 p.m. (ET) timeslot on September 10, 2012 [11]

Contents

Show history

John Beradino and Emily McLaughlin celebrating 10th Anniversary of the show, 1973.

Launched in 1963, the first stories were mainly set at General Hospital in an unnamed midsized Eastern city (the name of the city, Port Charles, would not be mentioned until the late 1970s under Gloria Monty). Storylines revolved around Dr. Steve Hardy (John Beradino) and his friend, Nurse Jessie Brewer (Emily McLaughlin). Jessie's turbulent marriage to the much-younger Dr. Phil Brewer (originally portrayed by Roy Thinnes; lastly by Martin West) was the center of many early storylines. In 1964 the woman who would finally win Steve's heart, Audrey March (Rachel Ames) came to town. Other nurses that had an impact at General Hospital during the 1960s and 1970s included Meg Bentley, Diana Taylor, Sharon McGillis, Jane Harland, and Augusta McLeod.

By the end of the 1970s, General Hospital was facing dire ratings when Executive Producer Gloria Monty was brought in to turn the show around. Monty is credited with creation of the first supercouple, Luke Spencer and Laura Webber, played by Anthony Geary and Genie Francis. The end of their hour wedding on November 17, 1981 was the most-watched event in daytime serial history.[12]

During the 1980s the series featured several high-profile action, adventure, and some science fiction-based storylines. Location shooting at sites including Mt. Rushmore in South Dakota; Niagara Falls; Grand Ole Opry in Nashville, Tennessee; Atlantic City, New Jersey; Big Bear and Avalon (Catalina Island), California; and San Antonio, Texas are just some that propelled the story.

In the 1990s, General Hospital entered a transitional phase as the action/adventure storylines of the 1980s became less popular. The show gained critical acclaim for its sensitive handling of social issues, most notable of which were the heart transplant storyline which involved the death of eight-year-old BJ Jones (daughter of Dr. Tony Jones and R.N. Bobbie Spencer) in a bus crash and the subsequent donation of her heart to her dying cousin Maxie Jones. Shortly afterwards, Monica Quartermaine (Leslie Charleson) began a long battle with breast cancer, which led to her adopting Emily Quartermaine, a young girl who had been orphaned when her mother died of breast cancer. Her adopted daughter was later murdered by Diego Alcazar, leaving Dr. Monica Quartermaine heartbroken. General Hospital was also praised for yet another storyline in the love story of teenagers Stone Cates (Michael Sutton) and Robin Scorpio (Kimberly McCullough). After a struggle that lasted throughout most of 1995, Stone died from AIDS at the age of 19 and his death was followed by storylines in which 17 year old Robin had to deal with being HIV-positive as a result of her and Stone's relationship. The storyline got Sutton a Daytime Emmy nomination for Outstanding Supporting Actor and won McCullough an Outstanding Younger Actress award. ABC featured an "Afterschool Special" revolving around the AIDS story.

On Saturday, December 14, 1996, General Hospital aired its one of three primetime episodes, General Hospital: Twist of Fate, which picked up where that Friday's episode had left off. The special centered around Laura's supposed death at the hands of Stefan Cassadine.

The series' 11,000th episode aired on February 20, 2006.[13]

On April 23, 2009, General Hospital became ABC's first regular daytime drama to be taped and broadcast in high definition, though the 2008 season of its primetime spinoff General Hospital: Night Shift was in high definition. This is the second daytime drama to move to high definition after CBS's The Young and the Restless.

On February 23, 2010, the series aired its 12,000th episode.[14]

On December 1, 2011, ABC confirmed that former One Life to Live executive producer Frank Valentini and head writer Ron Carlivati would replace longtime executive producer Jill Farren-Phelps and Garin Wolf respectively, though Wolf would remain on as a regular writer. The change took effect on January 9, 2012.[15] The first episode under the direction of Valentini aired in February 1, 2012 and Carlivati's material started airing on February 21, 2012.

Production summary

Start dateEnd dateTime slot
(eastern)
Run time
(minutes)
April 1, 1963December 27, 19631:00 pm30
December 30, 1963July 23, 19763:00 pm
July 26, 1976January 13, 19783:15 pm45
January 16, 1978September 7, 20123:00 pm60
September 10, 2012present2:00 pm

General Hospital has aired on ABC Television and has been filmed in Hollywood, California since its inception. The show was filmed in the Sunset Gower Studios from 1963 to the mid-1980s. It relocated in the 1980s to The Prospect Studios, where it remains.

Cast

Original Cast
CharacterActor
Cynthia AllisonCarolyn Craig
Lee BaldwinRoss Elliott
Dorothy BradleySusan Seaforth Hayes
Jessie Brewer, R.N.Emily McLaughlin[16]
Dr. Phil BrewerRoy Thinnes
Angie CostelloJana Taylor
Mike CostelloRalph Manza
Fred FlemingSimon Scott
Dr. Steven LansingMatthew S Infante
Janet FlemingRuth Phillips
Dr. Steve HardyJohn Beradino[17]
Roy LansingRobert Clarke

Main crew members

Setting

Many sites in Port Charles include:

Prominent families include the Scorpios, the Quartermaines, the Cassadines, the Spencers, and the Corinthos'. Minor families include the Mannings, the Morgans, and the Falconeris.

Awards

Daytime Emmy Award wins

Drama series and performer categories

Other categories

Directors Guild of America

Writers Guild of America

Broadcast history

During the 1960s, General Hospital earned decent ratings against the likes of To Tell the Truth and The Secret Storm on CBS, but there was a decline as the 1970s came, especially when NBC's Another World became highly popular. For two years, it also faced CBS' The Price Is Right, already a major hit. After continued mediocrity in the Nielsen ratings, ABC was prepared to cancel General Hospital, but decided to give it a second chance in 1977 when it expanded the show to a full hour, from an experimental 45 minutes. However, the expansion came with an ultimatum to the producers that they had six months to improve the show's ratings. Head writers Douglas Marland & Gloria Monty were hired as executive producers, and on their first day, they spent an extra $100,000 re-taping four episodes. A miracle occurred thanks to Monty and the show became the most watched daytime drama by 1979, marking a rare instance of a daytime serial's comeback from near-extinction. During the wedding of Luke and Laura Spencer on November 17, 1981, about 30 million people tuned in to watch them exchange vows and be cursed by Elizabeth Taylor's Helena Cassadine (later played by Constance Towers).

From 1979 to 1988, General Hospital remained number one in the ratings, competing against two low-rated soaps on NBC -- Texas and Santa Barbara -- and Guiding Light on CBS (although Guiding Light experienced a renaissance for a brief period in the middle of 1984, and became the #1 rated soap, briefly dethroning General Hospital from the top ratings spot). For the most part, however, General Hospital continued to triumph, even after the departure of popular actors Anthony Geary and Genie Francis in the mid-1980s. Although The Young and the Restless took General Hospital's place as the highest-rated serial in 1989, General Hospital continued to maintain excellent ratings.

Even at its peak in the 1980s, General Hospital had been pre-empted in at least two markets in the United States. With the show still number one in the Nielsens, WDTN in Dayton, Ohio canceled General Hospital in May 1983 in favor of Woody Woodpecker and SuperFriends cartoons. Later, the station would air such shows as Hour Magazine, Geraldo and Maury in General Hospitals time slot until September 2000, when the station's new owners, Sunrise Broadcasting, canceled Maury, due to what it called "community standards", and brought General Hospital back. In Vermont and Plattsburgh, WVNY dropped General Hospital from the schedule in the 1980s and would only bring it back in 1995. During that hiatus, General Hospital still aired on Montreal's CFCF-TV, whose signal was decently available in Vermont and Plattsburgh.

Ever since the 1991-1992 season of General Hospital, the show has had a steady decline in ratings. On and off, it would rank between third and fifth place in the Nielsen Ratings, with CBS's The Young And The Restless and The Bold and the Beautiful coming in first and second place, respectively. General Hospital remained in between third and fifth place in the ratings during that time. During the 1990s General Hospital was put up against competition such as CBS's As the World Turns and NBC's Days of our Lives although neither show aired at the same as General Hospital.

After months of speculation and cancellation rumors, Deadline.com reported on April 11, 2012 that ABC quietly made the decision to keep General Hospital on the air and to cancel instead the lower-rated talk show The Revolution.[19] On June 26, 2012, ABC officially announced that General Hospital would move to the 2 p.m. (ET) timeslot starting on September 10, 2012, once Katie Couric's new syndicated talk show, Katie, would begin to air in the 3 p.m. (ET) timeslot on many of ABC's local stations.[11] This represents the first schedule shifting for a daytime soap opera in the United States since CBS relocated As the World Turns from 1:30 p.m. (ET) to 2 p.m. (ET) in 1987.

Ratings history

Years as #1 series
Year(s)Household Rating
1979–19809.9
1980–198111.4
1981–198211.2
1982–19839.8
1983–198410.0
1984–19859.1
1985–19869.2
1986–19878.3
1987–19888.1 (Tied with The Young and the Restless)
Highest-rated week in daytime history (November 16–20, 1981)
(Household ratings, Nielsen Media Research)
SerialHousehold rating(Time slot) NetworkMillions of households
1. General Hospital16.0(3-4pm) ABC17.5
2. All My Children10.2(1-2pm) ABC11.7
3. One Life To Live10.2(2-3pm) ABC11.6
4. Guiding Light7.9(3-4pm) CBS8.2

1962-1963 season

1963-1964 season

1964-1965 season

1965-1966 season

1966-1967 season

1967-1968 season

1968-1969 season

1969-1970 season

1970-1971 season

1971-1972 season

1972-1973 season

1973-1974 season

1974-1975 season

1975-1976 season

1976-1977 season

1977-1978 season

1978-1979 season

1988-1989 season

1989-1990 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 8.0
  • 2. General Hospital 7.4

1989-1990 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 8.0
  • 2. General Hospital 7.4

1990-1991 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 8.1
  • 2. General Hospital 6.7

1991-1992 ratings

1992-1993 ratings

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 8.4
  • 3. General Hospital 5.8

1993-1994 ratings

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 8.6
  • 3. General Hospital 4.7

1994-1995 ratings

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 7.5
  • 3. General Hospital 5.6

1995-1996 ratings

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 7.7
  • 5. General Hospital 4.7

1996-1997 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 7.1
  • 4. General Hospital 4.8

1997-1998 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 7.0
  • 4. General Hospital 4.7

1998-1999 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 6.9
  • 4. General Hospital 4.6

1999-2000 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 6.8
  • 4. General Hospital 4.0

2000-2001 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 5.8
  • 4. General Hospital 3.7

2001-2002 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 5.0
  • 4. General Hospital 3.4

2002-2003 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 4.7
  • 3. General Hospital 3.5

2003-2004 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 4.4
  • 3. General Hospital 3.2

2004-2005 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 4.2
  • 3. General Hospital 3.0

2005-2006 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 4.2
  • 3. General Hospital 2.7

2006-2007 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 4.2
  • 3. General Hospital 2.6

2007-2008 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 4.0
  • 4. General Hospital 2.3

2008-2009 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 3.7
  • 3. General Hospital 2.1

2009-2010 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 3.6
  • 6. General Hospital 2.0

2010-2011 season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 4.0
  • 3. General Hospital 2.5

Cultural influence

The popularity of General Hospital has gained it many parodies and references in other mainstream programs. For example, in the early 1990s, some episodes of General Hospital were featured as "shorts" during the fourth season of the parody show Mystery Science Theater 3000. The series was also parodied/homaged in the song General Hospi-Tale by The Afternoon Delights, and in the film Tootsie, which took place among the cast and crew of a fictional soap opera program. In the Fox medical drama House, Dr. House enjoys Prescription: Passion, which is an over-the-top parody of General Hospital that he watches constantly. In the season three episode, "Half-Wit", House hides his blood test results under the name, "Luke N. Laura", referring to General Hospital's legendary couple. MAD TV did a sketch on the series with actors Jacklyn Zeman, Rebecca Herbst, and Jacob Young. The movie Young Doctors in Love featured a large part of General Hospital's cast from 1982. In a 2010 episode of The Colbert Report, comedian Stephen Colbert poked fun at the show, responding to a clip of Maurice Benard's Sonny shooting Dominic Zamprogna's Dante, satirically screaming "Sonny shot Dante! No!"[20]

Famous fans

General Hospital has many famous fans, including Wayne Gretzky and his wife, Janet Jones,[citation needed] along with The Sopranos actor Vincent Pastore, who would join the show in late 2008 for a short guest stint.[21] World renowned skier Kristi Leskinen is a devout fan of the show, along with actor Jason Gray-Stanford and singer Billy Currington.[citation needed] Freestyle motocross rider Mike Metzger is also a fan of the program, and rarely misses an episode.[citation needed] Elizabeth Taylor, a huge fan of the show, asked for a role on the soap opera[citation needed] and joined the cast temporarily as Helena Cassadine to be a part of Luke and Laura's 1981 wedding. Princess Diana was a devout fan of the show, and went as far as to send two bottles of Bollinger champagne to Anthony Geary and Genie Francis in time for Luke and Laura's 1981 wedding. Geary turned his into a lamp.[22] General Hospital helped launch the singing career of Rick Springfield, who had watched the show for many years before joining the series in 1981.[citation needed]

Spinoffs and specials

The success of the long-running soap opera has had one sister soap, one spinoff in the United States, and two primetime spinoffs in the United States and the United Kingdom.

The Young Marrieds was ABC's first attempt at a sister soap for General Hospital. It ran for only two years, racking up a total of 380 episodes. Despite its moderate popularity, it was aired against CBS's top-rated The Edge of Night, which it could not compete against. The series finale aired on March 25, 1966, with the show's main protagonist contemplating suicide. It ended in a cliffhanger, leaving the audience wondering if the man had killed himself or not. The Young Marrieds was set in the fictional suburb of Queen's Point, which was considered by the writers to be a suburb of Port Charles.

The UK series General Hospital did not feature any characters from the American show, but was modeled after its format. It started as a half-hour program broadcast in the afternoons, which was unusual for UK serials that normally aired in prime time. In 1975 it was expanded to an hour-long format and moved to Friday evenings.

Port Charles was a daytime drama that initially featured interns in a competitive medical school program, and was known for having more action actually in the hospital than General Hospital itself. It also included the characters of Scott Baldwin. Serena Baldwin, Lucy Coe, Kevin Collins, and Karen Wexler, all of whom originally appeared as characters on General Hospital. As the show evolved, it tended more towards gothic intrigue, including supernatural elements such as vampires and life after death. It also switched formats from an open-ended daytime serial to 13-week story arcs known as "books", similar to Spanish language telenovelas.

General Hospital: Night Shift is the second American prime time spinoff of a daytime drama (the first being Our Private World, a spinoff of As the World Turns). Its first season aired from July 12, 2007 to October 4, 2007 on SOAPnet, a cable channel owned by ABC.[23] The series follows the nighttime adventures of familiar and new characters around the hospital. As of March 2008, the first season of the series was "SOAPnet's most-watched series ever", with ABC Daytime and SOAPnet President Brian Frons noting that Night Shift drew more than 1 million new viewers to the channel during its first season.[24]

General Hospital: Twist of Fate was a primetime special that aired on Saturday, December 14, 1996. The episode picked up where that Friday's show had left off. The special centered around Laura's supposed death at the hands of Stefan Cassadine.

On April 2, 1998, General Hospital aired a primetime special in celebration of the program's 35th anniversary. Hosted by Anthony Geary, the show focused and recapped on many popular storylines including Monica's breast cancer, BJ's death, and Stone's battle with HIV. To date, this is the only anniversary special that was broadcast in primetime and that didn't include any of the current storyline.

References

  1. ^ General Hospital - TV.com
  2. ^ a b Mitovich, Matt (2009-04-06). "GH in HD: Soap Will Look Sharp for May Sweeps". TV Guide. tvguide.com. http://www.tvguide.com/Soaps/General-Hospital-HD-1004764.aspx. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  3. ^ "Longest Running TV Drama". Arts & Media. Guinness World Records. 2009. Archived from the original on 2011-04-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20110419222504/http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/records/arts_and_media/tv_shows/longest_running_tv_drama.aspx. Retrieved 2012-10-07.
  4. ^ Longest-running TV medical drama
  5. ^ Boca Raton News, Friday, November 4, 1977 (via Google News archive): http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=X94PAAAAIBAJ&sjid=mowDAAAAIBAJ&pg=4399,2284786&dq=general+hospital+expands&hl=en
  6. ^ Wolf, Buck. "Luke and Laura: Still the Ultimate TV Wedding." ABC.com November 16, 2006.
  7. ^ West, Abby. "Luke and Laura: 17 Great Soap Supercouples". Entertainment Weekly. http://www.ew.com/ew/gallery/0,,20174499_9,00.html. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
  8. ^ "General Hospital Soap Opera - LoveToKnow Soap Operas". Soap-operas.lovetoknow.com. http://soap-operas.lovetoknow.com/General_Hospital_Soap_Opera. Retrieved 2010-06-01.[dead link]
  9. ^ Poniewozik, James (September 6, 2007). "The 100 Best TV Shows of All-TIME". Time (Time.com). http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0,28804,1651341_1659192_1652529,00.html. Retrieved March 4, 2010.
  10. ^ ABC DAYTIME SHAKEUP: Network Cancels BOTH "All My Children" & "One Life To Live", Replaces Them With Lifestyle Series, Deadline Hollywood, April 14, 2011
  11. ^ a b "ABC’S GENERAL HOSPITAL TIME PERIOD CHANGE BEGINNING SEPTEMBER 10, 2012". ABC Television Network. ABC Medianet. 2012-06-26. http://www.abcmedianet.com/web/dnr/dispDNR.aspx?id=062612_02. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
  12. ^ West, Abby. "17 Great Soap Supercouples: Luke and Laura". Entertainment Weekly. http://www.ew.com/ew/gallery/0,,20174499_10,00.html. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
  13. ^ Wheat, Alynda (February 17, 2006). "What to Watch". EW.com. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,1160337,00.html. Retrieved June 13, 2009.
  14. ^ "Watch GH's New Opening Credits | SOAPnet". Sn.soapnet.go.com. http://sn.soapnet.go.com/news/article/gh-gets-new-credits-sequence. Retrieved 2010-06-01.
  15. ^ [1][dead link]
  16. ^ "Emily McLaughlin; 28 Years on 'General Hospital'". Los Angeles Times. latimes.com. 1991-04-27. http://articles.latimes.com/1991-04-27/news/mn-644_1_general-hospital. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
  17. ^ Grimes, William (May 22, 1996). "John Bernadino, 79, an Enduring Soap Opera Star". The New York Times: p. 21. http://www.nytimes.com/1996/05/22/arts/john-bernadino-79-an-enduring-soap-opera-star.html.
  18. ^ "Gloria Monty, 84, Producer Who Resuscitated 'General Hospital'". The New York Times. Associated Press: p. 21. April 5, 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/05/arts/television/05monty.html. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
  19. ^ Deadline (2012-04-11). "ABC's The Revolution Cancelled, General Hospital Renewed". http://www.deadline.com/2012/04/abc-the-revolution-cancelled-general-hospital-renewed-gma-afternoon/. Retrieved April 11, 2012.
  20. ^ Stephen Colbert (July 6, 2012). "[Soap Opera News]". [Colbert Report]. 0:00:50 minutes in. Comedy Central.
  21. ^ "Big Pussy comes to 'General Hospital'". SOAPnet. sn.soapnet.go.com. http://sn.soapnet.go.com/news/article/big-pussy-comes-to-general-hospital. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
  22. ^ "Luke, Laura together again". USA Today. October 24, 2006. http://www.usatoday.com/life/television/news/2006-10-24-luke-and-laura_x.htm. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
  23. ^ "GH Spinoff Planned For SOAPnet." - SoapCentral.com February 12, 2007.
  24. ^ Nordyke, Kimberly. "SoapNet renews Night Shift." The Hollywood Reporter. May 27, 2008.

Bibliography

External links

General Hospital at TV.com