Gene Tierney

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Gene Tierney
Studio publicity Gene Tierney.jpg
BornGene Eliza Tierney
(1920-11-19)November 19, 1920
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
DiedNovember 6, 1991(1991-11-06) (aged 70)
Houston, Texas, U.S.
Cause of death
Emphysema
Resting place
Glenwood Cemetery
NationalityAmerican
EducationSt. Margaret's School (Waterbury, Connecticut)
Unquowa School (Fairfield, Connecticut)
Brillantmont International School
Miss Porter's School
OccupationActress
Years active1940–1980
Spouse(s)
ChildrenAntoinette Daria Cassini (1943–2010)
Christina Cassini (b. 1948)
Website
www.cmgww.com/stars/tierney
 
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Gene Tierney
Studio publicity Gene Tierney.jpg
BornGene Eliza Tierney
(1920-11-19)November 19, 1920
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
DiedNovember 6, 1991(1991-11-06) (aged 70)
Houston, Texas, U.S.
Cause of death
Emphysema
Resting place
Glenwood Cemetery
NationalityAmerican
EducationSt. Margaret's School (Waterbury, Connecticut)
Unquowa School (Fairfield, Connecticut)
Brillantmont International School
Miss Porter's School
OccupationActress
Years active1940–1980
Spouse(s)
ChildrenAntoinette Daria Cassini (1943–2010)
Christina Cassini (b. 1948)
Website
www.cmgww.com/stars/tierney

Gene Eliza Tierney (November 19, 1920 – November 6, 1991)[1] was an American film and stage actress. Acclaimed as a great beauty, she became established as a leading lady.[2][3] Tierney was best known for her portrayal of the title character in the film Laura (1944), and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance as Ellen Berent Harland in Leave Her to Heaven (1945).[4]

Other notable roles include Martha Strable Van Cleve in Heaven Can Wait (1943), Isabel Bradley Maturin in The Razor's Edge (1946), Lucy Muir in The Ghost and Mrs. Muir (1947), Ann Sutton in Whirlpool (1949), Maggie Carleton McNulty in The Mating Season (1951) and Anne Scott in The Left Hand of God (1955).

Early life[edit]

Tierney was born in Brooklyn, New York, the daughter of Howard Sherwood Tierney and Belle Lavina Taylor. She was named after a beloved uncle, who died young.[4][page needed] She had an elder brother, Howard Sherwood “Butch” Tierney, Jr., and a younger sister, Patricia “Pat” Tierney. Their father was a successful insurance broker of Irish descent, their mother a former physical education instructor.[4][page needed]

Tierney attended St. Margaret's School in Waterbury, Connecticut, and the Unquowa School in Fairfield. She published her first poem, entitled "Night", in the school magazine, and she wrote poetry occasionally throughout her life. Tierney played Jo in a student production of Little Women, based on the novel by Louisa May Alcott.

She spent the next two years in Europe, attending Brillantmont International School in Lausanne, Switzerland, where she learned to speak fluent French. She returned to the U.S. in 1938 and attended Miss Porter's School in Connecticut. On a trip to the West Coast, she visited Warner Bros. studios. Director Anatole Litvak, taken by the seventeen-year-old’s beauty, told her that she should become an actress. Warner Brothers wanted to sign her to a contract, but her parents advised against it due to the relatively low salary; they also wanted her in a higher social position.[4][page needed]

Tierney's society debut occurred on September 24, 1938, when she was 17 years old.[4][page needed] Soon bored with society life, she decided to pursue an acting career. Her father said, “If Gene is to be an actress, it should be in the legitimate theatre.”[5] Tierney studied acting at a small Greenwich Village acting studio in New York with Broadway director and actor Benno Schneider. She became a protégée of Broadway producer-director George Abbott.[5][6]

Career[edit]

Broadway[edit]

In Tierney's first part on Broadway, she carried a bucket of water across the stage in What a Life! (1938). A Variety magazine critic declared, "Miss Tierney is certainly the most beautiful water carrier I've ever seen!" She also worked as understudy in The Primrose Path (1938).

The following year, she appeared in the role of Molly O'Day in the Broadway production Mrs. O'Brien Entertains (1939).[4][page needed] The New York Times critic Brooks Atkinson wrote, "As an Irish maiden fresh from the old country, Gene Tierney in her first stage performance is very pretty and refreshingly modest."[4][page needed] That same year, Tierney appeared as Peggy Carr in Ring Two (1939) to favorable reviews. Theater critic Richard Watts, Jr. of the New York Herald Tribune wrote, "I see no reason why Miss Tierney should not have an interesting theatrical career – that is, if cinema does not kidnap her away."[4][page needed]

Tierney's father set up a corporation, Belle-Tier, to fund and promote her acting career. Columbia Pictures signed her to a six-month contract in 1939. She met Howard Hughes, who tried unsuccessfully to seduce her. From a well-to-do family, she was not impressed by his wealth.[4][page needed] Hughes eventually became a lifelong friend.

After a cameraman advised Tierney to lose a little weight, she wrote Harper's Bazaar magazine for a diet, which she followed for the next twenty-five years. Tierney was offered the lead role in National Velvet, but production was delayed. National Velvet was produced at MGM in 1944.[4][page needed]

When Columbia Pictures failed to find Tierney a project, she returned to Broadway and starred as Patricia Stanley to critical and commercial success in The Male Animal (1940). In The New York Times, Brooks Atkinson wrote, "Tierney blazes with animation in the best performance she has yet given".[4][page needed] She was the toast of Broadway before her 20th birthday. The Male Animal was a hit, and Tierney was featured in Life magazine. She was also photographed by Harper's Bazaar, Vogue and Collier's Weekly.[4][page needed]

Two weeks after The Male Animal opened, there was a rumor that Darryl F. Zanuck, the head of 20th Century Fox, was in the audience. During the performance, he told an assistant to note Tierney's name. Later that night, Zanuck dropped by the Stork Club, where he saw a young lady on the dance floor. He told his assistant, "Forget the girl from the play. See if you can sign that one." It was Tierney. At first Zanuck did not think she was the actress he'd seen. Tierney was quoted (after the fact), saying: "I always had several different 'looks', a quality that proved useful in my career."[4][page needed][6]

Film career[edit]

Gene Tierney in the film trailer for Laura (1944)

Hollywood called again and Tierney signed with 20th Century-Fox.[4][page needed] Her motion picture debut was in a supporting role as Eleanor Stone in Fritz Lang's western The Return of Frank James (1940), opposite Henry Fonda.

A small role as Barbara Hall followed in Hudson's Bay (1941) with Paul Muni. In what was a major year of work, Tierney co-starred as Ellie Mae Lester in John Ford's comedy Tobacco Road, along with the title role in Belle Starr, Zia in Sundown and Victoria Charteris (a.k.a. Poppy Smith) in The Shanghai Gesture. In 1942, she played Eve in Son of Fury: The Story of Benjamin Blake, along with the dual role of Susan Miller (a.k.a. Linda Worthington) in Rouben Mamoulian's screwball comedy film Rings on Her Fingers, Kay Saunders in Thunder Birds, and Miss Young in China Girl.[citation needed]

Receiving top billing in Ernst Lubitsch's classic 1943 comedy Heaven Can Wait, as Martha Strable Van Cleve, signaled an upward turn in Tierney's career, and her popularity increased. Tierney recalled that, during the production of Heaven Can Wait:

"Lubitsch was a tyrant on the set, the most demanding of directors. After one scene, which took from noon until five to get, I was almost in tears from listening to Lubitsch shout at me. The next day I sought him out, looked him in the eye, and said, 'Mr. Lubitsch, I'm willing to do my best but I just can't go on working on this picture if you're going to keep shouting at me.' 'I'm paid to shout at you', he bellowed. 'Yes', I said, 'and I'm paid to take it – but not enough.' After a tense pause, Lubitsch broke out laughing. From then on we got along famously."[4][page needed]

In 1944, she starred in what became her most famous role: the title role in Otto Preminger's film noir Laura, opposite Dana Andrews. After playing Tina Tomasino in A Bell for Adano (1945), she played the jealous, narcissistic femme fatale Ellen Berent Harland, opposite Cornel Wilde, in the film version of the best-selling novel, Leave Her to Heaven by Ben Ames Williams. Her performance won her an Academy Award nomination for Best Actress (1945). This was 20th Century-Fox' most successful film of the 1940s. It was cited by acclaimed director Martin Scorsese as one of his favorite films of all time, and he assessed Tierney as one of the most underrated actresses of the Golden Era.[7]

In 1946, Tierney starred as Miranda Wells in in Dragonwyck, Joseph L. Mankiewicz' debut film as a director, along with Walter Huston and Vincent Price. That same year, she starred as Isabel Bradley, opposite Tyrone Power, in The Razor's Edge, an adaptation of W. Somerset Maugham's novel of the same name. Her performance was critically praised.

She followed that with her role as Lucy Muir in Mankiewicz' The Ghost and Mrs. Muir (1947), opposite Rex Harrison.[8] The following year, Tierney co-starred again with Power, this time as Sara Farley in the successful screwball comedy That Wonderful Urge (1948). As the decade came to a close, Tierney reunited with Laura director Preminger to star as Ann Sutton in the classic film noir Whirlpool (1949), co-starring Richard Conte and José Ferrer. She gave memorable performances in two other films noirs (both in 1950) – Jules Dassin's Night and the City and Otto Preminger's Where the Sidewalk Ends.[citation needed]

From the trailer for The Ghost and Mrs. Muir (1947)

In 1951, Tierney was loaned to Paramount Pictures, where she gave a memorable comic turn as Maggie Carleton in Mitchell Leisen's classic ensemble farce, The Mating Season, with John Lund, Thelma Ritter and Miriam Hopkins.[4][page needed] That same year she gave a tender performance as Midge Sheridan in the Warner Bros. film, Close to My Heart (1951), with Ray Milland. The film is about a couple trying to adopt a child.[4][page needed] Later in her career she was reunited with Milland in Daughter of the Mind (1969).

After Tierney appeared opposite Rory Calhoun as Teresa in Way of a Gaucho (1952), her contract at 20th Century-Fox expired. That same year she starred as Dorothy Bradford in Plymouth Adventure, opposite Spencer Tracy at MGM. She and Tracy had a brief affair during this time.[9] Tierney played Marya Lamarkina opposite Clark Gable in Never Let Me Go (1953), filmed in England.[4][page needed]

Tierney remained in Europe to play Kay Barlow in United Artists' Personal Affair (1953), which was released that same year. While in Europe, she began a romance with Prince Aly Khan, but their marriage plans met with fierce opposition from his father Aga Khan III.[4][page needed] Early in 1953, Tierney returned to the U.S. to co-star in a film noir as Iris Denver in Black Widow (1954), with Ginger Rogers and Van Heflin.

Health issues[edit]

Pin-up photo in World War II magazine Brief

Due to the sad events in her life, including a daughter born severely retarded, Tierney struggled for years with episodes of depression. In 1953, she suffered problems with concentration, which affected her filmmaking. She dropped out of Mogambo and was replaced by Grace Kelly.[4][page needed] While playing Anne Scott in The Left Hand of God (1955), opposite Humphrey Bogart, Tierney became ill. (Bogart had personal experience, as he was close to a sister who suffered from mental illness.) During the production, he fed Tierney her lines and encouraged her to seek help.[4][page needed]

Tierney consulted a psychiatrist and was admitted to Harkness Pavilion in New York. Later, she went to The Institute of Living in Hartford, Connecticut. After some 27 shock treatments, intended to alleviate severe depression, Tierney fled the facility, but she was caught and returned. She became an outspoken opponent of shock treatment therapy, claiming that it had destroyed significant portions of her memory.

In late December 1957, Tierney stepped from her mother's apartment in Manhattan onto a ledge 14 stories up and stood there for about 20 minutes, in what was considered a suicide attempt.[10] The police were called, and Tierney's family arranged for her to be admitted to the Menninger Clinic in Topeka, Kansas. She was released from Menninger the following year after treatment for depression. She worked for a time as a sales girl in a local dress shop as part of integrating back into society.[10] (She was recognized by a customer, resulting in sensational newspaper headlines).

Later that year, 20th Century-Fox offered Tierney a lead role in Holiday for Lovers (1959), but she found the stress proved too great. Days into production, she dropped out of the film and returned to Menninger for a time.[10]

Comeback[edit]

Tierney made a screen comeback in Advise and Consent (1962), co-starring with Franchot Tone.[4][page needed] A year later, she played Albertine Prine in Toys in the Attic, based on the play by Lillian Hellman. This was followed by the international production of Las cuatro noches de la luna llena, aka "Four Nights of the Full Moon" (1963), in which she starred with Dan Dailey. She received overall critical praise for her performances.

Tierney's career turn as a solid character actress seemed to be on track. She played Jane Barton in The Pleasure Seekers (1964), then again retired. Tierney returned to star in the television movie Daughter of the Mind (1969) with Don Murray and Ray Milland. Her final performance was in the TV miniseries Scruples (1980).[4][page needed]

Personal life[edit]

Tierney married twice, first to Oleg Cassini, a costume and fashion designer, on June 1, 1941, with whom she eloped. Her parents opposed the marriage, as he was from a Russian-Italian family and born in Europe.[10] She and Cassini had two daughters, Antoinette Daria Cassini (October 15, 1943 – September 11, 2010)[11] and Christina "Tina" Cassini (born November 19, 1948), born after their first divorce.

In June 1943, while pregnant with Daria, Tierney contracted rubella (German measles), likely from a fan ill with the disease.[10] Daria was born prematurely in Washington, D.C., weighing three pounds, two ounces (1.42 kg) and requiring a total blood transfusion. The rubella had caused genetic damage: Daria was found to be deaf, partially blind with cataracts, and had severe mental retardation. She later was institutionalized for much of her life.[10]

Tierney's friend Howard Hughes paid for the medical expenses of Daria, ensuring the girl received the best care. Tierney never forgot his acts of kindness.[4]

Tierney and Cassini separated October 20, 1946 and entered into a property settlement agreement November 10, 1946.[12] An uncontested divorce followed in California; their final divorce decree was dated March 13, 1948. The couple reconciled on August 19, 1948, but did not remarry.[12]

During their separation, Tierney met John F. Kennedy, a young veteran from WWII, who was visiting the set of Dragonwyck in 1946. They began a romance that she ended the following year after Kennedy told her he could never marry her because of his political ambitions.[9] In 1960, Tierney sent Kennedy a note of congratulations on his victory in the presidential election.

Tierney remarried Cassini, but they divorced again on February 28, 1952. "Cassini promised in his 1952 divorce from Gene Tierney that he would write a will leaving both of his daughters half of his fortune".[13] Cassini later bequeathed $500,000 in trust to Daria and $1,000,000 to Christina.[13][14] Cassini and Tierney remained friends until her death in November 1991.

In 1958, Tierney met Texas oil baron, W. Howard Lee. He had been married to actress Hedy Lamarr since 1953. They divorced in 1960 after a long battle over alimony.[15] Lee married Tierney in Aspen, Colorado on July 11, 1960. They lived quietly in Houston, Texas and Florida.[10] They were married until his death in 1981.[15]

In 1962, 20th Century Fox announced Tierney would play the lead role in Return to Peyton Place, but she dropped out of the project after becoming pregnant. She later miscarried.[4][page needed]

Later years[edit]

Tierney's autobiography, Self-Portrait, in which she candidly discussed her life, career and mental illness, was published in 1979. Tierney was widowed when Lee died on February 17, 1981, after a long illness.[15]

In 1986, Tierney was honored alongside actor Gregory Peck with the first Donostia Lifetime Achievement Award at the San Sebastian Film Festival in Spain.[16] Also for her contribution to the motion picture industry, Tierney has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6125 Hollywood Boulevard.

Death[edit]

Gene Tierney died of emphysema in 1991 in Houston.[1] She had reportedly started smoking after a screening of her first movie in order to lower her voice because she felt, "I sound like an angry Minnie Mouse."[17] She became a heavy smoker.[17] She is interred in Glenwood Cemetery in Houston. Tierney was survived by her daughters Daria and Christina. Daria died on September 11, 2010, aged 66, and was interred beside her mother.

Certain documents of Tierney's film-related material, personal papers, letters, etc., are held in the Wesleyan University Cinema Archives, to which scholars, media experts and public from around the world may have full access.[18]

Broadway credits[edit]

YearTitleFormat/genreRoleStaged by
1938What A Life!Original Play, ComedyWalk on, Water carrierAbbott, GeorgeGeorge Abbott
1938Primrose Path, TheThe Primrose PathOriginal Play, Drama/ComedyUnderstudyAbbott, GeorgeGeorge Abbott
1939Mrs O'Brien EntertainsOriginal Play, ComedyMolly O'DayAbbott, GeorgeGeorge Abbott
1939Ring TwoOriginal Play, ComedyPeggy CarrAbbott, GeorgeGeorge Abbott
1940Male Animal, TheThe Male AnimalOriginal Play, ComedyPatricia StanleyShumlin, HermanHerman Shumlin

Filmography[edit]

List of film credits, including directors and principal cast members
YearTitleRoleDirectorOther cast membersNotes
1940Return of Frank James, TheThe Return of Frank JamesEleanor StoneLang, FritzFritz LangHenry FondaTechnicolor
1941Hudson's BayBarbara HallPichel, IrvingIrving Pichel
1941Tobacco RoadEllie Mae LesterFord, JohnJohn Ford
1941Belle StarrBelle StarrCummings, IrvingIrving Cummings
Technicolor
1941SundownZiaHathaway, HenryHenry HathawayBruce Cabot
1941Shanghai Gesture, TheThe Shanghai GestureVictoria Charteris aka
Poppy Smith
von Sternberg, JosefJosef von SternbergWalter Huston
1942Son of Fury: The Story of Benjamin BlakeEveCromwell, JohnJohn CromwellTyrone PowerSepia tone (sequences)
1942Rings on Her FingersSusan Miller (aka Linda Worthington)Mamoulian, RoubenRouben MamoulianHenry Fonda
1942Thunder BirdsKay SaundersWellman, William A.William A. WellmanTechnicolor
1942China GirlMiss Haoli YoungHathaway, HenryHenry HathawayGeorge Montgomery
1943Heaven Can WaitMartha Strabel Van CleveLubitsch, ErnstErnst LubitschDon AmecheTechnicolor
1944LauraLaura HuntPreminger, OttoOtto Preminger
1945Bell for Adano, AA Bell for AdanoTina TomasinoKing, HenryHenry KingJohn Hodiak
1945Leave Her to HeavenEllen Brent HarlandStahl, John M.John M. Stahl
1946DragonwyckMiranda Wells Van RynMankiewicz, Joseph L.Joseph L. Mankiewicz
  • Walter Huston
  • Vincent Price
1946Razor's Edge, TheThe Razor's EdgeIsabel Bradley MaturinGoulding, EdmundEdmund Goulding
1947Ghost and Mrs. Muir, TheThe Ghost and Mrs. MuirLucy MuirMankiewicz, Joseph L.Joseph L. Mankiewicz
1948Iron Curtain, TheThe Iron CurtainAnna GouzenkoWellman, William A.William A. WellmanDana Andrews
1948That Wonderful UrgeSara FarleySinclair, Robert B.Robert B. SinclairTyrone Power
1949WhirlpoolAnn SuttonPreminger, OttoOtto Preminger
1950Night and the CityMary BristolDassin, JulesJules DassinRichard Widmark
1950Where the Sidewalk EndsMorgan Taylor (Payne)Preminger, OttoOtto PremingerDana Andrews
1951Mating Season, TheThe Mating SeasonMaggie Carleton McNultyLeisen, MitchellMitchell Leisen
1951On the RivieraLili DuranLang, WalterWalter LangDanny KayeTechnicolor
1951Secret of Convict Lake, TheThe Secret of Convict LakeMarcia StoddardGordon, MichaelMichael GordonGlenn Ford
1951Close to My HeartMidge SheridanKeighley, WilliamWilliam KeighleyRay Milland
1952Way of a GauchoTeresaTourneur, JacquesJacques TourneurRory CalhounTechnicolor
1952Plymouth AdventureDorothy BradfordBrown, ClarenceClarence BrownTechnicolor
1953Never Let Me GoMarya LamarkinaDaves, DelmerDelmer DavesClark Gable
1953Personal AffairKay BarlowPelissier, AnthonyAnthony Pelissier
1954Black WidowIris DenverJohnson, NunnallyNunnally JohnsonGinger RogersCinemaScope, Deluxe color
1954Egyptian, TheThe EgyptianBaketamonCurtiz, MichaelMichael CurtizCinemaScope, Deluxe color
1955Left Hand of God, TheThe Left Hand of GodAnne ScottDmytryk, EdwardEdward DmytrykHumphrey BogartCinemaScope, Deluxe color
1962Advise and ConsentDolly HarrisonPreminger, OttoOtto PremingerPanavision
1963Toys in the AtticAlbertine PrineHill, George RoyGeorge Roy HillDean Martin
1963Las cuatro noches de la luna llenaMartin, SobeySobey MartinDan DaileyEnglish title: Four Nights of the Full Moon
1964Pleasure Seekers, TheThe Pleasure SeekersJane BartonNegulesco, JeanJean NegulescoAnn-MargretCinemaScope, Deluxe color
List of television credits, including co-stars
YearTitleRoleOther cast membersNotes
1947The Sir Charles Mendl ShowHerselfHost: Sir Charles Mendl
1953Toast of the TownHerselfHost: Ed SullivanEpisode #6.33
195426th Academy AwardsHerselfHost: Donald O'Connor, Fredric MarchPresenter: Costume Design Awards
1957What's My Line?HerselfHost: John Charles DalyEpisode: August 25, Mystery guest
1960General Electric TheaterEllen GallowayHost: Ronald ReaganEpisode: "Journey to a Wedding"
1969F.B.I., TheThe F.B.I.Faye SimpsonEfrem Zimbalist, Jr.Episode: "Conspiracy of Silence"
1969Daughter of the MindLenore ConstableRay MillandTV movie
1974Merv Griffin Show, TheThe Merv Griffin ShowHerselfHost: Merv Griffin
1979Merv Griffin Show, TheThe Merv Griffin ShowHerselfHost: Merv Griffin
1980Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, TheThe Tonight Show Starring Johnny CarsonHerselfHost: Johnny Carson
1980Mike Douglas Show, TheThe Mike Douglas ShowHerselfHost: Mike Douglas
1980Dinah!HerselfHost: Dinah Shore
1980ScruplesHarriet ToppingtonLindsay WagnerTV Mini-series
1999BiographyHerself (archive material)Host: Peter Graves"Gene Tierney: A Shattered Portrait", biographical documentary, March 26

Quotes[edit]

By Tierney[edit]

Cultural references[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Severo, Richard (1991-11-08). "Gene Tierney, 70, Star of 'Laura' And 'Leave Her to Heaven', Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  2. ^ "Tierney emerged as a leading lady of equal beauty and depth...Tierney attained a strata of celebrity that put her on par with fellow sirens Rita Hayworth, Lana Turner and Ava Gardner". Turner Classics Movies
  3. ^ Michelle Vogel, Gene Tierney: A Biography 2005. Quote: "Called the most beautiful woman in movie history, Gene Tierney starred in a number of 1940s classics, including Laura, Leave Her to Heaven and The Ghost and Mrs. Muir."
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Self-Portrait. Tierney and Herskowitz (1979). Wyden Books. pp. 1, 9-10, 14, 18, 19, 21, 23, 25-26, 27, 33, 36, 38, 65-66, 91, 97, 101, 119, 131, 133, 141-42, 144, 150-51, 164-65, 192-192, 207.
  5. ^ a b "Debutante Gene Tierney Makes Her Entrance In A Broadway Success", Life Magazine, February 19, 1940. Vol 8, No. 8, p. 25.
  6. ^ a b Gene Tierney: A Shattered Portrait, The Biography Channel, March 26, 1999 interview with Gene Tierney's sister Patricia.
  7. ^ Martin Scorsese discusses Leave Her to Heaven at the 45th New York Film Festival on YouTube
  8. ^ Gene Tierney: A Shattered Portrait. The Biography Channel, March 26, 1999 interview with film scholar Jeanine Basinger.
  9. ^ a b Osborne (2006). Chronicle Books. Leading Ladies. p. 195.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Kent Demaret, "Gene Tierney Began Her Trip Back from Madness on a Ledge 14 Floors Above the Street", People, 7 May 1979, accessed 21 January 2014
  11. ^ legacy.com
  12. ^ a b Hedda, Hopper (April 9, 1948). "Gene Tierney and Mate Reconciled". Los Angeles Times. p. 2. 
  13. ^ a b "Courthouse NewsService". Courthousenews.com. 2010-02-18. Retrieved 2010-07-05. 
  14. ^ Crowley, Kieran (2009-12-21). "Oleg Cassini's daughters from marriage to Gene Tierney take step toward getting a large piece of the designer's estate". NYPOST.com. Retrieved 2010-07-05. 
  15. ^ a b c "W. Howard Lee". The New York Times. 1981-08-18. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  16. ^ Gene Tierney: A Shattered Portrait, The Biography Channel. March 26, 1999.
  17. ^ a b "Biography". Gene Tierney The Official Web Site. Retrieved February 1, 2012. 
  18. ^ "Cinema Archives". Wesleyan University. Retrieved October 7, 2010. 
  19. ^ "The 100 Sexiest Movie Stars of All Time - 71. Gene Tierney". premiere.com. Retrieved 6 May 2014. "Tierney, a classic beauty, may at first seem too elegant to be a sex symbol, but her Oscar-nominated performance as the femme fatale in Leave Her to Heaven firmly established her sexy cred. Plus, Tierney owned her look. She didn't let studio executives mess with her hair color or length, and refused to fix a slight overbite, earning extra sexy points for confidence." 
  20. ^ Gene Tierney: A Shattered Portrait, The Biography Channel. March 26, 1999
  21. ^ "Whitman Authorized Editions for Girls". 

Works referenced[edit]

External links[edit]