Genderqueer (GQ; alternatively non-binary) is a catch-all category for gender identities other than man and woman, thus outside of the gender binary and cisnormativity. Genderqueer people may identify as one or more of the following:
having an overlap of, or indefinite lines between, gender identity and sexual and romantic orientation.
without a gender (nongendered, genderless, agender; neutrois);
moving between genders or with a fluctuating gender identity (genderfluid);
third gender or other-gendered; includes those who do not place a name to their gender;
Some genderqueer people also desire physical modification or hormones to suit their preferred expression. Many genderqueer people see gender and sex as separable aspects of a person and sometimes identify as a male woman, a female man, or they may combine genderqueer with another gender option. It can be helpful for some people to consider gender and sex as two separate things. Gender can include, but are in no way limited to, boy/girl, man/woman, bigender, agender, non-binary, et cetera. Gender identity is defined as one's internal sense of being a woman, man, both, or neither, while sexual orientation refers to an individual's enduring physical, romantic, and/or emotional attraction to others. As such, genderqueer people may have a variety of sexual orientations, as with transgender and cisgender people.
In addition to being an umbrella term, genderqueer has been used as an adjective to refer to any people who transgress distinctions of gender, regardless of their self-defined gender identity, i.e. those who "queer" gender, expressing it non-normatively.Androgynous is frequently used as a descriptive term for people in this category, though genderqueer people may express a combination of masculinity and femininity, or neither, in their gender expression and not all identify as androgynous. However, the term has been applied by those describing what they see as a gender ambiguity.
Genderqueer was one of 56 gender identity options added to Facebook in February 2014.
Agender (from 'a-', meaning "without", "a lack of", and 'gender') (also genderless, non-gendered, ungendered) is a person who identifies as 'having no gender' or 'without gender identity'. It may fall under the genderqueer or transgender (lit. being "beyond gender") umbrella. It is related to, and may overlap with the gender identity of neutrois, defined as either a neutral or neither gender, or sometimes no gender.
Neutrois is a gender identity that is neutral or null. Neutrois people may also describe themselves variously as genderless, neither male nor female, or androgynous, or possibly agender, the lack of a gender, a term with which there is a degree of overlap, although neutrois tends to cover a neutral gender identity, whereas agender tends to cover the lack of a gender.[original research?]
Neutrois people may receive any sex assignment at birth. Many have gender dysphoria, much like transsexual people. The term "neutrois" was coined in 1995 by H. A. Burnham, who created the word to describe Burnham's gender and others with the same feelings.
People self-identifying as neutrois are part of what gender theorist Anne Enke calls the "ever-expanding social category" of transgender people. This category includes a very broad range of identities which do not conform to traditional gender norms. However, Enke notes that people who identify with any of these positions may not necessarily self-identify as transgender.
Neutrois and agender, are two of 50 available "custom" genders on Facebook, which were added on February 13, 2014. It is also available as a gender option on OkCupid since 17 November 2014.
Designed by Marilyn Roxie and completed in 2011, the genderqueer and non-binary pride flag composes of three horizontal stripes and is designed to complement existing gender and sexuality flags.
Lavender stands as a mixture of blue and pink, traditionally associated with men and women, and so represents androgyny as well as 'queerness', as it has long-standing connections to non-heterosexual communities. White stands for agender, reflecting the use of white on the transgender flag for 'gender neutral', and dark chartreuse green stands as the inverse of lavender, representing all whose identity is outside or without connection to the gender binary.
In 2013, Roxie clarified that the similarity shared between the colours of the pride flag and those of the Women's Social and Political Union, a United Kingdom suffrage organisation, was unintentional.
Out genderqueer people
Justin Vivian Bond, American entertainer, identifies as neither male or female, but trans. Bond prefers the title "Mx" and the pronoun "V".
Hida Viloria, American writer and intersex activist, speaks about being genderqueer in the 1999 film Gendernauts. As the New York Times film review stated, "Hida Viloria, a voluble hermaphrodite with exquisite cheekbones, can pass effortlessly from exquisite femininity to sullen machismo. Having lived credibly as a woman and as a man, Hida... now seems happiest occupying 'the middle ground' between them."
The majority of respondents to the National Transgender Discrimination Survey chose "A gender not listed here." The Q3GNLH (Question 3 Gender Not Listed Here) respondents reported being 9 percentage-points (33%) more likely to forgo healthcare due to fear of discrimination than the general sample (36% compared to 27%). 76% reported being unemployed, 90% reported experiencing anti-trans bias at work, and 43% reported having attempted suicide.
X sex/gender markers in Australia
First reported in January 2003, Australians can use "X" as their gender. Alex MacFarlane is believed to be the first person in Australia to obtain a chosen birth certificate recording sex as indeterminate, and the first Australian passport with an 'X' sex marker in 2003. This is stated by the West Australian to be on the basis of a challenge by MacFarlane, using an indeterminate birth certificate issued by the State of Victoria. The West Australian newspaper reported in January 2003 that the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade "had decided to accommodate people whose birth certificates recorded their sex as indeterminate ... Alex is also believed to be the first Australian issued with a birth certificate acknowledging a gender other than male or female."
Government policy between 2003 and 2011 was to issue passports with an 'X' marker only to people who could "present a birth certificate that notes their sex as indeterminate".
In 2011, the Australian Passport Office introduced new guidelines for issuing of passports with a new gender, and broadened availability of an X descriptor to all individuals with documented "indeterminate" sex. The revised policy stated that "sex reassignment surgery is not a prerequisite to issue a passport in a new gender. Birth or citizenship certificates do not need to be amended."
Australian Commonwealth guidelines on the recognition of sex and gender, published in June 2013, now extend the use of an 'X' gender marker to any adult who chooses that option, in all dealings with the Commonwealth government and its agencies. The option is being introduced over a three year period. The guidelines also clarify that the federal government collects data on gender, rather than sex.
Also in 2013, people with non-binary gender identities received formal protection from discrimination, with the addition of a new attribute "gender identity" to anti-discrimination law.
The Norrie case and non-specific sex
Norrie May-Welby is popularly - but erroneously - often regarded as the first person in the world to obtain officially indeterminate, unspecified or "genderless" status. May-Welby became the first transsexual person in Australia to pursue a legal status of neither a man nor a woman, in 2010. In April 2014, Norrie May-Welby was found by the Australian High Court to have "non-specific sex" following surgery that "did not resolve her[sic] sexual ambiguity".
^Johanna Schorn. "Taking the "Sex" out of Transsexual: Representations of Trans Identities in Popular Media" (PDF). Inter-Disciplinary.Net. Universität zu Köln. p. 1. Retrieved 23 October 2014. The term transgender is an umbrella term “and generally refers to any and all kinds of variation from gender norms and expectations” (Stryker 19). Most often, the term transgender is used for someone who feels that the sex assigned to them at birth does not reflect their own gender identity. They may identify as the gender ‘opposite’ to their assigned gender, or they may feel that their gender identity is fluid, or they may reject all gender categorizations and identify as agender or genderquee
^Marc E. Vargo (30 Nov 2011). "A Review of " Please select your gender: From the invention of hysteria to the democratizing of transgenderism "" (PDF). Journal of GLBT Family Studies (New York/London: Routledge) 7 (5): 2 (493). doi:10.1080/1550428X.2011.623982. ISSN1550-4298. Retrieved 23 October 2014. up to three million U. S. citizens regard themselves as transgender, a term referring to those whose gender identities are at odds with their biological sex. The term is an expansive one, however, and may apply to other individuals as well, from the person whose behavior purposely and dramatically diverges from society’s traditional male/female roles to the “agender”, “bigender” or “third gender” person whose self-definition lies outside of the male/female binary altogether. In short, those counted under this term constitute a wide array of people who do not conform to, and may actively challenge, conventional gender norms.
^Kirstin Cronn-Mills (2014). "IV. Trans*spectrum. Identities". Transgender Lives: Complex Stories, Complex Voices. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 24. ISBN978-1-4677-4796-7. Retrieved 23 October 2014. Many different individuals fall under what experts call the trans* spectrum, or the trans* umbrella.“I'm trans*” and “I'm transgender” are ways these individuals might refer to themselves. But there are distinctions among different trans* identities. [...] Androgynous individuals may not identify with either side of the gender binary. Other individuals consider themselves agender, and they may feel they have no gender at all.
^Enke, Anne (2012). "Note on terms and and concepts". In Enke, Anne. Transfeminist Perspectives In and Beyond Transgender and Gender Studies. Temple University Press. pp. 16–20, see pp. 18–9. ISBN9781439907481.