Gdynia

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Gdynia
POL.Gdynia.SeaTowers.DarPomorza2009.jpg
Flag of Gdynia
Flag
Coat of arms of Gdynia
Coat of arms
Motto: Uśmiechnij się, jesteś w Gdyni
(Smile, you're in Gdynia)
Gdynia is located in Poland
Gdynia
Gdynia
Coordinates: 54°30′N 18°32′E / 54.500°N 18.533°E / 54.500; 18.533
Country Poland
VoivodeshipPomeranian
Countycity county
City rightsFebruary 10, 1926
Boroughs22 dzielnicas
Government
 • MayorWojciech Szczurek
 • Vice PresidentEwa Łowkiel
 • Vice PresidentMichał Guć
 • Vice PresidentBogusław Stasiak
 • Vice PresidentMarek Stępa
Area
 • Total136 km2 (53 sq mi)
Highest elevation205 m (673 ft)
Lowest elevation0 m (0 ft)
Population (31.03.2011)
 • Total249,139
 • Density1,800/km2 (4,700/sq mi)
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code81-004 to 81-919
Area code(s)+48 58
Car platesGA
Websitehttp://www.gdynia.pl
 
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Gdynia
POL.Gdynia.SeaTowers.DarPomorza2009.jpg
Flag of Gdynia
Flag
Coat of arms of Gdynia
Coat of arms
Motto: Uśmiechnij się, jesteś w Gdyni
(Smile, you're in Gdynia)
Gdynia is located in Poland
Gdynia
Gdynia
Coordinates: 54°30′N 18°32′E / 54.500°N 18.533°E / 54.500; 18.533
Country Poland
VoivodeshipPomeranian
Countycity county
City rightsFebruary 10, 1926
Boroughs22 dzielnicas
Government
 • MayorWojciech Szczurek
 • Vice PresidentEwa Łowkiel
 • Vice PresidentMichał Guć
 • Vice PresidentBogusław Stasiak
 • Vice PresidentMarek Stępa
Area
 • Total136 km2 (53 sq mi)
Highest elevation205 m (673 ft)
Lowest elevation0 m (0 ft)
Population (31.03.2011)
 • Total249,139
 • Density1,800/km2 (4,700/sq mi)
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code81-004 to 81-919
Area code(s)+48 58
Car platesGA
Websitehttp://www.gdynia.pl
View from Kosciuszko Square; Dar Pomorza on the left, Sea Towers on the right
Gdynia Maritime University in the building from 1937 as example of prewar Polish modern architecture.

Gdynia [ˈɡdɨɲa] ( ) (Kashubian: Gdiniô, German: Gdingen; 1939–1945 Gotenhafen) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea.

Located in Kashubia in Eastern Pomerania, Gdynia is part of a conurbation with the spa town of Sopot, the city of Gdańsk and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the Tricity (Trójmiasto), with a population of over a million people.

History[edit]

The area of the later city of Gdynia shared its history with Pomerelia (Eastern Pomerania); in prehistoric times it was the center of Oksywie culture; it was later populated by Slavs with some Baltic Prussian influences.

Construction of the seaport[edit]

The decision to build a major seaport at the Gdynia village was made by the Polish government in the winter of 1920,[4] in the midst of the Polish-Soviet War (1919–1920).[5] The authorities and seaport workers of the Free City of Gdańsk felt Poland's economic rights in the city were being misappropriated to help fight the war.[citation needed] German dock workers went on strike, refusing to unload shipments of military supplies send from the West to aid the Polish army,[5] and Poland realized the need for a port city it was in complete control of, economically and politically.

Construction of Gdynia seaport was started in 1921,[5] but because of financial difficulties was conducted slowly and with interruptions. It was accelerated after the Sejm (Polish parliament) passed the Gdynia Seaport Construction Act on 23 September 1922. By 1923 a 550-metre pier, 175 metres of a wooden tide breaker, and a small harbour had been constructed. Ceremonial inauguration of Gdynia as a temporary military port and fishers' shelter took place on 23 April 1923, and the first major seagoing ship arrived on 13 August 1923.

To speed up the construction works, the Polish government in November 1924 signed a contract with the French-Polish Consortium for Gdynia Seaport Construction, which by the end of 1925 had built a small seven-metre-deep harbour, the south pier, part of the north pier, a railway, and had also ordered the trans-shipment equipment. The works were going more slowly than expected, however. They accelerated only after May 1926, because of an increase in Polish exports by sea, economic prosperity, the outbreak of the German–Polish trade war which reverted most Polish international trade to sea routes, and also thanks to the personal engagement of Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski, Polish Minister of Industry and Trade, also responsible for construction of Centralny Okręg Przemysłowy. Till the end of 1930 docks, piers, breakwaters and many auxiliary and industrial installations were constructed (such as depots, trans-shipment equipment, and a rice processing factory) or started (such as a large cold store).

Trans-shipments rose from 10,000 tons (1924) to 2,923,000 tons (1929). At this time Gdynia was the only transit and special seaport designed for coal exports. In the years 1931–1939 the Gdynia harbour was further extended to become a universal seaport. In 1938 Gdynia was the largest and most modern seaport on the Baltic Sea, as well as the tenth biggest in Europe. The trans-shipments rose to 8.7 million tons, which was 46% of Polish foreign trade. In 1938 the Gdynia shipyard started to build its first full-sea ship, the Olza.

Construction of the city[edit]

The city was constructed later than the seaport. In 1925 a special committee was inaugurated to build the city; city expansion plans were designed and city rights were granted in 1926, and tax privileges were granted for investors in 1927. The city started to grow significantly after 1928.

A new railway station and the Post Office were completed. The State railways extended their lines, built bridges and also constructed a group of houses for their employees. Within a few years houses were built along some 10 miles (16 km) of road leading northward from the Free City of Gdańsk to Gdynia and beyond. Public institutions and private employers helped their staffs to build houses.
In 1933 a plan of development providing for a population of 250,000 was worked out by a special commission appointed by a government committee, in collaboration with the municipal authorities. By 1939 the population had grown to over 120,000.[6]

During World War II (1939–1945)[edit]

The city and seaport were occupied in September 1939 by German troops and renamed Gotenhafen after the Goths, an ancient Germanic tribe, who had lived in the area. Some 50,000 Polish citizens, who after 1920 had been brought into the area by the Polish government after the decision to enlarge the harbour was made, were expelled to the General Government. Kashubians who were suspected to support the Polish cause, particularly those with higher education, were arrested and executed. The main place of execution was Piaśnica (Groß Plaßnitz), where about 12,000 were executed. The German gauleiter Albert Forster considered Kashubians of "low value" and did not support any attempts to create a Kashubian nationality. Some Kashubians organized anti-Nazi resistance groups, "Gryf Kaszubski" (later "Gryf Pomorski"), and the exiled "Zwiazek Pomorski" in Great Britain.

The harbour was transformed into a German naval base. The shipyard was expanded in 1940 and became a branch of the Kiel shipyard (Deutsche Werke Kiel A.G.). Gotenhafen became an important base, due to its being relatively distant from the war theater, and many German large ships—battleships and heavy cruisers—were anchored there. During 1942, Dr Joseph Goebbels authorized relocation of SS Cap Arcona to Gotenhafen Harbour as a stand-in for RMS Titanic during filming of the German-produced movie Titanic, directed by Herbert Selpin.

The city was also the location for the Nazi concentration camp Gotenhafen, a subcamp of the Stutthof concentration camp near Gdańsk.

The seaport and the shipyard both witnessed several air raids by the Allies from 1943 onwards, but suffered little damage. Gotenhafen was used during winter 1944–45 to evacuate German troops and refugees trapped by the Red Army. Some of the ships were hit by torpedoes from Soviet submarines in the Baltic Sea on the route West. For example, the ship Wilhelm Gustloff sank taking about 9,400 people with her – the worst loss of life in a single sinking in maritime history. The seaport area was largely destroyed by withdrawing German troops and millions of encircled refugees in 1945 being bombarded by Soviet Military (90% of the buildings and equipment were destroyed) and the harbour entrance was blocked by the German battleship Gneisenau that had been brought to Gotenhafen for major repairs.

After World War II[edit]

On March 28, 1945, Gotenhafen was captured by the Soviets and assigned to Polish Gdańsk Voivodeship, who again renamed it Gdynia.[4]

In the Polish 1970 protests, worker demonstrations took place at Gdynia Shipyard. Workers were fired upon by the police. The fallen (e.g. Brunon Drywa) became symbolized by a fictitious worker Janek Wiśniewski, commemorated in a song by Mieczysław Cholewa, Pieśń o Janku z Gdyni. One of Gdynia's important streets is named after Janek Wiśniewski. The same person was portrayed by Andrzej Wajda in his movie Man of Iron as Mateusz Birkut.

On December 4, 1999, a storm destroyed a huge crane in a shipyard, which was able to lift 900 tons.[7]

Economy[edit]

Notable companies that have their headquarters in Gdynia:

Transport[edit]

Port of Gdynia[edit]

In 2007, 364,202 passengers, 17,025,000 tons of Cargo and 614,373 TEU containers passed through the port. Regular car ferry service operates between here and Karlskrona, Sweden.

Airport[edit]

The conurbation's main airport, Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport, lays approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) south-west of central Gdynia, and has connections to approximately 55 destinations. It is the third largest airport in Poland.[8] A second General Aviation terminal is scheduled to be opened by May 2012, which will increase the airport's capacity to 5mln passengers per year.

Another local airport, (Gdynia-Kosakowo Airport) is situated partly in the village of Kosakowo, just to the north of the city, and partly in Gdynia. This has been a military airport since the World War II, but it has been decided in 2006 that the airport will be used to serve civilians.[9] The work is currently under way and the airport should be ready for 2012.

Road transport[edit]

Trasa Kwiatkowskiego links Port of Gdynia and the city with Obwodnica Trójmiejska, and therefore A1 motorway.

Education[edit]

There are currently 8 universities and institutions of higher education based in Gdynia. Many students from Gdynia attend also universities located in the Tricity.

Culture[edit]

The International Random Film Festival will be hosted in Gdynia in November 2014.

Sports[edit]

Sport teams

Sights and tourist attractions[edit]

Gdynia's Main Boardwalk
Gdynia Fountain

Gdynia is a relatively modern city. Its architecture includes the 13th century St. Michael the Archangel's Church in Oksywie, the oldest building in Gdynia, and the 17th century neo-Gothic manor house located on Folwarczna Street in Orłowo. The city also holds many examples of early 20th-century architecture, especially monumentalism and early functionalism, and modernism. A good example of modernism is PLO building situated at 10 Lutego Street.

The surrounding hills and the coastline attract many nature lovers. A leisure pier and a cliff-like coastline in Kępa Redłowska, as well as the surrounding Reservation Park, are also popular locations. In the harbour, there are two anchored museum ships, the ORP Blyskawica destroyer and the Dar Pomorza Tall ship frigate. A 1.5 kilometre long promenade leads from the marina in the city centre, to the beach in Redłowo.

Most of Gdynia can be seen from Kamienna Góra (54 metres asl) or the observation point near Chwaszczyno. There are also two observation towers, one at Góra Donas, the other at Kolibki.

Gdynia is also the host of the Heineken Open'er Festival, one of the biggest contemporary music festivals in Poland. The festival welcomes many foreign hip-hop, rock and electronic music artists every year. Another important summer event in Gdynia is the Viva Beach Party, which is a large two-day techno party made on Gdynia's Public Beach, usually held in August. Gdynia also hosts events for the annual Gdańsk Shakespeare Festival.

Modern division into districts[edit]

Steam train "Costerina" Gdynia – Kościerzyna

Population and area[edit]

YearInhabitantsArea
18701200
19201300
192612,0006 km²
1939127,00066 km²
194570,00066 km²
1960150,20073 km²
1970191,50075 km²
1975221,100134 km²
1980236,400134 km²
1990251,500136 km²
1994252,000136 km²
1995251,400136 km²
2000255,420135.49 square kilometres (52.31 sq mi) (after GUS – Central Statistical Office in Warsaw)
2009248,889136,72 km²

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — sister cities[edit]

Gdynia is twinned with:

Cultural references[edit]

In 2008, Gdynia made it onto the Monopoly World Edition board after being voted by fans through the internet. Gdynia occupies the space traditionally held by Mediterranean Avenue, being the lowest voted city to make it onto the Monopoly Here and Now board, but also the smallest city to make it in the game. All of the other cities are large and widely known ones, the second smallest being Riga. The unexpected success of Gdynia can be attributed to a mobilization of the town's population to vote for it on the internet.

An abandoned factory district in Gdynia was the scene for the survival series Man vs Wild, season 6, episode 12. The host, Bear Grylls, manages to escape the district after blowing up a door and crawling through miles of sewer.

Ernst Stavro Blofeld, the supervillain in the James Bond novels, was born in Gdynia on May 28, 1908, according to Thunderball.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ André Vauchez, Richard Barrie Dobson, Adrian Walford, Michael Lapidge,Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Routledge 2000, p.: 1163, ISBN 978-1-57958-282-1 link
  2. ^ James Minahan, One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000, p.375, ISBN 978-0-313-30984-7
  3. ^ Daniel Stone,A History of East Central Europe, University of Washington Press, 2001, p. 30, ISBN 978-0-295-98093-5 Google Books
  4. ^ a b World Port Source – Gdynia
  5. ^ a b c Robert Michael Citino. The path to blitzkrieg: doctrine and training in the German Army, 1920–1939. Lynne Rienner Publishers. 1999. p. 173.
  6. ^ (ed) Michael Murray, Poland's Progress 1919–1939, John Murray, 1944, London pp 64–6
  7. ^ "Catastrophic collapses of architectural structures in Poland". SkyscraperCity. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  8. ^ Port Lotniczy Gdańsk im. Lecha Wałęsy. "Historia lotniska – Port Lotniczy Gdańsk im. Lecha Wałęsy". Airport.gdansk.pl. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  9. ^ "About airport | Port Lotniczy Gdynia-Kosakowo". Airport.gdynia.pl. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  10. ^ "Historia Rugby Club Arka Gdynia". Arkarugby.pl. 2012-05-26. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  11. ^ "Aalborg Twin Towns". Europeprize.net. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  12. ^ "Aalborg Kommune – Venskabsbyer". Web.archive.org. 2007-11-14. Archived from the original on 2007-11-14. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  13. ^ Hassinen, Raino. "Kotka - International co-operation: Twin Cities". City of Kotka. Retrieved 2013-10-22. 
  14. ^ "Plymouth – Town Twinning". Plymouth City Council. Retrieved 2013-07-14. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 54°30′N 18°33′E / 54.500°N 18.550°E / 54.500; 18.550