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Gatka demonstration in Bedford, England (2007)
|Country of origin|| India|
|Famous practitioners||Guru Nanak|
Guru Gobind Singh
Bhai Daya Singh
Sahibzada Ajit Singh
Sahibzada Jujhar Singh
Baba Deep Singh
Gatka demonstration in Bedford, England (2007)
|Country of origin|| India|
|Famous practitioners||Guru Nanak|
Guru Gobind Singh
Bhai Daya Singh
Sahibzada Ajit Singh
Sahibzada Jujhar Singh
Baba Deep Singh
|Part of a series on|
|Indian martial arts|
Gatka (Punjabi: ਗਤਕਾ gatkā) is a traditional South Asian form of combat-training in which wooden sticks are used to simulate swords in sparring matches. In modern usage, it commonly refers to the northwestern Indian martial arts, which should more properly be called shastara vidiyā (ਸ਼ਸਤਰ ਵਿਦਿਆ, from Sanskrit sastra-vidya or "science of blades"). In English, the terms gatka and shastar vidya are very often used specifically in relation to Panjabi-Sikhs. In actuality, the art is not unique to any particular ethno-cultural group or religion but has been the traditional form of combat throughout north India and Pakistan for centuries. Attacks and counterattacks vary from one community to another but the basic techniques are the same. This article will primarily use the extended definition of gatka, making it synonymous with shastara-vidiya.
Gatka can be practiced either as a sport (khel) or ritual (rasmi). The sport form is played by two opponents wielding wooden staves called gatka. These sticks may be paired with a shield. Points are scored for making contact with the stick. The other weapons are not used for sparring, but their techniques are taught through forms training. The ritual form is purely for demonstration and is performed to music during occasions such as weddings, or as part of a theatrical performance like the chhau dance. A practitioner of gatka is called a gatkabaj while a teacher is addressed as Guru or Gurudev.
Gatka originated in what is now northern India and neighbouring Pakistan where the regional system of fighting is today most commonly termed shastara-vidiya, originally a classical Sanskrit word for armed combat. Its creation is attributed to the god Shiva and his devotees. Indeed, the oldest manual on the northern Indian fighting system was said to have been the Shiva Dhanurveda, at present no longer extant. The sage Vasistha is said to have based his own work, the Dhanuveda Samhita, on the aforementioned manual. Early Shaivite sages and Kapalika are credited as progenitors and disseminators of the art of combat, even the most peaceful of whom are recorded as being fierce when confronted by enemies.
By the 6th century BC, ten fighting styles were said to have already been in existence, developed in different regions for use in different terrain. Their convergence is traditionally traced to the city of Takshashila in present-day West Punjab, Pakistan. Held in high regard by the eastern janapada for its connection to the ancient epics, Takshashila quickly became a hub of trade and higher education. Known particularly for its schools of law, medicine and military sciences, the city attracted students from throughout. Takshashila provides the earliest tangible evidence of the teaching of systemised combat, especially but not exclusively archery. But as a city built on scholarship with little in the way of natural defences, Takshashila witnessed a string of foreign rulers throughout its history before finally being sacked by the White Huns in the 5th century AD. The rest of India was spared from the Huns in large part due to the efforts of various Indian kings who rose up against the conquerors.
Beginning in the 10th century Muslim raiders began invading northern India, resulting in violent confrontations which would continue for centuries. The dharma (duty) enjoined by the kyshatria caste gave rise to numerous warriors and communities regarded as heroes of the martial ethos, such as the Gurjaras and their Rajput successors. In one famous battle, Govinda-raja of Delhi duelled Muhammed of Ghor. Each on horseback, Govinda lost his front teeth to the Ghorid's lance, but eventually won the contest by piercing his opponent's arm with his spear. Ultimately, the increasing number of Mongol-Turkic adventurers from Central Asia brought most of north India under Muslim rule. Consequently, Middle Eastern weapons and armour were adopted by the Indians, such as the talwar and shamshir. The South Asian application of these weapons incorporated them into the indigenous techniques, making them unique rather than borrowing from the original Middle Eastern fighting style.
The Muslim rulers generally looked at their Indian subjects with contempt, regarding them as a "horrifying mass of uncultured infidels". Increasing trends of Islamic exclusivity caused dissent among agrarian communities like the Jat people, and were met with outright defiance by the more martial Rajputs, Marathas and Panjabis. However, this was not always the case with the more adaptable Mughal tribe who often adopted Indian traditions and weapons on a large scale, such as the katara (dagger) and gatka in general. This was epitomized by the Emperor Akbar who, unlike his predecessors, was born in an Indian village under Hindu protection and developed a lifelong interest in both indigenous and foreign spirituality. Akbar famously viewed Indians as his countrymen and during his half-century in power went as far as lifting discriminatory policies against Hindus and celebrating local festivals. In addition to this, he was an expert gatka practitioner who practiced with a sword and shield everyday.
Because of its location, the Panjab has always been particularly susceptible to foreign conquest. Since the time of Harappa and Takshashila, over a period of two millennia the region witnessed invasions by the Indo-Aryans, Muslims and Europeans. The Mahabharata epic is based on historical battles between the warring kings of Karnal. Sikhs and Panjabis in general were known throughout South Asia for their stature and comparatively large build. Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh religion, was born into a kyshatria family and according to Nihang tradition was taught the art of combat by sadhus of the Natha sect. His successor, Guru Angad Dev, taught followers to train the body physically, mentally and spiritually, encouraging the practice of martial arts. One of Guru Nanak's early disciples, Baba Buddha, taught the boy who would eventually become the sixth Sikh patriarch, Guru Hargobind.
Guru Hargobind founded the original Sikh fighting school, the Ranjit Akhara (lit. "invincible training hall") at Amritsar, with its armed force known as the Akal Sena or "immortal army". He propagated the theory of the warrior-saint (miri-piri) and emphasized the need to practice fighting for self-defence against the Mughal rulers due to growing animosities.The Guru began the practice of laying out weapons in the form of a lotus flower for saluting and worshipping before a training session. The weapons were a straight khanda (sword) representing Mahakala and a curved talwar (sabre) representing Bhavani. These would be stuck to a plaque mounted with idols of Hindu gods and designated a chief's rank. This symbol, known as a "rose-blade", was said to include "those weapons which everyone has", indicating common arms. The Prem Sumārag tells that these are the katara (dagger), churi (knife), jamadār (poniard), kirpan (sword), kamān (bow), and dhāla (shield).
The tenth patriarch Guru Gobind Singh was a master of armed fighting who carried five weapons (pancha shastra): the karaga (sword), kamān (bow), chakram (war-quoit), katara (dagger), and banduk (rifle). In 1699 he galvanized the martial energies of the Sikh community by founding the Khalsa brotherhood. Under his leadership, the Sikh community turned from a scattered movement of socio-religious reform to a prominent military force and quickly developed a reputation as a warrior people which would carry into the present day. Supporters of this more confrontational stance came from around north India. Addressing the Sikh community, he declared that they "will love the weapons of war, be excellent horsemen, marksmen and wielders of the sword, the chakram and the spear. Physical prowess will be as sacred to you as spiritual sensitivity."
The Khalsa's aims were to fight oppression, assist the poor, worship the one God, abandon superstition, and defend the freedom of faiths. This is symbolised by the kirpan or dagger, one of the five Ks which every baptised Sikh is required to carry. In regards to training the brotherhood, Guru Gobind Singh pledged that he would "teach the sparrow to fight the hawk". Women faced no restriction from learning the use of weapons, due to the Guru's teaching of gender equality. The Nihang, a strict warrior order of Sikhs, exemplified his principles of combining spirituality with combat training.
After the Guru and his sons were assassinated in the early 1700s, the disciple Banda Singh Bahadur began collecting arms and followers. Though poorly armed, Banda's followers were well-trained in the martial arts and managed to systematically storm the region's Muslim towns. The continued onslaught of the emperor forced Banda and his sympathisers to flee to the hills, and he was eventually captured and killed along with 700 other Sikhs. But by following his example, the Sikhs managed to subvert the foundations of Mughal power until the province was in total disarray by the mid-18th century.
Even from childhood, Sikhs would supplement their training with martial games or sonchi which were meant to develop physical fitness, endurance, flexibility and agility. The famous commander Nawab Kapur Singh is recorded as playing such a game during his childhood by organizing the boys into two armies who would engage each other in mock warfare. Their fights were aggressive and hardly less dangerous than real combat. During one training exercise Kapur Singh himself was struck in the shoulder with a blow so deep that the doctors believed he would not recover.
Following the Second Anglo-Sikh War of 1848 to 1849 and the establishment of the British Raj, the northwest Indian martial traditions and practitioners suffered greatly. Ever wary of the Sikhs, the British ordered effective disarmament of the entire community. The Nihang, considered the keepers of all Sikh traditions, were regarded as disloyal to the colonists. More than 1,500 Nihang were killed by the British for plotting rebellion. According to folklore, some fled and spent the rest of their lives in the northern mountains.
During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Sikhs assisted the British in crushing the mutiny. As a consequence of this assistance, restrictions on fighting practices were relaxed. The old method of sword training was used by the Khalsa Army in the 1860s as practice for hand-to-hand combat. Richard F. Burton describes gatka matches in which the swordsmen fight with a ribboned stick in one hand and a small shield in the other.
As Sikh colleges opened during the 1880s, European rules of fencing were applied to create what is now called khel or sport gatka. The European colonists also brought Sikhs from India to other British colonies to work as soldiers and security guards. Gatka is still practiced by the Sikh communities of former British colonies and neighbouring countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong and Thailand. Due to the large overseas Panjabi-Sikh community, it is has become a common misconception that gatka is practiced only by Sikhs.
The Jats were originally a nomadic pastoral community living mainly in northwest India and northeast Pakistan. They were traditionally looked down upon for their non-elite status, and by the Mughal era the term Jat came to be synonymous with peasantry. But unlike the Hindu warrior class, Sikhs did not always hold the same prejudices against lower classes like the Jats. Some Jats converted to Sikhism since the time of Guru Nanak, but their number swelled after the formation of the Khalsa panthan. Due to their diet and fondness for wrestling, Sikh Jats were notably more martially-inclined compared to Jats of other faiths. As they increasingly interacted with settled agriculturists, many Jats of peasant-warrior background combined their simple fighting art with military strategy to overcome superior enemies and eventually come into positions of leadership during the 1700s.
The Jats practiced a style of gatka which was relatively basic and taught openly in comparison to the more sophisticated and secretive techniques employed by the kyshatria. Their style, Jat ka gatka, was absorbed into the Sikh akhara where its simplicity was valued. Despite lacking the subtle refinement of higher forms, the Jat system allowed large numbers of inexperienced soldiers to acquire sufficiently effective skill in fighting and self-defense easily and within a short timespan. Historically it was used by the shock troops of the Sikh armies who would engage the enemy with bows, javelins, and slings before closing in with hand-to-hand weaponry.
Jats took up arms against the Mughal rulers during the 17th and 18th centuries, and formed the vanguard of Sikh resistance against the Mughal Empire from the 18th century onwards. The British colonists favoured Jats, as well as Panjabis, as "martial races" who possessed the necessary qualities of a soldier, and the Jat Sikh community has constituted an important source of recruits for the Indian Army. The Jat system of gatka is still practiced by the rural communities of India and Pakistan today, in addition to being taught as a basic form by Sikh gatka masters.
Since India's independence from colonial rule, gatka has been managed and promoted in India by the Panjab Gatka Association and the Gatka Federation of India. The latter organization formulated and standardized rules and regulations for gatka as a sport, and providing free training through seminars, workshops and camps under the new rules. The Panjab & Chandigarh Education Departments have introduced gatka into the school sports calendars in the state, while the School Games Federation Of India also incorporated gatka into the 56th national school games calendar 2011-2012. Gatka is still practiced by some communities in Pakistan but is increasingly uncommon and does not get much support from the government. To promote and popularize the art outside India, the Asian Gatka Federation, Commonwealth Gatka Federation and World Gatka Federation have also been constituted. From 2011, the Panjabi University Patiala have started to host All India inter-varsity gatka championships annually.
Today gatka is most often showcased during the martial festival of Hola Mohalla, as well as Independence Day and Republic Day celebrations in the Panjab. Gatka is one of the competitions held during an annual sporting event in the rural Indian city of Kila Raipur, and the Sikh community of Malaysia often holds gatka demonstrations during Vaisakhi or the Sikh new year. Once considered a diminishing art by UNESCO and SAARC, the intense and concerted efforts of these gatka federations has popularized it amongst the students in north India. While the urbanization of gatka has helped keep it alive, traditional masters often bemoan the lack of technique among modern competitors who tactlessly beat each other's sword or shield. Modern competitions are sometimes derogatively called the "ox-beating game" (sandeh kot di khel). To differentiate between gatka as a sport and as a martial art, the terms shoshabaji (exhibitionist) and chatka (quick kill) are used.
The system devised by Captain William Ewart Fairbairn and Captain Eric Anthony Sykes borrowed methodologies from gatka, jujutsu, Chinese martial arts and "gutter fighting". This method was used to train soldiers in close-combat techniques at the Commando Basic Training Centre in Achnacarry, Scotland.
Gatka groups today often practice in modern studios, but in India they may use a traditional akhara. Sikhs may train in a religious or semi-religious situation, such as in a gurdwara (Sikh temple). Traditionally, drug addiction and alcoholism were considered among the worst of earthly evils and many masters refused to teach addicts and drunkards. While this rule is not always strictly enforced today, typical akhara still do not allow anyone to enter the training hall while intoxicated.
Like most South Asian martial arts, gatka begins with footwork and tactical body positioning (pentra). The foundation of the art is a movement methodology for the use of the feet, body, arms and weapons in unison. In the first and most basic stance, the feet are spaced about shoulder-width apart with the weight divided evenly between them. While walking from this position, the exponent spills their centre of gravity as they initiate any movement. This is done by stepping forward just before the front knee locks out, never hyper-extending the leg at any point. This gait is meant to be applied to daily life so that it becomes natural in battle where it allows one to quickly change direction. Gatka favors rhythmic movement, without hesitation, doubt or anxiety. The attacking and defense methods are based upon the positions of the hands, feet and weapon(s) during the dexterity regimen. Chanting of holy verses may accompany these exercises, and the three-beat-per-cycle played by a drummer adds to the coordination during practice.
By conception, gatka is defensive as well as offensive Instruction falls into the two main categories of sava-raksha (self-defense) and yuddha-vidiya (battlefield science). Sava-raksha takes into account the specific needs, strength and anatomy of the practitioner. Teachings include armed and unarmed fighting, defense against an armed opponent, defense against several opponents, escaping from grabs, and the psychology of combat. It also incorporates various battle chants, verbal formula, and general philosophical advice on fighting and defending oneself. Tactics and moves exist which are specifically tailored for women and children
In contrast, yuddha-vidiya is much more comprehensive. Fully mastering it is said to take a lifetime due to the fact that a master needs to learn the form, function, and theory of the art before being considered a gurudeva. This refers to the actual techniques, their application in combat, and memorising the oral tradition which includes various strategems and the art's history. Like sava-raksha, yuddha-vidiya also teaches single combat, fighting in groups, defense against several opponents, etc. But as the latter was designed for war training, it also includes skirmishing, ambushes, battle formations, defense of a house (ger), and defense of a village (gao). Yuddha-vidiya further incorporates projectile weapons, seizing and disarming, strangling (thagi), and traditional medicine.
The concept of range is based on the principle that, no matter how strong or fast the opponent is, it means nothing if they can't reach their target. The ideal range therefore is just barely out of reach of the opponent's weapon, or the tip of their toe in the case of unarmed fighting. Side-stepping is used extensively, anticipating an opponent's move before countering. Dodging is considered superior and more important than blocking, which necessitates agility and speed. As a person gets older and acrobatic maneuvres become less practical, the exponent adapts their style to become what is traditionally described as "lazy". This essentially means using fewer movements to win, applying superior tactical knowledge rather than physical prowess.
Gatka emphasizes having something in both hands, e.g. two sticks, a stick and a sword, a sword and a shield or any other combination. Training with "both hands full" is believed to be an excellent exercise for coordinating the two halves of the body, a concept also found in Filipino martial arts. Ambidexterity is thus a highly valued quality, and such a fighter is known in Hindi as doh-baha. Students are taught stances (asana) and forms (yudhan) before they progress to free sparring. The individual's preference for weapons, combination of weapons, and movement patterns leads to the development of individual fighting methods.
A basic concept of the north Indian martial arts is that of chatka meaning a quick kill. The traditional Hindu method of slaughtering an animal for its meat was by beheading swiftly with a single blow of the sword, so as to inflict as little pain as possible. Conservative Sikhs today abstain from any meat unless the animal was killed in this way. In battle this means finishing the fight as soon as possible, either by killing or otherwise rendering the opponent incapable of continuing by knocking them unconscious, disarming them, or disabling a limb.
To condition their bodies, practitioners may also engage in meditation, yoga, martial games (sonchi), and traditional weight training similar to that used by wrestlers. Together with the dietary regimen this is intended to increase stamina, maintain a healthy digestive system, improve quality of sleep, increase hand speed, improve mind-body coordination, and keep the mind calm even under pressure.
Bhujangi giving an aara demonstration
Khel (meaning sport or game) is the modern competitive aspect of gatka, originally used as a method of sword-training (fari-gatka) or stick-fighting (lathi khela) in medieval times. Competitors spar using sticks called gatka, from which the sport derives its name. The gatka are about three handspans long, made from light wood or bamboo and covered in leather. It may be used on its own or paired with another stick but for official matches, the gatka is paired with a leather shield called a pari. The fixed distance of sparring was introduced from British fencing during the colonial era. Points are scored for hitting or touching (shu) the opponent with the stick, but hits to vital points are forbidden. Victory by touch is known as shubaji.
While khel gatka is today most commonly associated with Sikhs, it has always been used in the martial arts of other ethno-cultural groups as well such as Rajputs and Mughals. It is still practiced in India and Pakistan by the Tanoli and Gurjara communities. In Manipur, thang-ta practitioners refer to their own sword-practice as cheibi gatka, wherein the players spar with a two-foot leather-encased cudgel which may be paired with a leather shield measuring one metre in diameter. In some arts today, the sword-fighting is more akin to a dance than a form of combat. For example, the daal fari khadga of Andhra Pradesh is usually choreographed, but is performed with real swords and shields rather than wooden ones.
The performance aspect of gatka is known as rasmi meaning "ritual" or "official". During weddings and other festivals, the men perform repititive swinging and twirling movements with one or two swords. The first part of the chhau dance is known as pari-khanda or fori-khanda and is performed with a sword and shield. Traditionally such sword-dances were typically performed by martial artists but today they are generally taught as separate disciplines altogether.
Bare-handed fighting, or bhuja-yuddha, is rarely taught in gatka today and until modern times had always been considered secondary to armed combat. Every form or yudhan has its own unarmed set (platha). Punches, kicks, elbows, knees, and finger strikes are all incorporated along with grabs, throws, locks, chokeholds, pressure point striking, and many other forms of attack. The main targets are the eyes, throat, groin, ankles and knees, but this varies considerably from one style to another. Interchanging between armed and unarmed fighting is a common tactic, relying on small concealable weapons like knives and daggers. When wearing armour, bhuja-yuddha can even be used against an armed opponent by blocking the opponent's attacks with gauntlets for example. Because gatka favours avoidance over blocking, a common tactic is to sidestep while the opponent comes forward and then counter by kicking at the legs and lower body. This is said to have developed because warrior-caste Hindus and upper-class Muslims didn't want to soil their hands by touching a lower-class opponent with their hands, and preferred to engage them with the feet unless the use of their hands was necessary.
The correct use of weapons is central to gatka, with techniques depending on the nature of the weapon.
Swordsmanship is known as asiyuddha or karaga-yuddha. Ancient swords (assu or khadga) were mostly of the straight variety, their form preserved in the khanda. The most common type of sword today is the Central Asian-derived talwar, but a wide variety of other swords are also incorporated. The more traditional katti is used for advanced forms, in particular those styles based on the Hindu gods. Sword-belts were in general broad and handsomely embroidered. On horseback they were worn on a belt hanging over the shoulder. Otherwise warriors carried their sword by three straps hanging from a waist-belt. The sword may be paired with another sword, an axe, a spear, a katara, a maru, or any other one-handed weapon, but its most typical pairing is with a shield.
Types of swords include the following.
A shield always accompanied a sword as part of the swordsman's equipment. Carried on the left arm, or when out of use, slung over the shoulder, shields were made of steel or hide and were generally from 17 to 24 inches (430 to 610 mm) in diameter. If made of steel they were often highly ornamented with patterns in gold damascening while hide shields bore silver or gold bosses, crescents, or stars. Shields were made of sambar deer, buffalo, nilgai, elephant, or rhinoceros hide, the last being the most highly prized. Brahmans, who objected to leather, had shields made from forty or fifty folds of silk painted red and ornamented, lined with velvet or snakeskin. While shields can be used to block sword attacks, in South Asia they are more often used offensively as an impact weapon or pushed against the opponent to prevent them from attacking, in addition to deflecting projectiles. Coupled with the fact that most indigenous swords have little defensive capability, swordsmanship in gatka relies heavily on avoiding and outmaneuvering an opponent's attack.
All pole weapons begin with the staff, known as a dang or lathi. The dang's ideal length is either equal to the height or the armspan of its wielder. Gatka typically uses a bamboo staff, which may be steel-tipped and encased in leather. This type of dang is held with both hands on one end and used for swinging techniques. The light weight of the bamboo allows for great speed and a variety of twirling maneuvres. This style of fighting was often used by peasants and commoners for whom the staff was a domestic tool and a convenient implement of self-defense. For warriors who used the dang as a training tool for edged weapons, a different method was employed. In this style, the dang is held diagonally with the hands far apart. The butt end of the weapon is held with one hand, while the other hand is further down the middle or just above the other end. This grip lends itself to thrusting attacks aimed at the vital points (marma), done by pushing the weapon forward with the back hand through the front hand, though it also incorporates barta, techniques in which both ends are used to attack. This thrust-based method can be easily adapted to edged weapons such as spears, tridents and battle-axes. In the case of the axe, thrusts hit with the weapon's head, which can also be used defensively to stop an opponent's attack or to break their fingers. The barta method can also be adapted to edged polearms, most of which have a weighted or spiked back end. When wielding a heavy polearm in close-quarters, the fighter may hold a katara on one hand.
Pole weapons include the following.
Stick-fighting or danda-yuddha employs either the single or double stick. The stick or danda is generally the length of three handspans and made of Indian ebony. They are often capped with steel on one end. Sticks are used as an implement of instruction for small weapons such as axes (kuhara), but were also used during war to beat down armoured opponents. The danda is traditionally worn on the right side and drawn from underneath the belt, in contrast to swords which are worn on the opposite side and drawn from above. Stick fighters generally employ a single-hand grip but the double grip is also commonly used for certain techniques. When attacking, the fighter hits their opponent with only the rim of the danda's tip, thereby focusing all the power into a small point. One stance is the angaraksha or bodyguard position in which the feet are placed slightly more than shoulder-width apart and the arms are placed across the chest, as if crossed, while the danda is held in the right hand. This stance was once used by armed guards who relied on their peripheral vision to watch for attackers. Modern exponents still use this form of training to develop surti or awareness so that they can anticipate an attack from behind or from the side without having to look directly at the attacker.
Sticks and club-type weapons include the following.
Weapons and armour of Central Asian and Middle Eastern origin were introduced by the Mughal tribe. Most of these are used primarily by Muslim and Sikh practitioners. Some - like the talwar and gurj - were adopted even by Hindus and became so common that they are hardly considered uniquely Mughal today. The Mughals commonly used Arabic or Persian terminology for Indian weapons. The words talwar (Hindi), shamshir (Persian) and tegh (Arabic) were often interchangeable, while the Arabic term sef was occasionally used for the Indian katti. The generic Mughal word for spear was sinan.
Forms in gatka are referred to as yudhan. As with Silat Pattani, most gatka schools make use of mainly freestyle routines each governed by particular principles rather than the preset forms of other systems. There are altogether ten yudhan which, when taken as a whole, collect all the techniques and strategies of gatka. The first six forms imitate animals and are grouped under Khat Ang Yudhan meaning "six parts" or "six limbs". The seventh form collates the previous six into a seamless whole. The final forms are based on deities and are grouped as Deva Ang Yudhan meaning "limbs of the gods". Each builds upon the last, requiring that trainees progress through them systematically in a specific order. Many yudhan also have an opposing form which acts as counter and complement to the other. The combat application of the techniques become less obviously apparent in the higher forms which not only include more weapons and techniques but also enrich the understanding of the lower forms. Originating in different parts of India, every yudhan has its own characteristic focus, gait, weapons and unarmed techniques. They can be practiced individually, in pairs, in groups, or formerly, as an army.
The Jat style of gatka (Jat ka gatka) is sometimes incorporated as a yudhan to acquaint beginners with basic asana (stances) and tactics, although many masters refuse to acknowledge it due to the form's peasant origins. The most basic stance (mulasana) is a crouching position which provides a stable base from which to launch attacks and avoid being knocked down. Unarmed techniques are divided into six components which altogether incorporate strikes with the fists, open hands, knees, elbows and feet, attacks to the vital points, grappling, torso throws, and tripping the opponent from the legs. In terms of defense, students are also taught how to escape from various frontal and rear grabs and chokeholds. Many of these techniques are also used in kusti, so fighters sometimes supplement their training with wrestling. Armed training may include swords, shields, axes, battle-axes, spears, clubs, maces, daggers, sticks and kukri.
The boar style or Varaha Yudhan is associated with the varaha avatar of Vishnu. Originating in Bihar, it specializes in close-quarter combat and short explosive strikes with the fists, elbows, knees, feet and single knuckles. As the first formal yudhan, it teaches basic principles such as body positioning, misalignment, and hitting vital areas to end the fight quickly. The boar is the simplest and easiest style to master, but provides the foundation for all succeeding forms. Its weapons are the gada (mace) and daggers, taking advantage of the form's short movements. One crucial principle of the boar style is drawing the hand in towards the body before throwing a punch. In this way, the fighter can easily draw a weapon from the waist or anywhere else on the upper body.
The snake style is known as Shesha-naga Yudhan, named after the serpent lord Shesha. Acting as a counter and complement of the boar style, it is based on the cobra (naga) and python (ajagara). It begins with a salutation in which the arms are brought upwards from the sides in a continuous arc til the hands are straight above the head. In contrast to the straightforward blows of its counterpart, the snake style is subtle and focuses on parrying attacks and striking at vital points with looping circular motions. Characteristic of the snake style is the entangling of limbs, combined with whipping strikes, locks, joint manipulation, and chokeholds. Its weapons include scarves, knives, axes and spears.
Garuda Yudhan is variously rendered in English as the bird style or eagle style. Originating in Kashmir, it is named after the mythical garuda. It imitates four different birds, namely the peacock (mayura), eagle (garuda), goose (hamsa) and rooster (kukkuta). It specializes in hit-and-run tactics, mimicking a bird flying at its prey. It is characterized with an angling side-to-side motion. Techniques include attacks delivered with the hands and feet, elbows, knees, sweeps, and stomps in the case of a downed opponent. The garuda style is most notable as the basic sword-fighting form and the first yudhan in which upper body armor may be worn. Categorized as a skirmishing style, it can be employed either on foot or horseback. The garuda leads with the tip of the sword, stabbing at the opponent's arms and hands like a bird's peak. It is most suited to the talwar. Weapons include any combination of the sword, axe, dagger, shield, and spear.
The bull style is named Nandi Yudhan after Nandi, the mount and gatekeeper of Shiva. Originating in the Himalayas, it is the first grappling style and specialises in upright grabbing. The counter and complement of garuda, the bull is also a skirmishing style which can be used on foot or horseback. Like its counterpart, Nandi also employs the motion of angling from left to right in order to find the correct trajectory. The difference between them is that the more aggressive bull style favours infighting and grappling, using leverage to damage the opponent's back with spinal twists, knees, and heavy close-quarter fist strikes. As with garuda, the bull style includes a variety of attacks against a fallen opponent such as stomps and knee drops. Weapons include daggers and curved swords. To counter the garuda stabbing from a safe distance, Nandi instead closes in and attacks with the centre of the blade.
Narasingha Yudhan is named after the Narasingh avatar of Vishnu, variously depicted as a man with the head and claws of a lion, tiger or leopard. It was used to support the vanguard during battle and therefore favours armed combat and specializes in fighting heavily armoured opponents. Practitioners may also wear heavier armour than in previous forms, including chainmail. Narasingha is categorized as a duelling yudhan and its wide entrenched stance is well-suited for swampy terrain. Imitating the agility and attack style of big cats, it is highly evasive and constantly seeks to reach the opponent's head and neck. Aside from swords, the most characteristic weapons of Narasingha are the large heavy shield and the long-handled battle-axe.
The monkey style or Hanuman Yudhan has its origins in Central India, particularly around Maharashtra and the Dakhin Plateau. It is named after the monkey god Hanuman. As counter and complement to Narasingha, the monkey style is also a duelling yudhan and once provided support to the vanguard. It employs a similar wide stance as its counterpart, but with the hips sunk in lower. Using momentum to redirect an opponent's energy while grappling, it also teaches to advance while avoiding the opponent's attacks, and eventually trample them when they have been knocked down. It mainly targets the lower body, particularly the legs and groin. Primarily an armed form, weapons of the monkey style include the gada (mace) and curved daggers.
The leopard or panther form is called Bagh Yudhan in Hindi and is associated with the mount of Durga. Originating in the Himalayas, it is regarded as the seventh animal style even though they are numbered at six. As with the corresponding style in Burmese bando, the leopard is actually a more advanced application of all the previous forms and teaches how they may be combined into one single system. Taught at both the shota (immature) and vada (mature) levels, it possesses great speed and agility. The most famous application of the leopard form is loh-musti or iron-fist boxing in which the boxers wield an iron bracelet (kara) on one hand.
The first of the Deva Ang Yudhan is named for the eight-armed goddess (Ashtabuja Devi). It is divided into four sub-styles, representing the various aspects of the devi. The first sub-style is Chandi Yudhan, known for its graceful, elegant movements imitating the goddess as a beautiful young girl. Chandika is well-suited for fighting multiple opponents and specializes in gatti sakti, using their own energy against them. The Kali Yudhan is a more direct and aggressive version of Chandi, which aims to kill as quickly as possible and specialises in confusing and misleading the opponent. The Jagdambeh Yudhan ("World-Mother") makes use of quick footwork to circle around the opponent in a manner similar to Chinese baguazhang. Its more aggressive counterpart is the Kalika Vambrolah Yudhan or "Whirlwind Kali" form. Weapons include various blades such as swords and daggers, as well as the spear and the bow. Partly out of respect and partly out of practicality, only the finest and most advanced weapons are used in this style.
Adi Deva Yudhan ("Primordial God Form") is divided into four sub-styles. In contrast to the goddess form, Adi Deva represents akarshan sakti or gravitational energy. Shiva Yudhan specializes in unbalancing and manipulating their centre of gravity. Ganpat Yudhan (Ganesha style) is much the same but with a focus on grappling and facing a larger opponent. Jaganatha Yudhan focuses on quickly moving in on the opponent and striking at pressure points while avoiding their attacks. The highest of the Adi Deva forms is Mahakala Yudhan which was traditionally employed by an army's vanguard. Like the other sub-styles, it also relies on misalignment while closing in, but with an emphasis on snapping the opponent's neck.
The final yudhan is named Ardhanarishvara Yudhan after the androgynous composite of Shiva and Parvati. It combines all the forms into a single seamless whole, to the point that the exponent reacts spontaneously without thinking and all forms become "formless". Achieving mastery of this final form is traditionally compared to attaining enlightenment or ascending Mount Kailash.
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