Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

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Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
BillMelindaGatesFoundation.png
Founded2000[1]
Founders
TypeNon-operating private foundation
(IRS exemption status): 501(c)(3)[2]
FocusEducation, Healthcare, Ending poverty
Location
Area served
Global
MethodDonations and Grants
Key people
Bill Gates, co-founder and co-chair
Melinda Gates, co-founder and co-chair
William H. Gates, Sr., co-chair
Susan Desmond-Hellmann, CEO
EndowmentUS$42.3 billion as of 24 November 2014[3]
Employees
1,058[3]
Websitegatesfoundation.org
Formerly called
William H. Gates Foundation
(1994–1999)
 
  (Redirected from Gates Foundation)
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Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
BillMelindaGatesFoundation.png
Founded2000[1]
Founders
TypeNon-operating private foundation
(IRS exemption status): 501(c)(3)[2]
FocusEducation, Healthcare, Ending poverty
Location
Area served
Global
MethodDonations and Grants
Key people
Bill Gates, co-founder and co-chair
Melinda Gates, co-founder and co-chair
William H. Gates, Sr., co-chair
Susan Desmond-Hellmann, CEO
EndowmentUS$42.3 billion as of 24 November 2014[3]
Employees
1,058[3]
Websitegatesfoundation.org
Formerly called
William H. Gates Foundation
(1994–1999)

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF or the Gates Foundation) is the largest private foundation in the world, founded by Bill and Melinda Gates. It was launched in 2000 and is said to be the largest transparently operated private foundation in the world.[4] It is "driven by the interests and passions of the Gates family".[5] The primary aims of the foundation are, globally, to enhance healthcare and reduce extreme poverty, and in America, to expand educational opportunities and access to information technology. The foundation, based in Seattle, Washington, is controlled by its three trustees: Bill Gates, Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett. Other principal officers include Co-Chair William H. Gates, Sr. and Chief Executive Officer Susan Desmond-Hellmann.

It had an endowment of US$42.3 billion as of 24 November 2014.[3] The scale of the foundation and the way it seeks to apply business techniques to giving makes it one of the leaders in the philanthrocapitalism revolution in global philanthropy,[6] though the foundation itself notes that the philanthropic role has limitations.[5] In 2007, its founders were ranked as the second most generous philanthropists in America, and Warren Buffett the first.[7] As of May 16, 2013, Bill Gates had donated US$28 billion to the foundation.[8][1]

History[edit]

Front building
Bill and Melinda Gates, June 2009

In 1997, the foundation was formed as the William H. Gates Foundation.[9] During the foundation's following years, funding grew to US$2 billion. On June 15, 2006, Gates announced his plans to transition out of a day-to-day role with Microsoft, effective July 31, 2008,[10] to allow him to devote more time to working with the foundation.

Rear building

Bill and Melinda Gates, along with the musician Bono, were named by Time as Persons of the Year 2005 for their charitable work. In the case of Bill and Melinda Gates, the work referenced was that of this foundation.

Detail of the facade of the visitor center

In April 2010, Gates was invited to visit and speak at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he asked the students to take on the hard problems of the world in their futures. He also explained the nature and philosophy of his philanthropic endeavors.[11][12]

In 2010, the foundation's founders started the Commission on Education of Health Professionals for the 21st Century, entitled "Transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world."[13]

In 2013, Hillary Clinton launched a partnership between the foundation and the Bill, Hillary & Chelsea Clinton Foundation to gather and study data on the progress of women and girls around the world since the 1995 United Nations Fourth World Conference On Women in Beijing.[14][15] This is called "No Ceilings: The Full Participation Project."[14][15]

A 2011 survey of grantees found that many believed the foundation did not make its goals and strategies clear and sometimes did not understand those of the grantees; that the foundation's decision- and grantmaking procedures were too opaque; and that its communications could be more consistent and responsive. The foundation's response was to improve the clarity of its explanations, make "orientation calls" to grantees upon awarding grants, tell grantees who their foundation contact is, give timely feedback when they receive a grantee report, and establish a way for grantees to provide anonymous or attributed feedback to the foundation.[16] The foundation also launched a podcast series.[17]

Warren Buffett donation[edit]

On June 25, 2006, Warren Buffett (then the world's richest person, estimated worth of US$62 billion as of April 16, 2008) pledged to give the foundation approximately 10 million Berkshire Hathaway Class B shares spread over multiple years through annual contributions, with the first year's donation of 500,000 shares being worth approximately US$1.5 billion.[18] Buffett set conditions so that these contributions do not simply increase the foundation's endowment, but effectively work as a matching contribution, doubling the Foundation's annual giving: "Buffett's gift came with three conditions for the Gates foundation: Bill or Melinda Gates must be alive and active in its administration; it must continue to qualify as a charity; and each year it must give away an amount equal to the previous year's Berkshire gift, plus an additional amount equal to 5 percent of net assets. Buffett gave the foundation two years to abide by the third requirement."[19][20][21] The Gates Foundation received 5% (500,000) of the shares in July 2006 and will receive 5% of the remaining earmarked shares in the July of each following year (475,000 in 2007, 451,250 in 2008).[22][23] In July 2013, Buffet announced another donation of his company's Class B, this time in the amount worth $2 billion, is going to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.[24]

Activities[edit]

Program areas and grant database[edit]

To maintain its status as a charitable foundation, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation must donate funds equal to at least 5 percent of its assets each year.[25] As of April 2014, the foundation is organized into four program areas under chief executive officer Susan Desmond-Hellmann, who "sets strategic priorities, monitors results, and facilitates relationships with key partners":[26]

The foundation maintains an online database of grants on its website which includes for each grant the name of the grantee organisation, the purpose of the grant and the amount.[28] This database is publicly available.

Open access policy[edit]

In November 2014, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation announced that they are adopting an open access (OA) policy for publications and data, "to enable the unrestricted access and reuse of all peer-reviewed published research funded by the foundation, including any underlying data sets".[29] This move has been widely applauded by those who are working in the area of capacity development and knowledge sharing.[citation needed] Its terms have been called the most stringent among similar OA policies.[30]

Financials[edit]

The foundation explains on its website that its trustees divided the organization into two entities: the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (foundation) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Trust (trust). The foundation section, based in Seattle, US, "focuses on improving health and alleviating extreme poverty," and its trustees are Bill and Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett. The trust section manages "the investment assets and transfer proceeds to the foundation as necessary to achieve the foundation's charitable goals"—it holds the assets of Bill and Melinda Gates, who are the sole trustees, and receives contributions from Buffett.[31]

The foundation posts its audited financial statements and 990-PF forms on the "Financials" section of its website as they become available. At the end of 2012, the foundation registered a cash sum of US$4,998,000, down from US$10,810,000 at the end of 2011. Unrestricted net assets at the end of 2012 were worth US$31,950,613,000, while total assets were worth US$37,176,777,000.[32]

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Trust Investments[edit]

The foundation trust invests undistributed assets, with the exclusive goal of maximizing the return on investment. As a result, its investments include companies that have been criticized for worsening poverty in the same developing countries where the foundation is attempting to relieve poverty.[34] These include companies that pollute heavily and pharmaceutical companies that do not sell into the developing world.[35] In response to press criticism, the foundation announced in 2007 a review of its investments to assess social responsibility.[36] It subsequently cancelled the review and stood by its policy of investing for maximum return, while using voting rights to influence company practices.[37][38]

Global development division[edit]

Christopher Elias leads the foundation's efforts to combat extreme poverty through grants as president of the Global Development Program.[39]

In March 2006, the foundation announced a US$5 million grant for the International Justice Mission (IJM), a human rights organization based in Washington, D.C., US to work in the area of sex trafficking. The official announcement explained that the grant would allow the IJM to "create a replicable model for combating sex trafficking and slavery" that would involve the opening of an office in a region with high rates of sex trafficking, following research. The office was opened for three years for the following purposes: "conducting undercover investigations, training law enforcement, rescuing victims, ensuring appropriate aftercare, and seeking perpetrator accountability".[40]

The IJM used the grant money to found "Project Lantern" and established an office in the Philippines city of Cebu. In 2010 the results of the project were published, in which the IJM stated that Project Lantern had led to "an increase in law enforcement activity in sex trafficking cases, an increase in commitment to resolving sex trafficking cases among law enforcement officers trained through the project, and an increase in services – like shelter, counseling and career training – provided to trafficking survivors". At the time that the results were released, the IJM was exploring opportunities to replicate the model in other regions.[41]

Financial services for the poor[edit]

Agricultural development[edit]

Global special initiatives[edit]

The foundation's special initiatives include responses to catastrophes as well as learning grants that are used to experiment with new areas of giving. Currently, the foundation is exploring water, hygiene, and sanitation as a new focus within Global Development.

Open defecation poses significant health and environmental risks, and creates vulnerability, particularly for women and children who are exposed to a loss of dignity, abuse, or harassment while defecating in the open. Globally, poor sanitation contributes to 1.5 million child deaths each year from diarrheal disease; in India alone, diarrhea kills one child per minute (UNICEF/WHO, 2009). Diarrhea is also a major cause of death for children and chronic diarrhea affects a child's development by impeding their health and nutrition, and hindering vaccine absorption. Poverty, ill health, and an overall poor quality of life are concurrent factors for such people.

Toilet developed by RTI International is based on electrochemical disinfection and solid waste combustion[48]

Reinvent the Toilet Challenge: In 2011, the foundation launched a program to promote the development of innovations in toilet design to benefit the 2.5 billion people that do not have access to safe and effective sanitation.[49][50] The "Reinvent the Toilet Challenge" (RTTC) targets the need for ground-breaking improvements in toilet design and fecal sludge management to close the urban sanitation gap. Since its launch, more than a dozen teams have received grants to develop innovative on-site and off-site waste treatment solutions for the urban poor. The RTTC is focused on reinventing the flush toilet, a breakthrough public health invention that represents the first substantial improvement since the first flush toilet patent was issued in 1775.

The foundation has called on grantees to design a standalone toilet unit—without piped-in water, a sewer connection, or outside electricity— with a facility cost target of less than five cents per person, per day. The RTTC is also working to improve waste handling from collection and treatment. For example, funded by the foundation, scientists at University of Colorado have developed a toilet that uses solar heat to treat the fecal matter and produce char.[51] High-tech toilets for tackling the growing public health problem of human waste are gaining increasing attention. But, low-tech solutions may be more practical in poor countries, and research is also funded by the foundation for such toilets.[52]

Global health division[edit]

Since 2011, the president of the Global Health Program is Trevor Mundel.[53]

The foundation has donated billions of dollars to help sufferers of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, protecting millions of children from death at the hands of preventable diseases.[56] However, a 2007 investigation by The Los Angeles Times[56] claimed there are three major unintended consequences with the foundation's allocation of aid. First, sub-Saharan Africa already suffered from a shortage of primary doctors before the arrival of the Gates Foundation, but "by pouring most contributions into the fight against such high-profile killers as AIDS, Gates grantees have increased the demand for specially trained, higher-paid clinicians, diverting staff from basic care" in sub-Saharan Africa. This "brain drain" adds to the existing doctor shortage and pulls away additional trained staff from children and those suffering from other common killers. Second, "the focus on a few diseases has shortchanged basic needs such as nutrition and transportation".[56] Third, "Gates-funded vaccination programs have instructed caregivers to ignore – even discourage patients from discussing – ailments that the vaccinations cannot prevent".[56]

In response, the Gates Foundation has said that African governments need to spend more of their budgets on public health than on wars, that the foundation has donated at least $70 million to help improve nutrition and agriculture in Africa, in addition to its disease-related initiatives and that it is studying ways to improve the delivery of health care in Africa.[56]

Both insiders and external critics have suggested that there is too much deference to Bill Gates's personal views within the Gates Foundation, insufficient internal debate, and pervasive "group think."[55][57] Critics also complain that Gates Foundation grants are often awarded based on social connections and ideological allegiances rather than based on formal external review processes or technical competence.[57]

Critics have suggested that Gates' approach to Global Health and Agriculture favors the interests of large pharmaceutical and agribusiness companies (in which Gates invests) over the interests of the people of developing countries.[58][59][60][61]

The Global Health Program's other significant grants include:

United States division[edit]

Under President Allan Golston, the United States Program has made grants such as the following:

De-funding abortion[edit]

Melinda Gates has stated that the foundation "has decided not to fund abortion".[81] In response to questions about this decision, Gates stated in a June 2014 blog post that she "struggle[s] with the issue" and that "the emotional and personal debate about abortion is threatening to get in the way of the lifesaving consensus regarding basic family planning".[81] Up to 2013, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation provided $71 million to Planned Parenthood, the primary U.S. abortion provider, and affiliated organizations.[82]

Libraries[edit]

In 1997, the charity introduced a U.S. Libraries initiative with a goal of "ensuring that if you can get to a public library, you can reach the internet". Only 35% of the world's population has access to the Internet.[83] The foundation has given grants, installed computers and software, and provided training and technical support in partnership with public libraries nationwide in an effort to increase access and knowledge.[83] Helping provide access and training for these resources, this foundation helps move public libraries into the digital age.[83]

Most recently, the foundation gave a US$12.2 million grant to the Southeastern Library Network (SOLINET) to assist libraries in Louisiana and Mississippi on the Gulf Coast, many of which were damaged or destroyed by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

Education[edit]

A key aspect of the Gates Foundation's U.S. efforts involves an overhaul of the country's education policies at both the K-12 and college levels, including support for teacher evaluations and charter schools and opposition to seniority-based layoffs and other aspects of the education system that are typically backed by teachers' unions.[84] It spend $373 million on education in 2009.[84] It has also donated to the two largest national teachers' unions.[84] The foundation was the biggest early backer of the Common Core State Standards Initiative.[84]

One of the foundation's goals is to lower poverty by increasing the number of college graduates in the United States, and the organization has funded "Reimagining Aid Design and Delivery" grants to think tanks and advocacy organizations to produce white papers on ideas for changing the current system of federal financial aid for college students, with a goal of increasing graduation rates.[85][86] One of the ways the foundation has sought to increase the number of college graduates is to get them through college faster, but that ideas has received some pushback from organizations of universities and colleges.[87]

As part of its education-related initiatives, the foundation has funded journalists, think tanks, lobbying organizations and governments— including controversial groups such as the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC).[citation needed] Millions of dollars of grants to news organizations have funded reporting on education and higher education, including more than $1.4 million to the Education Writers Association to fund training for journalists who cover education.[88] While some critics have feared the foundation for directing the conversation on education or pushing its point of view through news coverage, the foundation has said it lists all its grants publicly and does not enforce any rules for content among its grantees, who have editorial independence.[84][88][89] Union activists in Chicago have accused Gates Foundation grantee Teach Plus, which was founded by new teachers and advocates against seniority-based layoffs, of "astroturfing".[84]

The K-12 and higher education reform programs of the Gates Foundation have been criticized by some education professionals, parents, and researchers because they have driven the conversation on education reform to such an extent that they may marginalize researchers who do not support Gates' predetermined policy preferences.[85] Several Gates-backed policies such as small schools, charter schools, and increasing class sizes have been expensive and disruptive, but some studies indicate they have not improved educational outcomes and may have caused harm.[90][91] Peer reviewed scientific studies at Stanford find that Charter Schools do not systematically improve student performance[92][93]

Examples of some of the K-12 reforms advocated by the foundation include closing ineffective neighborhood schools in favor of privately run charter schools; extensively using standardized test scores to evaluate the progress of students, teachers, and schools; and merit pay for teachers based on student test scores. Critics also believe that the Gates Foundation exerts too much influence over public education policy without being accountable to voters or taxpayers. [90][94][95]

Critics say the Gates Foundation has overlooked the links between poverty and poor academic achievement, and has unfairly demonized teachers for poor achievement by underprivileged students. They contend that the Gates Foundation should be embracing anti-poverty and living wage policies rather than pursuing untested and empirically unsupported education reforms.[96]

Critics say that Gates-backed reforms such as increasing the use of technology in education may financially benefit Microsoft and the Gates family.[85][97][98][99][100]

Some of the foundation's educational initiatives have included:

Pacific Northwest[edit]

Global policy & advocacy division[edit]

Lifespan[edit]

In October 2006, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation was split into two entities: the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Trust, which manages the endowment assets and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which "... conducts all operations and grantmaking work, and it is the entity from which all grants are made".[117][118] Also announced was the decision to "... spend all of [the Trust's] resources within 20[119] years after Bill's and Melinda's deaths".[120][121][122][123] This would close the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Trust and effectively end the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. In the same announcement it was reiterated that Warren Buffett "... has stipulated that the proceeds from the Berkshire Hathaway shares he still owns at death are to be used for philanthropic purposes within 10 years after his estate has been settled".[120]

The plan to close the Foundation Trust is in contrast to most large charitable foundations that have no set closure date. This is intended to lower administrative costs over the years of the Foundation Trust's life and ensure that the Foundation Trust not fall into a situation where the vast majority of its expenditures are on administrative costs, including salaries, with only token amounts contributed to charitable causes.[121]

Awards[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Foundation Timeline and History – Bill & Melinda Gates Foundationlegacy may focus more on philanthropy than on Microsoft - Computerworld". 
  2. ^ FoundationCenter.org Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, accessed 2009-06-20
  3. ^ a b c Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. "Fact Sheet". Retrieved 2012-03-27. 
  4. ^ Bates, Suzanne (2012). Discover Your CEO Brand. United States: McGrawHill. p. iv. ISBN 9780071762908. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  5. ^ a b "Guiding Principles". 
  6. ^ "The birth of philanthrocapitalism". The Economist. 2006-02-23. 
  7. ^ The 50 most generous Americans
  8. ^ Alex Cuadros; Crayton Harrison (17 May 2013). "Bill Gates Retakes World's Richest Title From Carlos Slim". Blooomberg. Blooomberg L.P. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  9. ^ http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9101858&intsrc=news_ts_head
  10. ^ "Microsoft Announces Plans for July 2008 Transition for Bill Gates". Microsoft PressPass. 2006-06-15. 
  11. ^ Guo, Jeff; McQueen, Rob, "Gates asks students to tackle world's problems : Disease and education among biggest challenges", The Tech, Volume 130, Issue 21, Friday, April 23, 2010
  12. ^ Guo, Jeff, "In interview, Gates describes philanthropic journey", The Tech, Volume 130, Issue 21, April 23, 2010. (video & transcript). "After he spoke at Kresge Auditorium, Bill Gates sat down with The Tech to talk more about his college tour, his philanthropy, and the philosophy behind it."
  13. ^ Public Health Blog | PHGN Blog - Public Health Global Network
  14. ^ a b "Hillary Clinton launches global data project on women and girls". Washington Post. 
  15. ^ a b Foundation Center. "Wyss, Clinton Foundations Partner on Full Participation by Women and Girls". Philanthropy News Digest (PND). 
  16. ^ Improving our Work with You: A Progress Report - Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Gatesfoundation.org (2012-09-06). Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  17. ^ Gates Foundation's Spotlight page on SoundCloud - Hear the world's sounds. Soundcloud.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  18. ^ Loomis, Carol J. (2008-03-05). "Warren Buffett gives away his fortune". Fortune (Time Warner via CNNMoney.com). Archived from the original on 28 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  19. ^ "Buffett Makes $30.7 Bln Donation to Gates Foundation (Update8)". 
  20. ^ http://www.bayoubuzz.com/articles.aspx?aid=7451
  21. ^ Chris Noon (26 June 2006). "Buffett Will Double Gates Foundation's Spending". Forbes. 
  22. ^ Loomis, Carol J. (2006-06-25). "How Buffett's giveaway will work". CNN. Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  23. ^ http://berkshirehathaway.com/donate/bmgfltr.pdf
  24. ^ Warren Buffett Makes Huge Charity Stock Donation To Gates Foundation, Other Charities. Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  25. ^ "Private Family Foundations". SaveWealth. SaveWealth. 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  26. ^ "Susan Desmond-Hellmann". Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  27. ^ "What We Do". Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  28. ^ "How We Work - Grantmaking". Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  29. ^ "Knowledge is Power: Sharing Information Can Accelerate Global Health Impact". Impatient Optimists. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. 20 November 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  30. ^ "Gates Foundation announces world’s strongest policy on open access research". News blog Nature.com. 21 November 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2015. 
  31. ^ "Who We Are - Financials". Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  32. ^ "BILL & MELINDA GATES FOUNDATION Consolidated Financial Statements" (PDF). BILL & MELINDA GATES FOUNDATION Consolidated Financial Statements. KPMG. 31 December 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  33. ^ http://www.streetinsider.com/holdings.php?q=WMT
  34. ^ Report: Gates Foundation Causing Harm With the Same Money It Uses To Do Good, Democracy Now!, January 09, 2007
  35. ^ Dark cloud over good works of Gates Foundation, Los Angeles Times, January 7, 2007
  36. ^ Gates Foundation to review investments, The Seattle Times, January 10, 2007
  37. ^ [Gates Foundation to maintain its investment plan], The Austin Statesman, January 14, 2007
  38. ^ "How the Gates Foundation's Investments Are Undermining Its Own Good Works". 
  39. ^ "Who We Are - Leadership CHRISTOPHER ELIAS PRESIDENT". Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  40. ^ "Gates Foundation Awards $5 Million to Fight Sex Trafficking". Philanthropy News Digest. Foundation Center. 21 March 2006. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  41. ^ "Project Lantern: Game-Changing Results in the Fight Against Trafficking". IJM. IJM. 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  42. ^ "Gates Foundation Awards $1.5 Million to Grameen Foundation" (Press release). Grameen Foundation. 2006-08-29. Archived from the original on 5 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-26. 
  43. ^ "Growing Better Rice for a Hungry World". Good. GOOD Worldwide Inc. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  44. ^ Raj Patel; Eric Holt-Gimenez; Annie Shattuck (21 September 2009). "Ending Africa's Hunger". The Nation. The Nation. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  45. ^ "Community Alliance for Global Justice". AGRA Watch. Community Alliance for Global Justice. 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  46. ^ "Pakistan Earthquake Homeless Number May Surpass Tsunami". Mercy Corps. Mercy Corps. 13 October 2005. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  47. ^ "United Nations Millenium Development Goals Report 2012" (PDF). United Nations Millenium Development Goals Report 2012. United Nations. 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  48. ^ "Our Technology". A Better Toilet For A Cleaner World. RTI International. 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  49. ^ "Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Reinvent the Toilet Challenge". 
  50. ^ BMGF (2012). Reinvent the Toilet Challenge (RTTC, Round 1 and 2), Grand Challenges Explorations (Round 6 and 7) - Request for proposals, grant conditions, Seattle exhibition fair program and exhibitor guide. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA
  51. ^ "World's First Solar Powered Toilet to be unveiled in India this month". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 14 March 2014. 
  52. ^ "Reinventing the toilet for 2.5 billion in need Bull World Health Organ 2014;92:470–471 - doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.14.020714" (PDF). who.int. 
  53. ^ "Leadership - Trevor Mundel". Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  54. ^ The Challenge of Global Health Foreign Affairs, January/February 2007
  55. ^ a b c Donald G. McNeil Jr., Gates Foundation's Influence Criticized, N.Y. Times, Feb 16, 2008
  56. ^ a b c d e f Piller, Charles; Smith, Doug (2007-12-16). "Unintended victims of Gates Foundation generosity". Los Angeles Times. 
  57. ^ a b Andy Beckett. "Andy Beckett, Inside the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, The Guardian, July 12, 2010". the Guardian. 
  58. ^ http://www.ghwatch.org/sites/www.ghwatch.org/files/d1.3.pdf
  59. ^ Andrew Bowman. "The flip side to Bill Gates' charity billions -- New Internationalist". 
  60. ^ http://faculty.maxwell.syr.edu/cbertini/Media/Kristi_Heim.pdf
  61. ^ Guest. "Critics say Gates Foundation's agriculture program won't help poor farmers". Humanosphere. 
  62. ^ [1][dead link]
  63. ^ "Gates Foundation, Norway Contribute $1 Billion to Increase Child Immunization in Developing Countries" (Press release). GAVI Alliance. 2005-01-24. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  64. ^ Thomson, Iain (2005-01-25). "Bill Gates gives $750m to help African children". Archived from the original on 2 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  65. ^ "Children's Vaccine Program Receives Grant From Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to Combat Japanese Encephalitis" (Press release). Program for Appropriate Technology in Health. 2003-12-09. Archived from the original on 2003-12-21. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  66. ^ "Gates gives $287m to HIV research". BBC News. 20 July 2006. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  67. ^ Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Announcement (2004-02-12). "Gates Foundation Commits $82.9 Million to Develop New Tuberculosis Vaccines". 
  68. ^ Nightingale, Katherine (2007-09-19). "Gates foundation gives US$280 million to fight TB". 
  69. ^ "Negotiated prices for Xpert® MTB/RIF and FIND country list". FIND Diagnostics. FIND. October 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  70. ^ "Public-Private Partnership Announces Immediate 40 Percent Cost Reduction for Rapid TB Test". World Health Organization. United Nations. 6 August 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  71. ^ "Published evidence and commentary on the Xpert MTB/RIF assay". Stop TB Partnership. World Health Organization. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  72. ^ "$5 m for disease control in Ethiopia". Israel21C. 30 December 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  73. ^ "Institute for OneWorld Health receives multimillion dollar grant". EurekAlert!. AAAS and EurekAlert!. 1 December 2005. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  74. ^ "New Cure for Deadly Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-Azar) Approved by Government of India, Institute for OneWorld Health and Gland Pharma Limited Achieve Critical Paromomycin Milestone". Business Wire India. Business Wire India. 14 September 2008. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  75. ^ Kyle Funk (September–October 2010). "Q & A: Institute for OneWorld Health". Access Granted Rita. Landes Bioscience. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  76. ^ "TOPIC: Develop the Next Generation of Condom". Grand Challenges in Global Health. Grand Challenges in Global Health. March 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  77. ^ Nick Lieber (5 December 2013). "Innovation: Next-Gen Condoms". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  78. ^ "WHO roadmap inspires unprecedented support to defeat neglected tropical diseases". World Health Organization. WHO. 3 February 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  79. ^ Sarah Boseley (30 January 2012). "Drug companies join forces to combat deadliest tropical diseases". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  80. ^ Sarah Boseley (4 April 2014). "Bill Gates: world must step up fight against neglected tropical diseases". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  81. ^ a b Melinda Gates (2014-06-02). "Reflections on My Recent Travels". Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved 2014-06-15. 
  82. ^ "Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation says it will no longer fund abortion". Breitbart. 2014-06-12. Retrieved 2014-06-16. 
  83. ^ a b c Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. (2014). "What We Do: Global Libraries Strategy Overview." The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.gatesfoundation.org/What-We-Do/Global-Development/Global-Libraries
  84. ^ a b c d e f Sam Dillon, Behind Grass-Roots School Advocacy, Bill Gates, May 21, 2011
  85. ^ a b c "Marc Parry, Kelly Field, & Beckie Supiano, "The Gates Effect", The Chronicle of Higher Education, July 13, 2014". The Chronicle of Higher Education. 
  86. ^ Libby A. Nelson (March 24, 2013). "Reimagining Financial Aid". Inside Higher Education. Retrieved December 21, 2014. 
  87. ^ "Katherine Mangan, "How Gates Shapes State Higher-Education Policy," The Chronicle of Higher Education, July 14, 2013". The Chronicle of Higher Education. 
  88. ^ a b "Jennifer Ruark, "To Shape the National Conversation, Gates and Lumina Support Journalism," The Chronicle of Higher Education, July 14, 2013". The Chronicle of Higher Education. 
  89. ^ "Storytelling Matters: A Look at the Gates Foundation's Media Grantmaking". Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. February 21, 2012. Retrieved December 21, 2014. 
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  91. ^ "Valerie Strauss, An educator challenges the Gates Foundation, The Washington Post, Oct. 8, 2014". Washington Post. 
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External links[edit]

Coordinates: 47°37′25″N 122°20′44″W / 47.62361°N 122.34556°W / 47.62361; -122.34556