Gastroenterology

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Gastroenterology
Stomach, colon and rectum.
SystemGastrointestinal
'
Significant diseasesGastrointestinal cancers, Gastrointestinal bleeding
Significant testsColonoscopy, Fecal occult blood testing, barium swallows, endoscopy
SpecialistGastroenterologist
 
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Gastroenterology
Stomach, colon and rectum.
SystemGastrointestinal
'
Significant diseasesGastrointestinal cancers, Gastrointestinal bleeding
Significant testsColonoscopy, Fecal occult blood testing, barium swallows, endoscopy
SpecialistGastroenterologist

Gastroenterology (MeSH heading)[1] is a branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders. The name is a combination of three Ancient Greek words gaster (gen.: gastros) (stomach), enteron (intestine), and logos (reason). In the United States, Gastroenterology is an Internal Medicine Subspecialty certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) and the American Osteopathic Board of Internal Medicine (AOBIM).

Diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the organs from mouth to anus, along the alimentary canal, are the focus of this specialty. Physicians practicing in this field of medicine are called gastroenterologists. They have usually completed the eight years of pre-medical and medical education, the year-long internship (if this is not a part of the residency), three years of an internal medicine residency, and two to three years in the gastroenterology fellowship. Some gastroenterology trainees will complete a "fourth-year" (although this is often their 7th year of graduate medical education) in Transplant Hepatology, Advanced Endoscopy, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), motility or other topics.

Gastroenterology is not the same as colorectal or hepatobiliary surgery, which are specialty branches of general surgery.

Hepatology, or hepatobiliary medicine, encompasses the study of the liver, pancreas, and biliary tree, and is traditionally considered a sub-specialty.

History[edit]

Drawings of Bozzini's "Lichtleiter"

Citing from Egyptian papyri, Nunn identified significant knowledge of gastrointestinal diseases among practising physicians during the periods of the pharaohs. Irynakhty, of the tenth dynasty, c. 2125 B.C., was a court physician specialising in gastroenterology, sleeping, and proctology.[2]

Among ancient Greeks, Hippocrates attributed digestion to concoction. Galen's concept of the stomach having four faculties was widely accepted up to modernity in the seventeenth century.

Eighteenth century:

Nineteenth century:

McClendon's pH-probe

Twentieth century:

Twenty-first century:

Disease classification[edit]

1. International Classification of Disease (ICD 2007)/WHO classification:

2. MeSH subject Heading:

3. National Library of Medicine Catalogue (NLM classification 2006):

Gastroenterologist
Occupation
NamesDoctor, Medical Specialist
Occupation typeSpecialty
Activity sectorsMedicine
Description
Education required

Gastroenterological societies[edit]

Research resources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ nlm.nih.gov
  2. ^ Nunn JF. Ancient Egyptian Medicine. 2002. ISBN 0-8061-3504-2.
  3. ^ Edgardo Rivera, MD James L. Abbruzzese, MD; Pancreatic, Hepatic, and Biliary Carcinomas, MEDICAL ONCOLOGY: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW [1]
  4. ^ DeStoll M: Rationis Mendendi, in Nosocomio Practico vendobonensi. Part 1 LugduniBatavarum, Haak et Socios et A et J Honkoop 1788, OCLC: 23625746
  5. ^ Gilger, MA (October 2001). "Gastroenterologic endoscopy in children: past, present, and future.". Current Opinion in Pediatrics 13 (5): 429–34. PMID 11801888. 
  6. ^ The Origin of Endoscopes, Olympus history
  7. ^ Anton Sebastian,A Dictionary of the History of Medicine, ISBN 1-85070-021-4
  8. ^ Prout, W. On the nature of the acid and saline matters usually existing in the stomachs of animals. – Philos. Transactions, 1824, 1, 45.
  9. ^ McClendon J. F. New hydrogen electrodes and rapid methods of determining hydrogen ion concentrations. – Amer. J. Physoil., 1915, 38, 2, 180.
  10. ^ Alvarez W. C. The electrogastrogram and what it shows. JAMA, 78(15):1116-18, 1922.

External links[edit]