Gala (apple)

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Malus domestica 'Gala'
Malus-Gala.jpg
Details
Hybrid parentage'Kidd's Orange Red' × 'Golden Delicious'
Cultivar'Gala'
OriginNew Zealand, 1920s
 
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Malus domestica 'Gala'
Malus-Gala.jpg
Details
Hybrid parentage'Kidd's Orange Red' × 'Golden Delicious'
Cultivar'Gala'
OriginNew Zealand, 1920s
Fruit and leaf detail

Gala is a clonally propagated apple with a mild and sweet flavor. Gala apples ranked at number 2 in 2006 on the US Apple Association's list of most popular apples, after Red Delicious and before Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, and Fuji (in order).[1]

Appearance and flavor[edit]

Gala apples are small and are usually red with a portion being greenish or yellow-green, vertically striped. Gala apples are fairly resistant to bruising and are sweet, grainy, with a mild flavor and a thinner skin than most apples. Quality indices include firmness, crispness, and lack of meal worms. Gala apples are sweet and aromatic, with a size that fits nicely into a child's hands. It can be added in salads, or cooked, and are especially suitable for creating sauces.[2]

History[edit]

The first Gala apple tree was one of many seedlings resulting from a cross between a Golden Delicious and a Kidd's Orange Red planted in New Zealand in the 1930s by orchardist J.H. Kidd. Donald W. McKenzie, an employee of Stark Bros Nursery, obtained a US plant patent for the cultivar on October 15, 1974.[3] The variety is also an increasingly popular option for UK top fruit farmers. It is a relatively new introduction to the UK, first planted in commercial volumes during the 1980s. The variety now represents about 20% of the total volume of the commercial production of eating apples grown in the UK, often replacing Cox's Orange Pippin.

Sports (mutations)[edit]

Many sports of Gala have been selected, mostly for increased red color, including the popular Royal Gala. The original cultivar produced fruit with orange stripes and a partial orange blush over a yellow background. Since then, several un-patented sports have been recognized. Additionally, more than twenty sports have received US plant patents:

Date"Inventor"Marketed asMutated FromAssigneeHabitPatternEarlierColorPlant Patent Number
Oct 15, 1974McKenzieGala-Starkstandardpartial blush-yellow

US plant patent 3637

Oct 4, 1977Ten HoveRoyal Gala, TenroyGala3637Starkstandardstripe-red

US plant patent 4121

May 10, 1988CreechScarlet Gala[4]Kidd's D-83637C & 0standardblush-scarlet

US plant patent 6172

Aug 1, 1989KiddleGalaxyTenroy4121Starkstandardstripeearlierintense red

US plant patent 6955

Dec 18, 1990CooperTreco Spur Red Gala No. 42, RegalAuvilOregon Rootstockspurstripe-red

US plant patent 7396

Jul 16, 1991FulfordFulfordKidd3637standardblush-bright red

US plant patent 7589

Mar 1, 1994OlsenObrogala, UltraRedTenroy4121Starkstandardstripe2–4 daysredder

US plant patent 8621

Apr 5, 1994WaliserWaliser GalaTenroy4121Waliserstandardstripe10 daysbright red

US plant patent 8673

May 10, 1994HillApplewaitesKidd's3637standardblush2–3 daysmore complete red

US plant patent 8720

Nov 5, 1996OlsenOlsentwo Gala, Pacific GalaRoyal Gala4121standardstripe5–10 daysdistinguishably different

US plant patent 9681

Sep 2 1997BrookfieldBaigentRoyal Gala4121Brookfieldstandardstripeextremely earlybright red

US plant patent 10016

Nov 11 1997GaleGale GalaRoyal Gala4121Van Wellstandardstripe3 weeksmore complete

US plant patent 10114

Jun 23, 1998FacklerBig Red GalaKidd's3637Protreestandardstripe-same

US plant patent 10458

Mar 30, 1999SimmonsSimmonsImperialPeace Valleystandardstripe21 daysbrighter red

US plant patent 10840

Jan 18, 2000StiekemaStiekema 1Obragala8621standardblush-red

US plant patent 11182

Apr 11, 2000McSpadden, JrCaitlinTenroy4121Starkstandardstripe"earlier"-

US plant patent 11348

Aug 13, 2002BlackHarry BlackKidd's3637International Plant Managementstandardstripe5 wk. later-

US plant patent 12842

Apr 29, 2003BanningBanning GalaImperialstandardstripe-intense red blush, darker stripe

US plant patent 13753

Jan 6, 2004SmithSmith galaTenroy4121standardstripe-yellow

US plant patent 14448

May 4, 2004WeaverWeaverFulford7589Adams County Nurserymore compactblush-bright red

US plant patent 14752

Jan 4, 2005LigonniereDalitogaImperialSNC Elarisstandardstripe3 wk.yellow

US plant patent 15465

Aug 15, 2006BurkittBurkitt GalaTenroy4121BMA Truststandardstripe10 d.completely red

US plant patent 17013

Feb 26, 2008McDonaldEl NiñoRoyal4121standardintense dark red stripebright red

US plant patent 18512

Jul 8 2008McLaughlinMcLaughlin GalaKidd's3637standard4—6 d.yellow

US plant patent 19007

Dec 30, 2008FankhauserAlvniaGalaFankhauserstandardstripes"earlier"red, > 95A% coverage

US plant patent 19604

Apr 14, 2009RichardGalavalGalaxy6955Pepinieres du Valoisstandardblush-intense dark purple brown

US plant patent 19909

Unpatented varieties include: Auvil, Imperial

Descendent cultivar(s)[edit]

Season[edit]

Gala apples are grown from May through September in the northern hemisphere, but, like most apples, are available almost all year through the use of cold storage and controlled atmosphere storage. Australian Gala are available from late January. California fruit is available until October. While the season usually lasts only 9 or 10 months, they are able to last all year round. However due to some apples continuing to be grown in some orchards, and the fact that they can be refrigerated for some months, leads to the availability of the Gala apple year round in some Australian markets. These usually taste different (slightly less sweet) from those in season.The UK season begins in late summer (August). Storage makes the UK fruit available nearly year round as with fruit from other origins.

Royal Gala cultigen[edit]

Royal Gala is a cultigen made from a sport of the Gala apple in the 1970s. It is a pink-red dessert apple and is therefore usually eaten fresh. Royal Galas are usually harvested in early to late February in the southern hemisphere.

Storage[edit]

The optimum temperature for storing apples is between -1° and 1°C (30 to 34°F), and the optimum relative humidity is 90 to 95%. Ethylene gas can speed ripening and spoilage and reduce firmness of apples, as with many other fruit.[6]

External links[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.usapple.org/consumers/applebits/core.cfm
  2. ^ http://www.aussieapples.com.au/aussie-grown-varieties/royal-gala.aspx
  3. ^ US plant patent 3637
  4. ^ US plant patent 7396
  5. ^ United States Patent PP17201
  6. ^ Elizabeth J. Mitcham, Carlos H. Crisosto and Adel A. Kader. "Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". Postharvest Technology Research Information Center. Retrieved 2010-10-08.