GM High Feature engine

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High Feature V6
Overview
ManufacturerGeneral Motors
Also calledAlloytec V6
Production2004-present
Combustion chamber
Configuration60° V6
Cylinder block alloyAluminum
Cylinder head alloyAluminum
ValvetrainDual overhead cam
Combustion
Fuel systemSequential multi-point fuel injection
Direct injection
Fuel typeGasoline
E85
Autogas
Oil systemWet sump
Cooling systemWater-cooled
Chronology
Predecessor
 
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High Feature V6
Overview
ManufacturerGeneral Motors
Also calledAlloytec V6
Production2004-present
Combustion chamber
Configuration60° V6
Cylinder block alloyAluminum
Cylinder head alloyAluminum
ValvetrainDual overhead cam
Combustion
Fuel systemSequential multi-point fuel injection
Direct injection
Fuel typeGasoline
E85
Autogas
Oil systemWet sump
Cooling systemWater-cooled
Chronology
Predecessor

The 3600 LY7 (and derivative LP1) are members of General Motors' new High Feature (or HFV6) engine family of modern DOHC V6s. This new family of engines was introduced in 2004 with the Cadillac CTS. Holden sells the HFV6 under the name Alloytec. The High Feature moniker on the Holden produced engine is reserved for the twin cam phasing High output version. The block was designed to be expandable from 2.8 L to 4.0 L.

It is a 60° 24-valve design with aluminum block and heads and Sequential Electronic Fuel Injection. Most versions feature continuously variable cam phasing on both intake and exhaust valves and electronic throttle control. Other features include piston oil-jet capability, forged and fillet rolled crankshaft, sinter forged connecting rods, a variable intake manifold, twin knock control sensors and coil-on-plug ignition. It was developed by the same international team responsible for the Ecotec, including the Opel engineers responsible for the 54° V6, with involvement with design and development engineering from Ricardo plc.

High Feature V6 engines are produced at Fishermans Bend in Port Melbourne - Australia, St. Catharines in Canada, and Flint Engine South in Flint, Michigan - United States. The assembly lines for the St. Catharines and Flint, Michigan facilities were manufactured by Hirata Corporation at their powertrain facility in Kumamoto, Japan.

History[edit]

The HFV6 was first designed, tested and produced in a joint team by Cadillac and Holden. A majority of design into the new alloy construction, transmission pairing and first use in production were all undertaken in Detroit (and manufactured in St. Catharines). Holden had the job of developing smaller engines (Holden 3.2, LP1 and LP9 Turbo) as well as their own Holden 3.6 HFV6 (called the Alloytec V6) for local models.

Cadillac and Holden both tested variations of these engines in US and Australia. North America and Australia remain the only two places that manufacture the HFV6.

2.8[edit]

2.8
Overview
Production2005-present
Combustion chamber
Displacement2,792 cc (170.4 cu in)
Cylinder bore89.0 mm (3.504 in)
Piston stroke74.8 mm (2.945 in)
Compression ratio
  • 9.5:1
  • 10.0:1
Combustion
Fuel system
Fuel type

LP1[edit]

A 2.8 L (2792 cc) LP1 variant was introduced in the 2005 Cadillac CTS. It has a 89.0 mm (3.50 in) bore, a 74.8 mm (2.94 in) stroke, and a 10.0:1 compression ratio. The LP1 was built in Saint Catharines, Ontario.

Applications:

Year(s)ModelPowerTorque
2005–2007Cadillac CTS210 hp (157 kW) @ 6500 rpm194 lb·ft (263 N·m) @ 3300 rpm

LP9 [edit]

2.8 L turbo V6 in a 2006 Saab 9-3

This engine is also known as a A28NET, Z28NET or B284.

The LP9 is a 2.8 L turbocharged version used for the Saab 9-3 and other GM vehicles. It has the same bore and stroke as the naturally aspirated LP1, however the compression ratio is reduced to 9.5:1. GM Powertrain Sweden (Saab Automobile Powertrain) was responsible for turbocharging the engine and it is built in Port Melbourne, Australia. Note that 'global' versions use the same horsepower rating for both metric and imperial markets (using imperial horsepowers) while Europe only versions are rated in metric horsepowers. Max torque are without torque limits used in some versions.

Applications:

Year(s)ModelPowerTorque
2005-2008Opel Vectra / Vauxhall Vectra230 hp (172 kW; 233 PS) @ 5500 rpm330 N·m (240 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2005-2008Opel Signum230 hp (172 kW; 233 PS) @ 5500 rpm330 N·m (240 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2005Opel Vectra OPC247 hp (184 kW; 250 PS) @ 5500 rpm350 N·m (260 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2006–2008276 hp (206 kW; 280 PS) @ 5500 rpm350 N·m (260 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2006–2009Cadillac BLS250 hp (186 kW; 253 PS) @ 5500 rpm350 N·m (260 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2006–2008Saab 9-3 Aero250 hp (186 kW; 253 PS) @ 5500 rpm350 N·m (260 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2009280 hp (209 kW; 284 PS) @ 5500 rpm400 N·m (300 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2008Saab 9-3 Turbo X280 hp (209 kW; 284 PS) @ 5500 rpm400 N·m (300 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2009–presentOpel/Vauxhall Insignia250 hp (186 kW; 253 PS) @ 5500 rpm350 N·m (260 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2008Saab 9-3 Aero Convertible255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) @ 5500 rpm350 N·m (260 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2009Saab 9-3 Aero Convertible280 hp (209 kW; 284 PS) @ 5500 rpm370 N·m (270 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2009–presentOpel/Vauxhall Insignia256 hp (191 kW; 260 PS) @ 5500 rpm350 N·m (260 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2009–presentOpel/Vauxhall Insignia OPC/VXR321 hp (239 kW; 325 PS) @ 5250 rpm435 N·m (321 lb·ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm
2010–2012Saab 9-5300 hp (224 kW; 304 PS) @ 5500 rpm400 N·m (300 lb·ft) @ 2000 rpm

LAU[edit]

The LAU is GM's new code for the LP9 Turbo engine, its usage starting with the 2010 Cadillac SRX.[1] In 2011, production of the Cadillac SRX with the LAU engine ceased, but the engine will still be used in the Saab 9-4X from 2011 onwards. In 2012, production of the 9-4X ceased.[2][3]

Applications:

Year(s)ModelPowerTorque
2010-2011Cadillac SRX300 hp (224 kW) @ 5500 rpm295 lb·ft (400 N·m) @ 2000 rpm
2011-2012Saab 9-4X300 hp (224 kW) @ 5500 rpm295 lb·ft (400 N·m) @ 2000 rpm

3.0[edit]

3.0
Overview
Production2010-2014
Combustion chamber
Displacement3,564 cc (217.5 cu in)
Cylinder bore89.0 mm (3.504 in)
Piston stroke80.3 mm (3.161 in)
Compression ratio
  • 11.7:1
Combustion
Fuel system
Fuel type

LF1[edit]

The LF1 is a 3.0 liter version equipped with Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI).

Applications:

Year(s)ModelPowerTorque
2010-2011Buick LaCrosse255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS)217 lb·ft (294 N·m)
2010–2011Cadillac CTS270 hp (201 kW; 274 PS) @ 7000 rpm223 lb·ft (302 N·m) @ 5700 rpm
2010–2011Cadillac SRX[4]265 hp (198 kW; 269 PS) @ 6950 rpm223 lb·ft (302 N·m) @ 5100 rpm
2010Chevrolet Equinox264 hp (197 kW; 268 PS)222 lb·ft (301 N·m)
2010GMC Terrain264 hp (197 kW; 268 PS)222 lb·ft (301 N·m)
2010Holden Commodore255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) @ 6700 rpm214 lb·ft (290 N·m) @ 2900 rpm
2011Saab 9-4X [3]265 hp (198 kW; 269 PS) @ 6950 rpm223 lb·ft (302 N·m) @ 5100 rpm
2011Chevrolet Captiva255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) @ 6900 rpm212 lb·ft (288 N·m) @ 5800 rpm
2012Chevrolet Malibu (Middle East)[5]260 hp (194 kW; 264 PS) @ 6900 rpm290 N·m (214 lb·ft) @ 5600 rpm

LFW[edit]

The LFW is a flexible fuel version of the LF1, capable of running on E85, gasoline, or any mixture of the two. Output is identical to the LF1.

Applications:

Year(s)ModelPowerTorque
2011–2012Chevrolet Equinox264 hp (197 kW; 268 PS)222 ft·lbf (301 N·m)
2011–2012GMC Terrain264 hp (197 kW; 268 PS)222 ft·lbf (301 N·m)
2012-2014Cadillac CTS270 hp (201 kW; 274 PS) @ 7000 rpm223 lb·ft (302 N·m) @ 5700 rpm
2012-2013Chevrolet Captiva Sport264 hp (197 kW; 268 PS)222 ft·lbf (301 N·m)

3.2 [edit]

For Alfa Romeo version of the 3.2 L, see JTS engine.
3.2
Overview
Production2005-2010
Combustion chamber
Displacement3,195 cc (195.0 cu in)
Cylinder bore89.0 mm (3.504 in)
Piston stroke85.6 mm (3.370 in)
Compression ratio10.3:1

Holden has built its own 3.2 L version of the High Feature engine in Australia. Branded with the Alloytec name like the 3.6 litre version, this version produces 227 hp (169 kW) at 6600 rpm and 297 N·m (219 lb·ft) at 3200 rpm. Fuel economy 4–6 km/liter in city, 7–9 km/liter on highway.[citation needed]. Holden also produced the 3.2 L engines that were used by Alfa Romeo as the basis of its JTS V6 engine.

Applications:

3.6[edit]

3.6
Alloytec V6 engine of a 2006 Holden VZ Commodore SVZ 01.jpg
3.6 L engine in a Holden VZ Commodore
Overview
Production2004-present
Combustion chamber
Displacement3,564 cc (217.5 cu in)
Cylinder bore94.0 mm (3.701 in)
Piston stroke85.6 mm (3.370 in)
Compression ratio
  • 10.2:1
  • 11.3:1
  • 11.5:1
Combustion
Fuel system
Fuel type
Dimensions
Dry weight168 kg (370 lb) (3.6 V6 High Feature engine)[6]

LY7 [edit]

LPG Alloytec V6 engine in a Holden VE Commodore.

The 3.6 L (3,564 cc (217.5 cu in)) LY7 version was introduced in the 2004 Cadillac CTS sedan. It has a 10.2:1 compression ratio, a bore of 94.0 mm (3.70 in) and a stroke of 85.6 mm (3.37 in). Lower powered versions only have variable cam phasing on the inlet cam. Selected models also include variable exhaust. The engine weighs 370 lb (170 kg) as installed.

This engine is produced in several locations: St. Catharines (Ontario), Flint Engine South (Michigan), Melbourne (Australia), Ramos Arizpe (Mexico), and Sagara (Japan) by Suzuki.

Suzuki's engine designation is N36A.

A dual fuel 235 hp (175 kW) version able to run on petrol and autogas (LPG) has also been produced by Holden in Australia.

Applications:[7]

Year(s)ModelPowerTorque
2004–2007Buick Rendezvous CXL/Ultra242 hp (180 kW) @ 6000 rpm232 lb·ft (315 N·m) @ 3500 rpm
2004–2007Cadillac CTS255 hp (190 kW) @ 6200 rpm252 lb·ft (342 N·m) @ 3100 rpm
2008–2009Cadillac CTS263 hp (196 kW) @ 6200 rpm253 lb·ft (343 N·m) @ 3100 rpm
2004–2009Cadillac SRX255 hp (190 kW) @ 6500 rpm254 lb·ft (344 N·m) @ 2800 rpm
2004–2005Holden VZ Commodore235 hp (175 kW) @ 6000 rpm236 lb·ft (320 N·m) @ 2800 rpm
2006–2007231 hp (172 kW) @ 6000 rpm236 lb·ft (320 N·m) @ 2800 rpm
2004–2006Holden VZ Commodore Holden WL Statesman Holden VZ Calais SV6255 hp (190 kW) @ 6500 rpm251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2006–2007255 hp (190 kW) @ 6500 rpm247 lb·ft (335 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2005–2008Buick LaCrosse CXS240 hp (179 kW) @ 6000 rpm225 lb·ft (305 N·m) @ 2000 rpm
2005–2007Cadillac STS255 hp (190 kW) @ 6500 rpm252 lb·ft (342 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2006–2007Holden VE Commodore Omega240 hp (179 kW) @ 6000 rpm243 lb·ft (329 N·m) @ 2600 rpm
2008–2009235 hp (175 kW) @ 6500 rpm240 lb·ft (325 N·m) @ 2400 rpm
2006–2009Holden VE Commodore SV6261 hp (195 kW) @ 6500 rpm251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 2600 rpm
2006–2009Holden WM Statesman/Caprice262 hp (195 kW) @ 6500 rpm250 lb·ft (339 N·m) @ 2600 rpm
2006–2011Holden Rodeo/Colorado211 hp (157 kW) @ 6500 rpm231 lb·ft (313 N·m) @ 2600 rpm
2007–2008GMC Acadia275 hp (205 kW) @ 6600 rpm251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2007Pontiac G6 GTP252 hp (188 kW) @ 6300 rpm251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2007–2009Saturn Aura XR252 hp (188 kW) @ 6300 rpm251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2007–2008Saturn Outlook XE single exhaust270 hp (201 kW) @ 6600 rpm248 lb·ft (336 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2007–2008Saturn Outlook XR dual exhaust275 hp (205 kW) @ 6600 rpm251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2008Buick Enclave275 hp (205 kW) @ 6600 rpm251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2008–2012Chevrolet Malibu252 hp (188 kW) @ 6300 rpm251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2008–2009Chevrolet Equinox Sport264 hp (197 kW) @ 6500 rpm250 lb·ft (339 N·m) @ 2300 rpm
2008–2009Pontiac G6 GXP252 hp (188 kW) @ 6300 rpm251 lb·ft (340 N·m) @ 3200 rpm
2008–2009Pontiac G8256 hp (191 kW) @ 6300 rpm248 lb·ft (336 N·m) @ 2100 rpm
2008–2009Pontiac Torrent GXP264 hp (197 kW) @ 6500 rpm250 lb·ft (339 N·m) @ 2300 rpm
2008–2009Saturn Vue XR / Red Line257 hp (192 kW) @ 6500 rpm248 lb·ft (336 N·m) @ 2100 rpm
2007-2009Suzuki XL7252 hp (188 kW) at 6500 rpm243 lb·ft (329 N·m) at 2300 rpm

LLT[edit]

The 3.6 litre (3564 cc) LLT is a direct injected version based on the earlier LY7 engine. It was first unveiled in May 2006, and the DI version was claimed to have 15 percent greater power, 8 percent greater torque, and 3 percent better fuel economy than its port-injected counterpart. The LLT engine has a compression ratio of 11.3:1, and has been certified by the SAE to produce 302 horsepower (225 kW) at 6300 rpm and 272 lb·ft (369 N·m) of torque at 5200 rpm on regular unleaded (87 octane) gasoline. This engine debuted on the 2008 Cadillac STS and CTS.[8][9] GM will use a LLT in all 2009 Lambda-derived crossover SUVs to allow class-leading fuel economy in light of the new Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. In the Lambdas, LLT engine produces 288 horsepower (215 kW) and 270 lb·ft (366 N·m) of torque.[10][11][12]

Applications:

Year(s)ModelPowerTorque
2008–2011Cadillac CTS304 hp (227 kW) @ 6400 rpm273 lb·ft (370 N·m) @ 5200 rpm
2008–2011Cadillac STS302 hp (225 kW) @ 6300 rpm272 lb·ft (369 N·m) @ 5200 rpm
2009–presentBuick Enclave288 hp (215 kW) @ 6300 rpm270 lb·ft (366 N·m) @ 3400 rpm
2009–presentChevrolet Traverse single exhaust281 hp (210 kW) @ 6300 rpm266 lb·ft (361 N·m) @ 3400 rpm
2009–presentChevrolet Traverse dual exhaust288 hp (215 kW) @ 6300 rpm270 lb·ft (366 N·m) @ 3400 rpm
2009–presentGMC Acadia288 hp (215 kW)270 lb·ft (366 N·m)
2009Saturn Outlook single exhaust281 hp (210 kW) @ 6300 rpm266 lb·ft (361 N·m) @ 3400 rpm
2009Saturn Outlook dual exhaust288 hp (215 kW) @ 6300 rpm270 lb·ft (366 N·m) @ 3400 rpm
2009–2011Daewoo Veritas
2009–2011Holden VE Commodore SV6281 hp (210 kW) @ 6400 rpm258 lb·ft (350 N·m) @ 2900 rpm
2009–2011Holden WM Statesman/Caprice281 hp (210 kW) @ 6400 rpm258 lb·ft (350 N·m) @ 2900 rpm
2010–2011Buick LaCrosse CXS280 hp (210 kW) @ 6300 rpm259 lb·ft (351 N·m) @ 4800 rpm
2010-2011Chevrolet Camaro312 hp (233 kW) @ 6400 rpm278 lb·ft (377 N·m) @ 5200 rpm

LFX[edit]

The LFX is an enhanced version of the LLT engine. Introduced in the MY2012 Chevrolet Camaro LS, it is 20.5 pounds (9.3 kg) lighter than the LLT, due to a redesigned cylinder head and integrated exhaust manifold, and composite intake manifold. Other components like the fuel injectors, intake valves, and fuel pump have also been updated. Power and torque are up slightly from the LLT. The compression ratio is 11.5:1. The LFX also features E85 flex-fuel capability.

Applications:

Year(s)ModelPowerTorqueDyno Chart
2012–presentBuick LaCrosse303 hp (226 kW)264 lb·ft (358 N·m)link
2013Cadillac ATS321 hp (239 kW) @ 6800 rpm274 lb·ft (371 N·m) @ 4800 rpmlink
2012–presentCadillac CTS
(2014 Wagon & Coupe only)
318 hp (237 kW) @ 6800 rpm275 lb·ft (373 N·m) @ 4900 rpmlink
2014–presentCadillac CTS
(2014 Sedan only)
321 hp (239 kW) @ 6800 rpm275 lb·ft (373 N·m) @ 4900 rpmlink
2012–presentCadillac SRX308 hp (230 kW) @ 6800 rpm265 lb·ft (359 N·m) @ 2400 rpmlink
2013Cadillac XTS304 hp (227 kW) @ 6800 rpm264 lb·ft (358 N·m) @ 5200 rpmlink
2012–presentChevrolet Camaro323 hp (241 kW) @ 6800 rpm278 lb·ft (377 N·m) @ 4800 rpmlink
2012–presentChevrolet Caprice PPV301 hp (224 kW) @ 6700 rpm265 lb·ft (359 N·m) @ 4800 rpmlink
2013Chevrolet Equinox301 hp (224 kW) @ 6500 rpm272 lb·ft (369 N·m) @ 4800 rpmlink
2012–2013Chevrolet Impala302 hp (225 kW) @ 6500 rpm262 lb·ft (355 N·m) @ 5300 rpm
2014Chevrolet Impala305 hp (227 kW) @ 6500 rpm262 lb·ft (355 N·m) @ 5200 rpmlink
2013GMC Terrain301 hp (224 kW) @ 6500 rpm272 lb·ft (369 N·m) @ 4800 rpmlink
2011–presentHolden Caprice WM II (MY 2012)281 hp (210 kW) @ 6700 rpm258 lb·ft (350 N·m) @ 2800 rpm
2011–2013Holden Commodore VE II (MY 2012)281 hp (210 kW) @ 6700 rpm258 lb·ft (350 N·m) @ 2800 rpm
2013–presentHolden Commodore VF281 hp (210 kW) @ 6700 rpm258 lb·ft (350 N·m) @ 2800 rpm

LCS[edit]

The 3.6 litre (3564 cc) LCS is derived from the direct-injected LLT for use in hybrids, using the two-mode system.[13] Differences from the LLT include a slightly lower compression ratio, 11.3:1, and lower power and torque peaks. It was to debut in the 2009 Saturn Vue Hybrid, where it would make 262 hp (195 kW) at 6100 rpm and 250 lb·ft (339 N·m) of torque at 4800 rpm.[14] Fuel economy 6–8 km/liter in city, 9–11 km/liter on highway Applications:

LF3[edit]

The 3.6 L twin-turbocharged version for the 2014 Cadillac CTS and 2014 Cadillac XTS has been announced at the 2013 NYAS.[15]

The engine is rated at 420 hp (313 kW) of power @ 5750 rpm and 430 lb·ft (583 N·m) of torque @ 3500-4500 rpm (with 90% of torque being available at 2500-5500 rpm) and helps the CTS achieve 0-60 mph time of 4.6 seconds with an 8-speed automatic transmission.

In essence, the twin-turbo 3.6L V6 is the force-inducted variant of the popular LFX V6 currently found in the Cadillac ATS, XTS, and SRX, among many other GM models, with several important upgrades, including:

Applications:

Year(s)ModelPowerTorqueDyno Chart
2014–presentCadillac XTS410 hp (306 kW) @ 5750 rpm369 lb·ft (500 N·m) @ 3500-4500 rpmlink
2014–presentCadillac CTS420 hp (313 kW) @ 5750 rpm430 lb·ft (583 N·m) @ 3500-4500 rpmlink

V12[edit]

On March 21, 2007 it was reported by AutoWeek that GM was planning to develop a 60-degree V12 based on this engine family to power the top version of Cadillac's upcoming flagship sedan. This Cadillac would essentially have had two 3.6 L High Feature V6s attached crankshaft-to-crankshaft and would have featured such high-end technologies as direct injection and cylinder deactivation. If so, the twin-engine would have displaced 7.2 liters, and produced approximately 600 hp (447 kW) and 540 lb·ft (732 N·m) of torque. Development of the engine was reportedly being conducted in Australia by Holden.[16]

In August, 2008, GM announced that development of the V12 had been cancelled.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "GM Media Online: GM Canada English". Archives.media.gm.com. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  2. ^ "Cadillac SRX Turbo Model Axed". GM Inside News. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  3. ^ a b "New Saab 9-4X: Powertrain". Saab Media Online. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  4. ^ Abuelsamid, Sam (2009-01-04). "Detroit Preview: 2010 Cadillac SRX reborn". autoblog.com. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  5. ^ https://media.gm.com/media/me/en/gm/press_kits.detail.html/content/Pages/presskits/me/en/2011/Chevrolet/All_New_2013_Chevrolet_Malibu_Middle_East_Media_Launch.html
  6. ^ "Holden's new Alloytec engine may chew as much fuel as the engine it replaces". goauto.com.au. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  7. ^ "GM News - United States - News". Media.gm.com. 2010-11-01. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  8. ^ Hellwig, Ed (2007-01-08). "Detroit Auto Show: 2008 Cadillac CTS". edmunds.com. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  9. ^ Brennan, Reilly (2007-05-08). "Cadillac Ups STS Horsepower Rating To 302". nextautos.com. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  10. ^ "Engine - Power Curve". Eogld.ecomm.gm.com. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  11. ^ "Engine - Power Curve". Eogld.ecomm.gm.com. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  12. ^ "Engine - Power Curve". Eogld.ecomm.gm.com. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  13. ^ "Model Information - Online Ordering Guide". Eogld.ecomm.gm.com. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  14. ^ [1][dead link]
  15. ^ http://media.gm.com/media/us/en/gm/news.detail.html/content/Pages/news/us/en/2013/Mar/nyas/0318-lf3-engine.html
  16. ^ "AutoWeek Breaks Major Cadillac News in March 26 Issue" (Press release). prnewswire.com. 2007-03-21. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  17. ^ "Cadillac cancels plans for V12 XLKS flagship sedan". autospies.com. 2008-08-21. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 

External links[edit]