a signal word – either DANGER or WARNING – where necessary
precautionary statements, indicating how the product should be handled to minimize risks to the user (as well as to other people and the general environment)
the identity of the supplier (who might be a manufacturer or importer)
Each hazard statement is designated a code, starting with the letter H and followed by three digits. Statements which correspond to related hazards are grouped together by code number, so the numbering is not consecutive. The code is used for reference purposes, for example to help with translations, but it is the actual phrase which should appear on labels and safety data sheets.
H230: May react explosively even in the absence of air
H231: May react explosively even in the absence of air at elevated pressure and/or temperature
H240: Heating may cause an explosion
H241: Heating may cause a fire or explosion
H242: Heating may cause a fire
H250: Catches fire spontaneously if exposed to air
H251: Self-heating; may catch fire
H252: Self-heating in large quantities; may catch fire
H260: In contact with water releases flammable gases which may ignite spontaneously
H261: In contact with water releases flammable gas
H270: May cause or intensify fire; oxidizer
H271: May cause fire or explosion; strong oxidizer
H272: May intensify fire; oxidizer
H280: Contains gas under pressure; may explode if heated
H281: Contains refrigerated gas; may cause cryogenic burns or injury
H290: May be corrosive to metals
H300: Fatal if swallowed
H301: Toxic if swallowed
H302: Harmful if swallowed
H303: May be harmful if swallowed
H304: May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways
H305: May be harmful if swallowed and enters airways
H310: Fatal in contact with skin
H311: Toxic in contact with skin
H312: Harmful in contact with skin
H313: May be harmful in contact with skin
H314: Causes severe skin burns and eye damage
H315: Causes skin irritation
H316: Causes mild skin irritation
H317: May cause an allergic skin reaction
H318: Causes serious eye damage
H319: Causes serious eye irritation
H320: Causes eye irritation
H330: Fatal if inhaled
H331: Toxic if inhaled
H332: Harmful if inhaled
H333: May be harmful if inhaled
H334: May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled
H335: May cause respiratory irritation
H336: May cause drowsiness or dizziness
H340: May cause genetic defects
H341: Suspected of causing genetic defects
H350: May cause cancer
H351: Suspected of causing cancer
H360: May damage fertility or the unborn child
H361: Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child
H361d: Suspected of damaging the unborn child
H362: May cause harm to breast-fed children
H370: Causes damage to organs
H371: May cause damage to organs
H372: Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure
H373: May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure
H400: Very toxic to aquatic life
H401: Toxic to aquatic life
H402: Harmful to aquatic life
H410: Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects
H411: Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects
H412: Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects
H413: May cause long lasting harmful effects to aquatic life
H420: Harms public health and the environment by destroying ozone in the upper atmosphere
Country-specific hazard statements
The European Union has implemented the GHS through the CLP Regulation. Nevertheless, the older system based on the Dangerous Substances Directive will continue to be used in parallel until 2016. Some R-phrases which do not have simple equivalents under the GHS have been retained under the CLP Regulation: the numbering mirrors the number of the previous R-phrase.
EUH001: Explosive when dry
EUH006: Explosive with or without contact with air
EUH014: Reacts violently with water
EUH018: In use may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture
EUH019: May form explosive peroxides
EUH044: Risk of explosion if heated under confinement
EUH029: Contact with water liberates toxic gas
EUH031: Contact with acids liberates toxic gas
EUH032: Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas
EUH066: Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking
EUH070: Toxic by eye contact
EUH071: Corrosive to the respiratory tract
EUH059: Hazardous to the ozone layer
Other EU hazard statements
Some other hazard statements intended for use in very specific circumstances have also been retained under the CLP Regulation. Note that, in this case, the numbering of the EU specific hazard statements can coincide with GHS hazard statements if the "EU" prefix is not included.
EUH201: Contains lead. Should not be used on surfaces liable to be chewed or sucked by children.
EUH201A: Warning! Contains lead.
EUH202: Cyanoacrylate. Danger. Bonds skin and eyes in seconds. Keep out of the reach of children.
EUH203: Contains chromium(VI). May produce an allergic reaction.
EUH204: Contains isocyanates. May produce an allergic reaction.
EUH205: Contains epoxy constituents. May produce an allergic reaction.
EUH206: Warning! Do not use together with other products. May release dangerous gases (chlorine).
EUH207: Warning! Contains cadmium. Dangerous fumes are formed during use. See information supplied by the manufacturer. Comply with the safety instructions.
EUH208: Contains <name of sensitising substance>. May produce an allergic reaction.
EUH209: Can become highly flammable in use.
EUH209A: Can become flammable in use.
EUH210: Safety data sheet available on request.
EUH401: To avoid risks to human health and the environment, comply with the instructions for use.
As of March 2009, the relevant New Zealand regulations under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 do not specify the exact wording required for hazard statements. However, the New Zealand classification system includes three categories of environmental hazard which are not included in the GHS Rev.2:
Ecotoxicity to soil environment
Ecotoxicity to terrestrial vertebrates
Ecotoxicity to terrestrial invertebrates
These are classes 9.2–9.4 respectively of the New Zealand classification scheme, and are divided into subclasses according to the degree of hazard. Substances in subclass 9.2D ("Substances that are slightly harmful in the soil environment") do not require a hazard statement, while substances in the other subclasses require an indication of the general degree of hazard and general type of hazard.
^The United Nations has published the list of GHS hazard statements in all UN official languages (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish): it can be found in Annex 3 of GHS Rev.2 for the corresponding language.
^A list of translations into all the European Union official languages can be found in Annex III to the CLP Regulation, on pages 146–91 of the official English-language version for the GHS statements and pages 192–209 for the EU-specific statements.