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Not to be confused with Goldman–Hodgkin–Katz flux equation.

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The **Goldman–Hodgkin–Katz voltage equation**, more commonly known as the **Goldman equation**, is used in cell membrane physiology to determine the reversal potential across a cell's membrane, taking into account all of the ions that are permeant through that membrane.

The discoverers of this are David E. Goldman of Columbia University, and the English Nobel laureates Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Bernard Katz.

The GHK voltage equation for monovalent positive ionic species and negative:

This results in the following if we consider a membrane separating two -solutions:

It is "Nernst-like" but has a term for each permeant ion:

- = The membrane potential (in volts, equivalent to joules per coulomb)
- = the permeability for that ion (in meters per second)
- = the extracellular concentration of that ion (in moles per cubic meter, to match the other SI units)
- = the intracellular concentration of that ion (in moles per cubic meter)
- = The ideal gas constant (joules per kelvin per mole)
- = The temperature in kelvins
- = Faraday's constant (coulombs per mole)

The first term, before the parentheses, can be reduced to 61.5 mV for calculations at human body temperature (37 °C)

Note that the ionic charge determines the sign of the membrane potential contribution. Note also that during an action potential, although the membrane potential changes about 100mV, the concentrations of ions inside and outside the cell do not change significantly. They are always very close to their respective concentrations when then membrane is at their resting potential.

Using , , (assuming body temperature) and the fact that one volt is equal to one joule of energy per coulomb of charge, the equation

can be reduced to

Goldman's equation seeks to determine the voltage *E*_{m} across a membrane.^{[1]} A Cartesian coordinate system is used to describe the system, with the *z* direction being perpendicular to the membrane. Assuming that the system is symmetrical in the *x* and *y* directions (around and along the axon, respectively), only the *z* direction need be considered; thus, the voltage *E*_{m} is the integral of the *z* component of the electric field across the membrane.

According to Goldman's model, only two factors influence the motion of ions across a permeable membrane: the average electric field and the difference in ionic concentration from one side of the membrane to the other. The electric field is assumed to be constant across the membrane, so that it can be set equal to *E*_{m}/*L*, where *L* is the thickness of the membrane. For a given ion denoted A with valence *n*_{A}, its flux *j*_{A}—in other words, the number of ions crossing per time and per area of the membrane—is given by the formula

The first term corresponds to Fick's law of diffusion, which gives the flux due to diffusion down the concentration gradient, i.e., from high to low concentration. The constant *D*_{A} is the diffusion constant of the ion A. The second term reflects the flux due to the electric field, which increases linearly with the electric field; this is a Stokes-Einstein relation applied to electrophoretic mobility. The constants here are the charge valence *n*_{A} of the ion A (e.g., +1 for K^{+}, +2 for Ca^{2+} and −1 for Cl^{−}), the temperature *T* (in kelvins), the molar gas constant *R*, and the faraday *F*, which is the total charge of a mole of electrons.

Using the mathematical technique of separation of variables, the equation may be separated

Integrating both sides from *z*=0 (inside the membrane) to *z*=*L* (outside the membrane) yields the solution

where μ is a dimensionless number

and *P*_{A} is the ionic permeability, defined here as

The electric current density *J*_{A} equals the charge *q*_{A} of the ion multiplied by the flux *j*_{A}

There is such a current associated with every type of ion that can cross the membrane. By assumption, at the Goldman voltage *E*_{m}, the total current density is zero

If all the ions are monovalent—that is, if all the *n*_{A} equal either +1 or -1—this equation can be written

whose solution is the Goldman equation

where

If divalent ions such as calcium are considered, terms such as *e*^{2μ} appear, which is the square of *e*^{μ}; in this case, the formula for the Goldman equation can be solved using the quadratic formula.

- Bioelectronics
- Cable theory
- GHK current equation
- Hindmarsh–Rose model
- Hodgkin–Huxley model
- Morris–Lecar model
- Nernst equation
- Saltatory conduction

**^**Junge D (1981).*Nerve and Muscle Excitation*(2nd edition ed.). Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates. pp. 33–37. ISBN 0-87893-410-3.

- Nernst/Goldman Equation Simulator
- Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz Equation Calculator
- Nernst/Goldman interactive Java applet The membrane voltage is calculated interactively as the number of ions are changed between the inside and outside of the cell.
- Potential, Impedance, and Rectification in Membranes by Goldman (1949)