Fuji (apple)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Malus domestica 'Fuji'
Rosaceae Malus pumila Malus pumila Var domestica Apples Fuji.jpg
"Fuji" on a tree
Details
GenusMalus
SpeciesM. pumila
Hybrid parentage'Red Delicious' × 'Ralls Genet'
Cultivar'Fuji'
OriginFujisaki, Aomori, Japan, 1930s
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Malus domestica 'Fuji'
Rosaceae Malus pumila Malus pumila Var domestica Apples Fuji.jpg
"Fuji" on a tree
Details
GenusMalus
SpeciesM. pumila
Hybrid parentage'Red Delicious' × 'Ralls Genet'
Cultivar'Fuji'
OriginFujisaki, Aomori, Japan, 1930s

The Fuji apple is an apple hybrid developed by growers at the Tohoku Research Station (農林省園芸試験場東北支場) in Fujisaki, Aomori, Japan, in the late 1930s,[1] and brought to market in 1962. It originated as a cross between two American apple varieties -- the Red Delicious and old Virginia Ralls Genet (sometimes cited as "Rawls Jennet") apples.

Contrary to popular opinion, it is named for Fujisaki town (the location of Tohuku Research Station), not for Mount Fuji.

Overview[edit]

Fuji apples
Fuji Kiku on a tree
Fuji apples on a display in a supermarket

Fuji apples are typically round and range from large to very large, averaging 75 mm in diameter. They contain between 9–11% sugars by weight and have a dense flesh that is sweeter and crisper than many other apple cultivars, making them popular with consumers around the world. Fuji apples also have a very long shelf life compared to other apples, even without refrigeration. With refrigeration, Fuji apples can remain fresh for up to a year.[2]

In Japan, Fuji apples continue to be an unrivaled best-seller. Japanese consumers prefer the crispy texture and sweetness of Fuji apples (which is somewhat reminiscent of the coveted Nashi pear) almost to the exclusion of other varieties and Japan's apple imports remain low. Aomori Prefecture, home to the Fuji apple, is the best known apple growing region of Japan. Of the roughly 900,000 tons of Japanese apples produced annually, 500,000 tons come from Aomori.

Outside of Japan the popularity of Fuji apples continues to grow. Fuji apples now account for 80% of China's 20 million tons grown annually.[citation needed] Since their introduction into the U.S. market in the 1980s, Fuji apples have gained popularity with American consumers -- as of 2003, Fuji apples ranked number 4 on the US Apple Association's list of most popular apples, only trailing Red Delicious, Golden Delicious, and Gala. Fuji apples are grown in traditional apple-growing states such as Washington, Michigan, New York, and California. Washington State, where more than half of America's apple crop is grown, produces about 135,000 tons of Fuji apples each year, third in volume behind Red Delicious and Golden Delicious varieties.

Mutant cultivars[edit]

Many sports (mutant cultivars) of the Fuji apple have been recognized and propagated. In addition to those that have remained unpatented, twenty had received US plant patents by August, 2008:

Date"Inventor"Marketed asMutated FromAssigneeHabitPatternEarlierColorPlant Patent Number
Aug 29, 1989HiraragiYatakaFujiMakoto Okadastandardstripe1 Month

US plant patent 7001

Oct 6, 1992YahagiHeisei Fuji, Beni Shogun9645Yataka7001Nakajima Tenkoenstandardsolidnodark red

US plant patent 7997

Nov 17, 1992CooperT.A.C.#114Redsport Type 2T.A.C.spurstripe10–14 daysmore brilliant red, 80—90%

US plant patent 8032

Sep 26, 1995FukudaTenseiFujiFukushima Tenkoenstandard, largerstripenosame

US plant patent 9298

Apr 16, 1996LyndFuji-SpikeFujiLyndspurstripe0–5 dayssame

US plant patent 9508

Sep 24, 1996Van LeuvenMyraunknown red strainC & Ostandardblush w/ subtle stripe1 weekbright pink

US plant patent 9645

Dec 9, 1997AuvilFuji 216T.A.C.#1148032Auvilstandardblush5–21 daysbrighter red, 90—100%

US plant patent 10141

Mar 24, 1998Coopr & PerkinsFuji Compact T.A.C. #114T.A.C.#1148032T.A.C.spursamesamesame

US plant patent 10291

Jan 25, 2000Van LeuvenFieroYataka7001C & Ostandardindistinct stripe7–10 daysmore intense blush

US plant patent 11193

Sep 18, 2001SnyderSnyderBC 2Snydersemi-spurheavy stripesamesame

US plant patent 12098

Nov 27, 2001TorresTriple EBC 2standard85—100% blush10–14 dayssolid red

US plant patent 12219

Apr 16, 2002RankinRankin RedYakata7001Twin Springs Fruit Farmstandard70—90% blush5 daysmore intense

US plant patent 12551

Nov. 11, 2003TeagueIreneBC 2standardsolid60 daysyellow

US plant patent 14299

Oct 26, 2004BraunBrakFujiKikustandardstripedearlierruby red

US plant patent 15261

Feb 21, 2006ClevengerFugacheeFujistandard70—90% blush14 days before Fiero

US plant patent 16270

Jun 6, 2006BanningBanning RedDesert Rose FujiBanningstandardstriperedder

US plant patent 16624

Aug 14, 2007Lee, Edwards, DelugarCABpNagafu 6CABp 4standardstripe"superior"

US plant patent 17914

Sep 11, 2007EppichEppich 2T.A.C. #1148032standardblush with light stripeunclearyellow and red

US plant patent 18004

Apr 29, 2008BraunFuji FubraxFujiKiku SRLstandarddark ruby red stripes and blushlategreen-yellow

US plant patent 18761

Jul 29, 2008Leis, MazzolaFujikoNagafu 12Consorzio Italiano Vivaististandarddiffusedmore intense red

US plant patent 19054

Unpatented Fuji mutants include:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Research Station moved to Morioka later; now National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, National Institute of Fruit Tree Science 果樹試験場リンゴ研究部 http://www.naro.affrc.go.jp/fruit/kin/apple/017785.html
  2. ^ Yepsen, Roger (1994). Apples. New York: W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-03690-1. 

External links[edit]