French people

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French people
Français
French people - mosaic.PNG

1st row: Joan of Arc · Jacques Cartier · René Descartes · Molière
Blaise Pascal · Louis XIV · Voltaire · Diderot · Napoleon
2nd row: Victor Hugo · Alexandre Dumas · Évariste Galois
Louis Pasteur · Jules Verne · Gustave Eiffel · Pierre de Coubertin
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec · Marie Curie
3rd row: Marcel Proust · Charles de Gaulle · Josephine Baker
Jacques Cousteau · Albert Camus · Édith Piaf
François Mitterrand · Brigitte Bardot · Zinedine Zidane

Total population
c. 110 million e
Regions with significant populations
 France 64,300,000[1]
 United States (French ancestry)11,500,000a[2]
 Canada10,421,365b
 Argentina6,800,000[3]
 United Kingdom6,200,000c[4]
 Belgium6,200,000[5]
 Brazil1,000,000[6]
 Chile700,000.[7]
 Italy250,000[8]
 Peru230,000.[9]
 Australia117,521c[10][11]
 Germany104,085[12]
 Spain100,408[13]
 Switzerland95,000[14]
 Israel85,000[15]
 Mexico60,000[16]
 Portugal35,000[17]
 Luxembourg25,200[18]
 Mauritius24,000c
 Cambodia16,200b[19]
 Lebanon15,000[19]
 Syria13,000[19]
 Ecuador11,000.[19]
 Monaco9,800.[20]
Languages

French

Religion

Roman Catholic, Islam, see religion in France

Related ethnic groups

Other Latin peoples: Spaniards, Portuguese, Italians
Various Germanic peoples (due to Frankish ancestry) : Germans, Dutch, English
Various Celtic peoples (due to Gallo-Roman ancestry) : Irish, Bretons, Welsh, Cornish

Footnotes
a including 2,080,000 of French Canadian ancestry

b Including persons of partial French ancestry
c Including ancestry and birth
d French born people were residing in the during the 2001 Census
e Including those with French ancestry

 
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French people
Français
French people - mosaic.PNG

1st row: Joan of Arc · Jacques Cartier · René Descartes · Molière
Blaise Pascal · Louis XIV · Voltaire · Diderot · Napoleon
2nd row: Victor Hugo · Alexandre Dumas · Évariste Galois
Louis Pasteur · Jules Verne · Gustave Eiffel · Pierre de Coubertin
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec · Marie Curie
3rd row: Marcel Proust · Charles de Gaulle · Josephine Baker
Jacques Cousteau · Albert Camus · Édith Piaf
François Mitterrand · Brigitte Bardot · Zinedine Zidane

Total population
c. 110 million e
Regions with significant populations
 France 64,300,000[1]
 United States (French ancestry)11,500,000a[2]
 Canada10,421,365b
 Argentina6,800,000[3]
 United Kingdom6,200,000c[4]
 Belgium6,200,000[5]
 Brazil1,000,000[6]
 Chile700,000.[7]
 Italy250,000[8]
 Peru230,000.[9]
 Australia117,521c[10][11]
 Germany104,085[12]
 Spain100,408[13]
 Switzerland95,000[14]
 Israel85,000[15]
 Mexico60,000[16]
 Portugal35,000[17]
 Luxembourg25,200[18]
 Mauritius24,000c
 Cambodia16,200b[19]
 Lebanon15,000[19]
 Syria13,000[19]
 Ecuador11,000.[19]
 Monaco9,800.[20]
Languages

French

Religion

Roman Catholic, Islam, see religion in France

Related ethnic groups

Other Latin peoples: Spaniards, Portuguese, Italians
Various Germanic peoples (due to Frankish ancestry) : Germans, Dutch, English
Various Celtic peoples (due to Gallo-Roman ancestry) : Irish, Bretons, Welsh, Cornish

Footnotes
a including 2,080,000 of French Canadian ancestry

b Including persons of partial French ancestry
c Including ancestry and birth
d French born people were residing in the during the 2001 Census
e Including those with French ancestry

The French (French: Français) are a nation that share a common French culture and speak the French language as a mother tongue. Historically, the French population are descended from peoples of Celtic, Latin and Germanic origin, and are today a mixture of several ethnic groups. Within France, the French are defined by citizenship, regardless of ancestry or country of residence.[21]

However, the word can also refer to people of French descent who are found in other countries, with significant French-speaking population groups or not, such as Argentina (French Argentines), Brazil (French Brazilians), French West Indies (the French Caribbean people), Canada (French Canadians) and the United States (French Americans), and some of them have a French cultural identity. The United Kingdom also has a large French population, mainly in England, and due to historic relations and immigration.

Contents

Citizenship and legal residence

To be French, according to the first article of the Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of one's origin, race, or religion (sans distinction d'origine, de race ou de religion).[21] According to its principles, France has devoted itself to the destiny of a proposition nation, a generic territory where people are bounded only by the French language and the assumed willingness to live together, as defined by Ernest Renan's "plébiscite de tous les jours" ("daily referendum" on the willingness to live together, in Renan's 1882 essay "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?").

The debate concerning the integration of this view with the principles underlying the European Community remains open.[22]

A large number of foreigners[23] have traditionally been permitted to live in France and succeeded in doing so.[24] Indeed, the country has long valued its openness, tolerance and the quality of services available.[25] Application for French citizenship is often interpreted as a renouncement of previous state allegiance unless a dual citizenship agreement exists between the two countries (for instance, this is the case with Switzerland: one can be both French and Swiss). The European treaties have formally permitted movement and European citizens enjoy formal rights to employment in the state sector (though not as trainees in reserved branches, e.g., as magistrates).

Seeing itself as an inclusive nation with universal values, France has always valued and strongly advocated assimilation. However, the success of such assimilation has recently been called into question. There is increasing dissatisfaction with, and within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves (communautarisme). The 2005 French riots in some troubled and impoverished suburbs (les quartiers sensibles) were an example of such tensions. However they should not be interpreted as ethnic conflicts (as appeared before in other countries like the USA and the UK) but as social conflicts born out of socioeconomic problems endangering proper integration.[26]

History

French people are the descendants of Gauls[citation needed] (a western European Celtic people), as well as Italic people, Sarmatian peoples (Alans, Taifals), Bretons, Aquitanians (Basques), Iberians, and Greeks in southern France,[27][28] mixed with the Germanic people arriving at the end of the Roman Empire such as the Franks, the Belgae, the Visigoths, the Suebi, the Marcomanni, the Vandals, the Saxons, the Allemanni and the Burgundians, and later Germanic tribes such as the Vikings (known as Normans), who settled mostly in Normandy in the 9th century.[29][30]

The name "France" etymologically derives from the word Francia, the territory of the Franks. The Franks were a Germanic tribe that overran Roman Gaul at the end of the Roman Empire.

Some regions were immensely affected by mass migrations of different peoples: Celtics in Brittany, and Germanics in Alsatia (Alemanni) before the existence of the Frankish kingdoms, and the languages and culture of these regions continue through self-perpetuation until this day.

Gaul

Gaul before complete Roman conquest circa 58 BCE:
- Gallia Narbonensis was influenced by Romans and Greeks.
- Aquitania was inhabited or influenced by Basques.
Gallia Belgica was influenced by Germanic tribes.

In the pre-Roman era, all of Gaul (an area of Western Europe that encompassed all of what is known today as France, Belgium, part of Germany and Switzerland, and Northern Italy) was inhabited by a variety of peoples who were known collectively as the Gaulish tribes. Their ancestors were Celts who came from Central Europe in the 7th century BCE (and even before, according to new research[31]), and dominated native peoples (which can't be clearly identified except the Ligures in south Provence, the Iberians at the eastern bottom of the Pyrenees and Aquitanic people (among them, the Basques) in Aquitaine. Some, particularly in the northern and eastern areas, had Germanic admixture. Many of these peoples had already spoken Celtic by the time of the Roman conquest, but others seem to have spoken a Celto-Germanic creole.

Gaul was militarily conquered in 58-51 BCE by the Roman legions under the command of General Julius Caesar (except the south-east which had already been conquered about one century earlier and which became the only place with Roman settlements). The area then became part of the Roman Empire. Over the next five centuries the two cultures intermingled, creating a hybridized Gallo-Roman culture. The Gaulish language came to be supplanted by Vulgar Latin, which would later split into dialects that would develop into the French language. Today, the last redoubt of Celtic culture and language in France can be found in the northwestern region of Brittany, although this is not the result of a survival of Gaulish language but of a 5th century A.D. migration of Brythonic speaking Celts from Britain.

The Franks

With the decline of the Roman Empire in Western Europe, a federation of Germanic peoples entered the picture: the Franks, from which the word "French" derives. The Franks were Germanic pagans who began to settle in northern Gaul as laeti, already during the Roman era. They continued to filter across the Rhine River from present-day Netherlands and Germany between the third to the 7th century. At the beginning, they served in the Roman army and reached high commands. Their language is still spoken as a kind of Dutch (Flemish - Low Frankish) in northern France and Frankish (Central Franconian) in German speaking Lorraine. Another Germanic people immigrated massively to Alsace: the Alamans, which explains the Alemannic German spoken there. They were competitors of the Franks; that's why it became the word for German in French: Allemand.

By the early 6th century the Franks, led by the Merovingian king Clovis I and his sons, had consolidated their hold on much of modern-day France, the country to which they gave their name. The other major Germanic people to arrive in France (after the Franks and the Visigoths) were the Norsemen or Northmen, (which was shortened to Norman in France), Viking raiders from modern Denmark and Norway, who settled with Anglo-Scandinavians and Anglo-Saxons from the Danelaw in the northern region known today as Normandy but also in western France in the 9th and 10th century. The Vikings eventually intermarried with the local people, converting to Christianity in the process. It was the Normans who, two centuries later, would go on to conquer England.

Eventually, though, the independent duchy of Normandy was incorporated back into the French kingdom in the Middle Ages. In the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, founded in 1099, at most 120 000 Franks (predominantly French-speaking Western Christians) ruled over 350,000 Muslims, Jews, and native Eastern Christians.[32]

15th to 18th century: the kingdom of France

Louis XIV of France "The Sun-King"

In the roughly 900 years after the Norman invasions France had a fairly settled population[citation needed]. Unlike elsewhere in Europe, France experienced relatively low levels of emigration to the Americas, with the exception of the Huguenots. However, significant emigration of mainly Roman Catholic French populations led to the settlement of the Province of Acadia, Canada (New France) and Louisiana, all (at the time) French possessions, as well as colonies in the West Indies, Mascarene islands and Africa.

On 31 December 1687 a community of French Huguenots settled in South Africa. Most of these originally settled in the Cape Colony, but have since been quickly absorbed into the Afrikaner population. After Champlain's founding of Quebec City in 1608, it became the capital of New France. Encouraging settlement was difficult, and while some immigration did occur, by 1763 New France only had a population of some 65,000.[33] From 1713 to 1787, 30,000 colonists immigrated from France to the St. Domingue. In 1805, when the French were forced out of St. Domingue (Haiti) 35,000 French settlers were given lands in Cuba.[34]

By the beginning of the 17th century, some 20% of the total male population of Catalonia was made up of French immigrants.[35] For the most part, the French were assimilated with relative ease into Catalan society.[36]

In the 18th century and early 19th century, a small migration of French emigrated by official invitation of the Habsburgs to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, now the nations of Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, Serbia and Romania.[37] Some of them, coming from French-speaking communes in Lorraine and another wave are French Swiss Walsers from the Valais canton in Switzerland, they maintained for some generations the French language, and a specific ethnic identity, later labelled as Banat French, Français du Banat. By 1788 there were 8 villages populated by French colonists.[38]

Creation of the French nation-state

The French nation-state appeared following the 1789 French Revolution and Napoleon's empire. It replaced the ancient kingdom of France, ruled by the divine right of kings.

Hobsbawm highlighted the role of conscription, invented by Napoleon, and of the 1880s public instruction laws, which allowed mixing of the various groups of France into a nationalist mold which created the French citizen and his consciousness of membership to a common nation, while the various regional languages of France were progressively eradicated.

The 1870 Franco-Prussian War, which led to the short-lived Paris Commune of 1871, was instrumental in bolstering patriotic feelings; until World War I (1914–1918), French politicians never completely lost sight of the disputed Alsace-Lorraine region, which played a major role in the definition of the French nation, and therefore of the French people. During the Dreyfus Affair, anti-semitism became apparent. Charles Maurras, a royalist intellectual member of the far-right anti-parliamentarist Action Française party, invented the neologism of the anti-France, which was one of the first attempts at contesting the republican definition of the French people as composed of all French citizens regardless of their ethnic origins or religious beliefs. Charles Maurras' expression of the anti-France opposed the Catholic French people to four "confederate states" incarning the Other: Jews, Freemasons, Protestants and, last but not least, the métèques ("metics").

Later immigration

As of 2008, the French national institute of statistics INSEE estimated that 11.8 million foreign-born immigrants and their direct descendants (born in France) lived in France representing 19% of the country's population. More than 5 million are of European origin and about 4 million of Maghrebi origin (20% of Algerian origin and 15% of Moroccan or Tunisian origin). Immigrants aged 18–50 count for 2.7 millions (10% of population aged 18–50) and 5 millions for all ages (8% of population). 2nd Generation aged 18–50 make up 3.1 millions (12% of 18-50) and 6.5 millions for all ages (11% of population)[39][40]

French people in Paris, August 1944

Legally, the sovereign people of France are composed of all French citizens, regardless of ethnicity or religion.[21] Citizens of any ethnicity are included in that definition. Successive waves of immigrants during the 19th and 20th centuries were thus rapidly assimilated into French culture.

The INSEE does not collect data about language, religion, or ethnicity – on the principle of the secular and unitary nature of the French Republic.[41]

Nevertheless, there are some sources dealing with just such distinctions:

It is said by some[who?] that France adheres to the ideal of a single, homogeneous national culture, supported by the absence of hyphenated identities and by avoidance of the very term "ethnicity" in French discourse.[46]

The discussion about social discrimination has become more important, in particular concerning the so-called "second-generation immigrants"; that is, French citizens born in France to immigrant parents.[47]

France has undergone a high rate of immigration from Europe, Africa, and Asia throughout the 20th century. Michèle Tribalat, researcher at INED, found it difficult to estimate the number of French immigrants or those born to immigrants because of the absence of official statistics. Only three previous attempts had been made: in 1927, 1942, and 1986. According to the 2004 Tribalat study, among about 14 million people of foreign ascendancy (immigrants or people with at least one parent or grandparent who was an immigrant) living in France in 1999, 5.2 million were from Southern European ascendancy (Italy, Spain, Portugal), and 3 million from the Maghreb.[48] Thus it was found that 23 percent of French citizens had at least one immigrant parent or grandparent.

According to a recent genetic study in 2008, 28.45% of all newborns in mainland France in 2007 had at least one parent of immigrant origin from the following regions (Overseas departments and territories of France, Africa, America, Southern Europe : Portugal, Greece and South Italy, Near and Middle East and the Indian sub-continent). The Paris metropolitan district (Île-de-France) is the region that accounts for the largest number with nearly 56% of all newborns in this area in 2007 having at least one parent of immigrant origin. The second largest number is in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur at nearly 42% and the lowest number is in Brittany at 4.40%.[49] Among the 802,000 newborns in metropolitan France in 2010, 27.3% had at least one foreign-born parent and about one quarter (23.9%) had at least one parent born outside of Europe.[27][50] Including grandparents, about 40% of newborns in France between 2006 and 2008 had at least one foreign-born grandparent (11% born in another European country, 16% born in Maghreb and 12% born in another region of the world).[51]

French people, and perhaps some tourists, waiting for a stoplight near the Galeries Lafayette department store in Paris, November 2007.

France's population dynamics began to change in the middle of the 19th century, as France joined the Industrial Revolution. The pace of industrial growth attracted millions of European immigrants over the next century, with especially large numbers arriving from Poland, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain.[52] In the period from 1915 to 1950, just as many immigrants came from Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, Scandinavia and Yugoslavia. A small French descent group also subsequently arrived from Latin America (Argentina, Chile and Uruguay) in the 1970s. Small but significant numbers of Frenchmen in the North and Northeast regions have relatives in Germany and Great Britain. French law made it easy for thousands of colons, ethnic or national French from former colonies of North and East Africa, India and Indochina to live in mainland France. It is estimated that 20,000 colons were living in Saigon in 1945, and there were 68,430 European settlers living in Madagascar in 1958.[53] 1.6 million European pieds noirs migrated from Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco.[54] In just a few months in 1962, 900,000 French Algerians left Algeria in the most massive relocation of population in Europe since the World War II.[55] In the 1970s, over 30,000 French colons left Cambodia during the Khmer Rouge regime as the Pol Pot government confiscated their farms and land properties.

In the 1960s, a second wave of immigration came to France, which was needed for reconstruction purposes and for cheaper labour after the devastation brought on by World War II. French entrepreneurs went to Maghreb countries looking for cheap labour, thus encouraging work-immigration to France. Their settlement was officialized with Jacques Chirac's family regrouping act of 1976 (regroupement familial). Since then, immigration has become more varied, although France stopped being a major immigration country compared to other European countries. The large impact of North African and Arab immigration is the greatest and has brought racial, socio-cultural and religious questions to a country seen as homogenously European, French and Christian for thousands of years. Nevertherless, according to Justin Vaïsse, professor at Sciences Po Paris, in spite of obstacles and spectacular failures like the riots in November 2005, integration of Muslim immigrants is happening as part of a background evolution[56] and recent studies confirmed the results of their assimilation, showing that "North Africans seem to be characterized by a high degree of cultural integration reflected in a relatively high propensity to exogamy" with rates ranging from 20% to 50%.[57] According to Emmanuel Todd the relatively high exogamy among French Algerians can be explained by the colonial link between France and Algeria.[58]

Between 1956 and 1967, about 235.000 North African Jews from Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco also immigrated to France due to the decline of the French empire and following the Six-Day War. Hence, by 1968, North African Jews were the majority in France. As these new immigrants were already culturally French they needed little time to adjust to French society.[59]

In 2004, a total of 140,033 people immigrated to France. Of them, 90,250 were from Africa and 13,710 from Europe.[60] In 2005, immigration level fell slightly to 135,890.[61] The European Union allows free movement between the member states. While the UK and Ireland did not impose restrictions, France put in place controls to curb Central and Eastern European migration.

In November 2004, several thousand of the estimated 14,000 French nationals in Ivory Coast left the country after days of anti-white violence.[62] There are 2.2 million French citizens, about 4 percent of the population, outside France.[63]

Maghrebis

French of Maghrebi origin (Maghreb countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Mauritania) in France form the largest ethnic group after French of European origin.

According to Michel Tribalat, a researcher at INED, there were 3.5 million people of Maghrebi origin (with at least one grandparent from Algeria, Morocco or Tunisia) living in France in 2005 corresponding to 5.8% of the total French metropolitan population (60.7 millions in 2005).[64] Maghrebis have settled mainly in the industrial regions in France, especially in the Paris region. Many famous French people like Edith Piaf,[65] Isabelle Adjani, Arnaud Montebourg, Alain Bashung, Dany Boon have Maghrebi ancestry.

According to INSEE (French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies), 16% of newborns in France between 2006 and 2008 have at least one grand-parent born in Maghreb.[51]

Below is a table of population of Maghrebi origin in France, numbers are in thousands:

Country19992005% 1999/2005% French population (60.7 millions in 2005)
Algeria1,5771,865+18.3%3.1%
Immigrants574679
Born in France1,0031,186
Morocco1,0051,201+19.5%2.0%
Immigrants523625
Born in France482576
Tunisia417458+9.8%0.8%
Immigrants202222
Born in France215236
Total Maghreb2,9993,524+17.5%5.8%
Immigrants1 2991 5262.5%
Born in France1 7001 9983.3%

In 2005, the percentage of young people under 18 of maghrebi origin (at least one immigrant parent) were about 7% in Metropolitan France, 12% in Greater Paris, 13% in Lyon, 21% in Perpignan, 22% in French département of Seine-Saint-Denis, 37% in 18th arrondissement of Paris and 40% in several arrondissements of Marseilles.[66][67]

According to other sources between 5 and 6 million people of Maghrebin origin live in France corresponding to about 7-9% of the total French metropolitan population.[68]

Languages

In France

Most French people speak the French language as their mother tongue, but certain languages like Norman, Occitan, Corsican, Basque, French Flemish and Breton remain spoken in certain regions (see Language policy in France). There have also been periods of history when a majority of French people had other first languages (local languages such as Occitan, Catalan, Alsatian, West Flemish, Lorraine Franconian, Gallo, Picard or Ch'timi and Arpitan). Today, many immigrants speak another tongue at home.

According to historian Eric Hobsbawm, "the French language has been essential to the concept of 'France'", although in 1789, 50 percent of the French people did not speak it at all, and only 12 to 13 percent spoke it fairly well; even in oïl language zones, it was not usually used except in cities, and even there not always in the outlying districts.[69]

Abroad

Abroad, the French language is spoken in many different countries – in particular the former French colonies. Nevertheless, speaking French is distinct from being a French citizen. Thus, francophonie, or the speaking of French, must not be confused with French citizenship or ethnicity. For example, French speakers in Switzerland are not "French citizens".

Native English-speaking Blacks on the island of Saint-Martin hold French nationality even though they do not speak French as a first language, while their neighbouring French-speaking Haitian immigrants speak French créole yet remain foreigners. Large numbers of people of French ancestry outside Europe speak other first languages, particularly English, throughout most of North America (except French Canada), Spanish or Portuguese in southern South America, and Afrikaans in South Africa.

The adjective "French" can be used to mean either "French citizen" or "French-speaker", and usage varies depending on the context, with the former being common in France. The latter meaning is often used in Canada, when discussing matters internal to Canada.

Nationality, citizenship, ethnicity

The modern ethnic French are the descendants of Celts, Iberians, Ligurians and Greeks in southern France,[27][28] mixed with Germanic peoples arriving at the end of the Roman Empire such as the Franks and the Burgundians, some Moors and Saracens,[70][71][72][73][74][75][76] and some Vikings who mixed with the Normans and settled mostly in Normandy in the 9th century.[29][30]

According to Dominique Schnapper, "The classical conception of the nation is that of an entity which, opposed to the ethnic group, affirms itself as an open community, the will to live together expressing itself by the acceptation of the rules of a unified public domain which transcends all particularisms".[77] This conception of the nation as being composed by a "will to live together", supported by the classic lecture of Ernest Renan in 1882, has been opposed by the French far-right, in particular the nationalist Front National ("National Front" - FN) party, which claims that there is such a thing as a "French ethnic group". The discourse of ethno-nationalist groups such as the Front National (FN), however, forwards the concept of Français de souche or "indigenous" French.

The conventional conception of French history starts with Ancient Gaul, and French national identity often views the Gauls as national precursors, either as biological ancestors (hence the common to nos ancetres les Gaulois), as emotional/spiritual ancestors, or both. [78] [79][80] Vercingetorix, the Gaulish chieftain who tried to unite the various Gallic tribes of the land against Roman encroachment but was ultimately vanquished by Julius Caesar, is often revered as a "first national hero"[79].[80] In the famously popular French comic Asterix, the main characters are patriotic Gauls fight against Roman invaders[80][78] while in modern days the term Gaulois is used in French to distinguish the "native" French from French of immigrant origins. However, despite its occasional nativist usage, the Gaulish identity has also been embraced by French of non-native origins as well: notably, Napoleon III, whose family was ultimately of Corsican and Italian roots, identified France with Gaul and Vercingetorix[80], and declared that "New France, ancient France, Gaul are one and the same moral person."[79]

It has been noted that the French view of having Gallic origins has evolved over history. Before the French revolution, it divided social classes, as the peasants identified with the native Gauls while the aristocracy identified with the Franks.[79] During the early nineteenth century[79], intellectuals began using the identification with Gaul instead as a unifying force[80] to bridge divisions within French society with a common national origin myth. Myriam Krepps of the University of Nebraska-Omaha argues that the view of "a unified territory (one land since the beginning of civilization) and a unified people" which de-emphasized "all disparities and the succession of waves of invaders" was first imprinted on the masses by the unified history curriculum of French textbooks in the late 1870s.[79]

Since the beginning of the Third Republic (1871–1940), the state has not categorized people according to their alleged ethnic origins. Hence, in contrast to the United States Census, French people are not asked to define their ethnic appartenance, whichever it may be. The usage of ethnic and racial categorization is avoided to prevent any case of discrimination, the same regulations apply to religious membership data that cannot be compiled under the French Census. This classic French republican non-essentialist conception of nationality is officialized by the French Constitution, according to which "French" is a nationality, and not a specific ethnicity.

Nationality and citizenship

Despite this official discourse of universality, French nationality has not meant automatic citizenship. Some categories of French people have been excluded, throughout the years, from full citizenship:

France was one of the first countries to implement denaturalization laws. Philosopher Giorgio Agamben has pointed out this fact that the 1915 French law which permitted denaturalization with regard to naturalized citizens of "enemy" origins was one of the first example of such legislation, which Nazi Germany later implemented with the 1935 Nuremberg Laws.[85]

Furthermore, some authors who have insisted on the "crisis of the nation-state" allege that nationality and citizenship are becoming separate concepts. They show as example "international", "supranational citizenship" or "world citizenship" (membership to international nongovernmental organizations such as Amnesty International or Greenpeace). This would indicate a path toward a "postnational citizenship".[82]

Beside this, modern citizenship is linked to civic participation (also called positive freedom), which implies voting, demonstrations, petitions, activism, etc. Therefore, social exclusion may lead to deprivation of citizenship. This has led various authors (Philippe Van Parijs, Jean-Marc Ferry, Alain Caillé, André Gorz) to theorize a guaranteed minimum income which would impede exclusion from citizenship.[86]

Multiculturalism versus universalism

In France, the conception of citizenship teeters between universalism and multiculturalism, especially in recent years. French citizenship has been defined for a long time by three factors: integration, individual adherence, and the primacy of the soil (jus soli). Political integration (which includes but is not limited to racial integration) is based on voluntary policies which aims at creating a common identity, and the interiorization by each individual of a common cultural and historic legacy. Since in France, the state preceded the nation, voluntary policies have taken an important place in the creation of this common cultural identity.[87]

On the other hand, the interiorization of a common legacy is a slow process, which B. Villalba compares to acculturation. According to him, "integration is therefore the result of a double will: the nation's will to create a common culture for all members of the nation, and the communities' will living in the nation to recognize the legitimacy of this common culture".[82] Villalba warns against confusing recent processes of integration (related to the so-called "second generation immigrants", who are subject to discrimination), with older processes which have made modern France. Villalba thus shows that any democratic nation characterize itself by its project of transcending all forms of particular memberships (whether biological - or seen as such,[88] ethnic, historic, economic, social, religious or cultural). The citizen thus emancipates himself from the particularisms of identity which characterize himself to attain a more "universal" dimension. He is a citizen, before being member of a community or of a social class[89]

Therefore, according to Villalba, "a democratic nation is, by definition, multicultural as it gathers various populations, which differs by their regional origins (Bretons, Corsicans or Lorrains...), their national origins (immigrant, son or grandson of an immigrant), or religious origins (Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Muslims, Agnostics or Atheists...)."[82]

Ernest Renan's What is a Nation? (1882)

Ernest Renan described this republican conception in his famous 11 March 1882 conference at the Sorbonne, Qu'est-ce qu'une nation? ("What is a Nation?").[90] According to him, to belong to a nation is a subjective act which always has to be repeated, as it is not assured by objective criteria. A nation-state is not composed of a single homogeneous ethnic group (a community), but of a variety of individuals willing to live together.

Renan's non-essentialist definition, which forms the basis of the French Republic, is diametrically opposed to the German ethnic conception of a nation, first formulated by Fichte. The German conception is usually qualified in France as an "exclusive" view of nationality, as it includes only the members of the corresponding ethnic group, while the Republican conception thinks itself as universalist, following the Enlightenment's ideals officialized by the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. While Ernest Renan's arguments were also concerned by the debate about the disputed Alsace-Lorraine region, he said that not only one referendum had to be made in order to ask the opinions of the Alsatian people, but a "daily referendum" should be made concerning all those citizens wanting to live in the French nation-state. This plébiscite de tous les jours might be compared to a social contract or even to the classic definition of consciousness as an act which repeats itself endlessly.[91]

Henceforth, contrary to the German definition of a nation based on objective criteria, such as the "race" or the "ethnic group", which may be defined by the existence of a common language, among others criteria, the people of France are defined by all the people living in the French nation-state and willing to do so, i.e. by its citizenship. This definition of the French nation-state contradicts the common opinion according to which the concept of the French people would identify themselves with the concept of one particular ethnic group, and thus explains the paradox to which is confronted by some attempts in identifying the "French ethnic group": the French conception of the nation is radically opposed (and was thought in opposition to) the German conception of the Volk ("ethnic group").

This universalist conception of citizenship and of the nation has influenced the French model of colonization. While the British empire preferred an indirect rule system, which did not mix the colonized people with the colons, the French Republic theoretically chose an integration system and considered parts of its colonial empire as France itself, and its population as French people.[92] The ruthless conquest of Algeria thus led to the integration of the territory as a Département of the French territory.

This ideal also led to the ironic sentence which opened up history textbooks in France as in its colonies: "Our ancestors the Gauls...". However, this universal ideal, rooted in the 1789 French Revolution ("bringing liberty to the people"), suffered from the racism that impregnated colonialism. Thus, in Algeria, the Crémieux decrees at the end of the 19th century gave French citizenship to north African Jews, while Muslims were regulated by the 1881 Indigenous Code. Liberal author Tocqueville himself considered that the British model was better adapted than the French one, and did not balk before the cruelties of General Bugeaud's conquest. He went as far as advocating racial segregation there.[93]

This paradoxical tension between the universalist conception of the French nation and the racism inherent in colonization is most obvious in Ernest Renan himself, who goes as far as advocating a kind of eugenics. In a 26 June 1856 letter to Arthur de Gobineau, author of An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853–55) and one of the first theoreticians of "scientific racism", he thus wrote:

You have done here one of the most noteworthy book, full of vigour and spiritfull originality, but it is not made to be understood in France or rather it is to be misunderstood. The French spirit pays no attention to ethnographic considerations: France hardly believes to race... The fact of race is huge in its origins; but it always goes losing importance, and sometimes, as in France, it finally erases itself completely. Is that, in absolute, talking about decadence? Yes, surely if considering the stability of institutions, the originality of characters, a definite nobility which I, for my part, considers with the utmost importance in the whole of human things. But also how much compensations!

Doubtlessly, if the noble elements blended in a people's blood would erase themselves completely, then it would be a vilifying equality, analogous as in certain states of Orient and, in some respects, China. But in reality a very little quantity of noble blood put in circulation in a people is enough to nobilize it, at least as to historical effects: this is how France, a nation so completely fell in commonless [roture], plays in reality in the world the role of a gentleman. By setting apart the utterly inferior races whose interference with the great races would lead only to poison the human species, I plan for the future a homogeneous humanity"[94]

Jus soli and jus sanguinis

During the Ancien Régime (before the 1789 French revolution), jus soli (or "right of territory") was predominant. Feudal law recognized personal allegeance to the sovereign, but the subjects of the sovereign were defined by their birthland. According to the 3 September 1791 Constitution, those who are born in France from a foreign father and have fixed their residency in France, or those who, after being born in foreign country from a French father, have come to France and have sworn their civil oath, become French citizens. Because of the war, distrust toward foreigners led to the obligation on the part of this last category to swear a civil oath in order to gain French nationality.

However, the Napoleonic Code would insist on jus sanguinis ("right of blood"). Paternity, against Napoléon Bonaparte's wish, became the principal criterion of nationality, and therefore broke for the first time with the ancient tradition of jus soli, by breaking any residency condition toward children born abroad from French parents. However, according to Patrick Weil, it was not "ethnically motivated" but "only meant that family links transmitted by the pater familias had become more important than subjecthood".[95]

With the 7 February 1851 law, voted during the Second Republic (1848–1852), "double jus soli" was introduced in French legislation, combining birth origin with paternity. Thus, it gave French nationality to the child of a foreigner, if both are born in France, except if the year following his coming of age he reclaims a foreign nationality (thus prohibiting dual nationality). This 1851 law was in part passed because of conscription concerns. This system more or less remained the same until the 1993 reform of the Nationality Code, created by the 9 January 1973 law.

The 1993 reform, which defines the Nationality law, is deemed controversial by some. It commits young people born in France to foreign parents to solicit French nationality between the ages of 16 and 21. This has been criticized, some arguing that the principle of equality before the law was not complied with, since French nationality was no longer given automatically at birth, as in the classic "double jus soli" law, but was to be requested when approaching adulthood. Henceforth, children born in France from French parents were differentiated from children born in France from foreign parents, creating a hiatus between these two categories.

The 1993 reform was prepared by the Pasqua laws. The first Pasqua law, in 1986, restricts residence conditions in France and facilitates expulsions. With this 1986 law, a child born in France from foreign parents can only acquire French nationality if he or she demonstrates his or her will to do so, at age 16, by proving that he or she has been schooled in France and has a sufficient command of the French language. This new policy is symbolized by the expulsion of 101 Malians by charter.[82]

The second Pasqua law on "immigration control" makes regularisation of illegal aliens more difficult and, in general, residence conditions for foreigners much harder. Charles Pasqua, who said on 11 May 1987: "Some have reproached me of having used a plane, but, if necessary, I will use trains", declared to Le Monde on 2 June 1993: "France has been a country of immigration, it doesn't want to be one anymore. Our aim, taking into account the difficulties of the economic situation, is to tend toward 'zero immigration' ("immigration zéro")".[82]

Therefore, modern French nationality law combines four factors: paternality or 'right of blood', birth origin, residency and the will expressed by a foreigner, or a person born in France to foreign parents, to become French.

European citizenship

The 1992 Maastricht Treaty introduced the concept of European citizenship, which comes in addition to national citizenships.

Citizenship of foreigners

By definition, a "foreigner" is someone who does not have French nationality. Therefore, it is not a synonym of "immigrant", as a foreigner may be born in France. On the other hand, a Frenchman born abroad may be considered an immigrant (e.g. former prime minister Dominique de Villepin who lived the majority of his life abroad). In most of the cases, however, a foreigner is an immigrant, and vice-versa. They either benefit from legal sojourn in France, which, after a residency of ten years, makes it possible to ask for naturalisation.[96] If they do not, they are considered "illegal aliens". Some argue that this privation of nationality and citizenship does not square with their contribution to the national economic efforts, and thus to economic growth.

In any cases, rights of foreigners in France have improved over the last half-century:

The National Front, multiculturalism and métissage culturel

This republican conception of the French nation-state has been challenged since the 1980s by the Front National 's nationalist discourse of La France aux Français ("France to the French") or Les Français d'abord ("French first"). Their claims of an "ethnic French" group (Français de souche, which literally translated as "French with roots") have been adamantly refused by many other groups, which widely considered this Party as racist.[97] Alain de Benoist's Nouvelle Droite movement, quite famous in the 1980s but which has since lost influence, has embraced a kind of European "white supremacy" ideology. It should be noted that the expression Français de souche has no official validity in France although it is used in everyday language, something which has been designed as lepénisation des esprits ("LePen-isation of the minds").

Indeed, the inflow of populations from other continents, who still can be physically and/or culturally distinguished from Europeans, sparked much controversies in France since the early 1980s, even though immigration inflow precisely began to decrease at this time.[98] The rise of this racist discourse led to the creation of anti-racist NGOs, such as SOS Racisme, more or less founded on the model of anti-fascist organisations in the 1930s. However, while those earlier anti-fascists organisations were often anarchists or communists, SOS Racisme was supported in its growth by the Socialist Party. Demonstrations gathering large crowds against the National Front took place. The last such demonstration took place in a dramatic situation, after Jean-Marie Le Pen's relative victory at the first turn of the 2002 presidential election. Shocked and stunned, large crowds, including many young people, demonstrated every day in between the two turns, starting from 21 April 2002, which remains a dramatic date in popular consciousness.

Now, the interracial blending of some native French and newcomers is an attribute of French culture, from popular music to movies and literature. Therefore, alongside mixing of populations, there exists a cultural blending (le métissage culturel) in France. It may be compared to the traditional US conception of the melting-pot. There are historical instances of blending from other races and ethnicities in France. Biographical research has determined a possibility of African ancestry on a small number of famous French citizens. For example, author Alexandre Dumas, père possessed one-fourth black Haitian descent,.[99] We can mention as well, the most famous French singer Edith Piaf whose grandmother was a North African from Morocco[100] or Jacques Derrida, a North African Jew from Algeria, who is known as the founder of deconstruction.

For a long time, the only objection to such outcomes predictably came from the far-right schools of thought. In the past few years, other unexpected voices are however beginning to question what they interpret, as the new philosopher Alain Finkielkraut coined the term, as an "ideology of miscegenation" (une idéologie du métissage) that may come from what one other philosopher, Pascal Bruckner, defined as the "sob of the White man" (le sanglot de l'homme blanc). These critics have been dismissed by the mainstream and their propagators have been labelled as new reactionaries (les nouveaux réactionnaires),[101] even if racist and anti-immigration sentiment has recently been documented to be increasing in France at least according to one poll.[102] Such critics, including Nicolas Sarkozy, the current President of France, take example on the United States' conception of multiculturalism to claim that France has consistently denied the existence of ethnic groups within their borders and has refused to grant them specific rights.

President Jacques Chirac as well as the Socialist Party and other organizations have condemned these views, arguing that this refusal of the traditional universalist republican conception only favorizes communitarianism, which the Republic does not recognize since the dissolving of intermediate associations of persons during the Estates-General of 1789 (the population of the kingdom of France was then divided into the First Estate (clergy), the Second Estate (nobles), and the Third Estate (people)). For this reason, associations were forbidden until the Waldeck-Rousseau 1884 labor laws which permitted the creation of trade unions and the famous 1901 law on non-profit associations, which has been largely used by civil society in order to organizes itself. Hervé Le Bras, head of the INED demographic institute, also insists that "ethnicisation of social relations is not a 'natural' phenomenon, but an ideological one"[103]

Notable expatriates

Many people have resided in France while maintaining citizenship elsewhere.

Populations with French ancestry

Between 1848 and 1939, 1 million people with French passports emigrated to other countries.[104] The main communities of French ancestry in the New World are found in the United States, Canada and Argentina while sizeable groups are also found in Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Australia.

Canada

Acadians celebrating the Tintamarre and National Acadian Day in Caraquet, New Brunswick.

There are nearly seven million French speakers out of nine to ten million people of French and partial French ancestry in Canada. The Canadian province of Quebec (2006 census population of 7,546,131), where more than 95 percent of the people speak French as either their first, second or even third language, is the center of French life on the Western side of the Atlantic; however, French settlement began further east, in Acadia. Quebec is home to vibrant French-language arts, media, and learning. There are sizable French-Canadian communities scattered throughout the other provinces of Canada, particularly in Ontario, which has about 1 million people with French ancestry (400 000 who has French as their mother tongue), Manitoba, and New Brunswick, which is the only fully bilingual province and is 33 percent Acadian.

United States

The United States is home to an estimated 13 to 16 million people of French descent, or 4 to 5 percent of the US population, particularly in Louisiana, New England and parts of the Midwest. The French community in Louisiana consists of the Creoles, the descendants of the French settlers who arrived when Louisiana was a French colony, and the Cajuns, the descendants of Acadian refugees from the Great Upheaval. Very few creoles remain in New Orleans in present times. In New England, the vast majority of French immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries came not from France, but from over the border in Quebec, the Quebec diaspora. These French Canadians arrived to work in the timber mills and textile plants that appeared throughout the region as it industrialized. Today, nearly 25 percent of the population of New Hampshire is of French ancestry, the highest of any state.

English and Dutch colonies of pre-Revolutionary America attracted large numbers of French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution in France. In the Dutch colony of New Netherland that later became New York, northern New Jersey, and western Connecticut, these French Huguenots, nearly identical in religion to the Dutch Reformed Church, assimilated almost completely into the Dutch community. However, large it may have been at one time, it has lost all identity of its French origin, often with the translation of names (examples: de la Montagne > Vandenberg by translation; de Vaux > DeVos or Devoe by phonetic respelling). Huguenots appeared in all of the English colonies and likewise assimilated. Even though this mass settlement approached the size of the settlement of the French settlement of Quebec, it has assimilated into the English-speaking mainstream to a much greater extent than other French colonial groups, and has left few traces of cultural influence. New Rochelle, New York is named after La Rochelle, France, one of the sources of Huguenot emigration to the Dutch colony; and New Paltz, New York, is one of the few non-urban settlements of Huguenots that did not undergo massive recycling of buildings in the usual redevelopment of such older, larger cities as New York City or New Rochelle.

Mexico

In Mexico, a sizeable population can trace its ancestry to France. After Spain, this makes France the second largest European ethnicity in the country. The bulk of French immigrants arrived in Mexico during the 19th and early 20th centuries.

From 1814 to 1955, inhabitants of Barcelonnette and the surrounding Ubaye valley emigrated to Mexico by the dozens. Many established textile businesses between Mexico and France. At the turn of the 20th century, there were 5,000 French families from the Barcelonnette region registered with the French Consulate in Mexico. While 90% stayed in Mexico, some returned, and from 1880 to 1930, built grand mansions called Maisons Mexicaines and left a mark upon the city.

In the 1860s, during the Second Mexican Empire ruled by Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico-- which was part of Napoleon III's scheme to create a Latin empire in the New World (indeed responsible for coining the term of "Amérique latine", "Latin America" in English)-- many French soldiers, merchants, and families set foot upon Mexican soil. Emperor Maximilian's consort, Carlota of Mexico, a Belgian princess, was a granddaughter of Louis-Philippe of France.

Many Mexicans of French descent live in cities such as Zacatecas San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Monterrey, Puebla, Guadalajara, and the capital, Mexico City, where French surnames such as Renaux, Pierres, Michel, Betancourt, Alaniz, Blanc, Jurado (Jure), Colo (Coleau), Dumas, or Moussier can be found.

Argentina

French Argentines form the third largest ancestry group in Argentina, after Italian and Spanish Argentines. Most of French immigrants came to Argentina between 1871 and 1890, though considerable immigration continued until the late 1940s. At least half of these immigrants came from Southwestern France, especially from the Basque Country, Béarn (Basses-Pyrénées accounted for more than 20% of immigrants), Bigorre and Rouergue but also from Savoy and the Paris region. Today around 6.8 million Argentines have some degree of French descent (up to 17% of the total population).[105] French Argentines had a considerable influence over the country, particularly on its architectural styles and literary traditions, as well as on the scientific field. Some notable Argentines of French descent include writer Julio Cortázar, physiologist and Nobel Prize winner Bernardo Houssay or activist Alicia Moreau de Justo. With akin Latin culture, the French immigrants quickly assimilated into mainstream Argentine society.

Chile

The French came to Chile in the 18th century, arriving at Concepción as merchants, and in the mid-19th century to cultivate vines in the haciendas of the Central Valley, the homebase of world-famous Chilean wine. The Araucanía Region also has an important number of people of French ancestry, as the area hosted settlers arrived by the second half of the 19th century as farmers and shopkeepers. With akin Latin culture, the French immigrants quickly assimilated into mainstream Chilean society.

From 1840 to 1940, around 25,000 Frenchmen immigrated to Chile. 80% of them were coming from Southwestern France, especially from Basses-Pyrénées (Basque country and Béarn), Gironde, Charente-Inférieure and Charente and regions situated between Gers and Dordogne.[106]

Most of French immigrants settled in the country between 1875 and 1895. Between October 1882 and December 1897, 8,413 Frenchmen settled in Chile, making up 23% of immigrants (second only after Spaniards) from this period. In 1863, 1,650 French citizens were registered in Chile. At the end of the century they were almost 30,000.[107] According to the census of 1865, out of 23,220 foreigners established in Chile, 2,483 were French, the third largest European community in the country after Germans and Englishmen.[108] In 1875, the community reached 3,000 members,[109] 12% of the almost 25,000 foreigners established in the country. It was estimated that 10,000 Frenchmen were living in Chile in 1912, 7% of the 149,400 Frenchmen living in Latin America.[110]

In World War II, a group of over 10,000 Chileans of French descent, the majority have French relatives joined the Free French Forces and fought the Nazi occupation of France[citation needed].

Today it is estimated that 500,000 Chileans are of French descent.

Former president of Chile, Michelle Bachelet is of French origin. Former president Augusto Pinochet was another Chilean of French descent. A large percentage of politicians, businessmen, professionals and entertainers in the country are of French ancestry.

Brazil

French immigrants to Brazil from 1913 to 1924
YearFrench immigrants
19131,532
1914696
1915410
1916292
1917273
1918226
1919690
1920838
1921633
1922725
1923609
1924634
Total7,558

It is estimated that there are from 500,000 to 1 million Brazilians of French descent today. This gives Brazil the largest French community in South America.[6]

From 1819 to 1940, 40,383 Frenchmen immigrated to Brazil. Most of them settled in the country between 1884 and 1925 (8,008 from 1819 to 1883, 25,727 from 1884 to 1925, 6,648 from 1926 to 1940). Another source estimates that around 100,000 French people immigrated to Brazil between 1850 and 1965.

The French community in Brazil numbered 592 in 1888 and 5,000 in 1915.[111] It was estimated that 14,000 Frenchmen were living in Brazil in 1912, 9% of the 149,400 Frenchmen living in Latin America, the second largest community after Argentina (100,000).[112]

The Brazilian Imperial Family originates of House of Orléans, the French Royal Family. Two examples are the Emperors, Pedro I and Pedro II.

Latin America

Elsewhere in the Americas, French settlement took place in the 16th to 20th centuries. They can be found in Haiti, Cuba (refugees from the Haitian Revolution) and Uruguay. The Betancourt political families who influenced Peru,[9] Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Puerto Rico, Bolivia and Panama have some French ancestry.[113]

Huguenots

Large numbers of Huguenots are known to have settled in the United Kingdom, in Protestant areas of Germany (especially the city of Berlin), in the Netherlands, in South Africa and in North America. Many people in these countries still bear French names.

Asia

In Asia, a proportion of people with mixed French and Vietnamese descent can be found in Vietnam. Including the number of persons of pure French descent. Many are descendants of French settlers who intermarried with local Vietnamese people. Approximately 5,000 in Vietnam are of pure French descent, however, this number is disputed.[50] A small proportion of people with mixed French and Khmer descent can be found in Cambodia. These people number approximately 16,000 in Cambodia, among this number, approximately 3,000 are of pure French descent.[114] An unknown number with mixed French and Lao ancestry can be found throughout Laos.[19] In addition to these Countries, small minorities can be found elsewhere in Asia; the majority of these living as expatriates.[19]

Elsewhere

French people born in New Caledonia

Apart from Québécois, Acadians, Cajuns, and Métis, other populations with some French ancestry outside metropolitan France include the Caldoches of New Caledonia, Louisiana Creole people of the United States, the so-called Zoreilles and Petits-blancs of various Indian Ocean islands, as well as populations of the former French colonial empire in Africa. There are currently an estimated 400,000 French people in the United Kingdom, most of them in London.[115]

Genetics

France has been influenced by the many different human migrations that wide-crossed Europe over time. Prehistoric and Neolithic population movements could have influenced the genetic diversity of this country. A recent study in 2009 analysed 555 French individuals from 7 different regions in mainland France and found the following Y-DNA Haplogroups. The five main haplogroups are R1 (63.41%), E (11.41%) (traced mostly in the Paris area), I (8.88%), J (7.97%) and G (5.16%). R1b (particularly R1b1b2) was found to be the most dominant Y chromosomal lineage in France, covering about 60% of the Y chromosomal lineages. The high frequency of this haplogroup is typical in all West European populations. Haplogroups I and G are also characteristic markers for many different West European populations. Haplogroups J and E1b1b (M35, M78, M81 and M34) consist of lineages with differential distribution within Middle East, North Africa and Europe. Only adults with French surname were analyzed by the study.[116][117]

RegionNbBDE*E-M35*E-M78E-M81E-M34GIJ1J2KN1cP*R1aR1b1T
1 Alsace800006.2503.752.508.751.258.751.25003.7558.755
2 Auvergne8902.2503.375.621.128.994.493.377.871.12005.6252.803.37
3 Brittany1150000001.7413.040.872.610000.8780.880
4 Île-de-France91010.9904.405.491.104.407.691.105.4901.1002.2056.050
5 Midi-Pyrénées6701.491.492.991.491.494.4810.454.487.460002.9959.691.49
6 Nord-Pas-de-Calais6801.471.475.884.4107.358.8205.880002.9461.760
7 Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur452.2202.228.892.2206.678.8906.67004.44055.552.22
Mainland France5550.322.310.744.542.751.075.168.881.586.390.340.160.632.6260.781.73

The province of southern France was colonized by the Ancient Greeks who introduced viniculture into Provence and founded the cities of Marseilles and Nice, during the Archaic and Classical Eras. A recent study in 2011 analyzed 51 southern French individuals from Provence in southern mainland France and 89 Anatolian Greek subjects whose ancestry derives from Smyrna and Asia Minor Phokaia, the ancestral embarkation port to the 6th century BCE ancient Greek colonies of Massalia (Marseilles) and Alalie (Aleria, Corsica). The admixture analysis estimated in the study found that 17% of the Y-chromosomes of Provence may be attributed to Greek colonization. The study also concluded that "Estimates of colonial Greek vs. indigenous Celto-Ligurian demography predict a maximum of a 10% Greek contribution, suggesting a Greek male elite-dominant input into the Iron Age Provence population."[118] This evidence supports the persistence of the gene pool of the Ancient Greeks among the modern southern French.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ (French) Bilan démographique 2008 - INSEE (Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques - French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies)
  2. ^ "B04003. Total Ancestry Reported". 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?-mt_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G2000_B04003&-mt_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G2000_B04001&-mt_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G2000_B04002. Retrieved 10 July 2010. 
  3. ^ "Les merveilleux francophiles argentins-1". Canalacademie.com. http://www.canalacademie.com/Les-merveilleux-francophiles,1009.html. Retrieved 2009-01-18. 
  4. ^ "About Ancestry". Ancestry.co.uk. 2010-02-26. http://www.ancestry.co.uk/about/default.aspx?section=pr-2010-02-26. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  5. ^ SPF Intérieur - Office des Étrangers[dead link]
  6. ^ a b "Vivre à l'étranger". http://vivrealetranger.studyrama.com/article.php3?id_article=216. "Ils ont été 100 000 à émigrer dans ce pays entre 1850 et 1965 et auraient entre 500 000 et 1 million de descendants." 
  7. ^ "La influencia francesa en la vida social de Chile de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX". http://www.uai.cl/p3_humanidades/site/edic/20030530094405/asocfile/ASOCFILE220030428191759.pdf. "Los datos que poseía el Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Francia en Chile al año 2008, tal como lo consignaba el Ministerio Plenipotenciario Francés en Chile, a un número cercano a los 700.000 descendientes de franceses en Chile.." 
  8. ^ "French Ethnic People in all Countries". Joshua Project. http://www.joshuaproject.net/peoples.php?rop3=103059. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  9. ^ a b Erwin Dopf. "Inmigración francesa al Perú". Espejodelperu.com.pe. http://www.espejodelperu.com.pe/Poblacion-del-Peru/Inmigracion-Francesa-al-Peru.htm. Retrieved 2012-06-06. 
  10. ^ "20680-Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex - Australia" (Microsoft Excel download). 2006 Census. Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/ABSNavigation/prenav/ViewData?breadcrumb=POLTD&method=Place%20of%20Usual%20Residence&subaction=-1&issue=2006&producttype=Census%20Tables&documentproductno=0&textversion=false&documenttype=Details&collection=Census&javascript=true&topic=Ancestry&action=404&productlabel=Ancestry%20(full%20classification%20list)%20by%20Sex&order=1&period=2006&tabname=Details&areacode=0&navmapdisplayed=true&. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  11. ^ "20680-Country of Birth of Person (full classification list) by Sex - Australia" (Microsoft Excel download). 2006 Census. Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/ABSNavigation/prenav/ViewData?action=404&documentproductno=0&documenttype=Details&order=1&tabname=Details&areacode=0&issue=2006&producttype=Census%20Tables&javascript=true&textversion=false&navmapdisplayed=true&breadcrumb=POLTD&&collection=Census&period=2006&productlabel=Country%20of%20Birth%20of%20Person%20(full%20classification%20list)%20by%20Sex&producttype=Census%20Tables&method=Place%20of%20Usual%20Residence&topic=Birthplace&. Retrieved 2008-05-27. 
  12. ^ "Federal Statistical Office Germany". Genesis.destatis.de. https://www-genesis.destatis.de/genesis/online/logon?language=en. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  13. ^ "Población por nacionalidad y país de nacimiento. 2007. INE". Ine.es. http://www.ine.es/jaxi/tabla.do?path=/t20/e245/p04/a2007/l0/&file=00000011.px&type=pcaxis&L=0. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  14. ^ "Etat et structure de la population – Données détaillées, Population résidante selon le sexe et la nationalité par pays, (su-f-01.01.01.03), Office fédéral de la statistique OFS". Bfs.admin.ch. 2010-01-29. http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/fr/index/themen/01/02/blank/data/01.html. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  15. ^ "Jew, French Speaking Ethnic People in all Countries". Joshua Project. http://www.joshuaproject.net/peoples.php?rop3=103063. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  16. ^ "Les Barcelonnettes au Mexique". http://pagnol83300.free.fr/barcelo02/Les%20Barcelonnettes%20au%20Mexique.htm. "On estime à 60 000 les descendants des Barcelonnettes, dispersés sur tout le territoire mexicain." 
  17. ^ (Portuguese) Imigração e Racismo: dez anos nos media
  18. ^ "État de la population (x1000) 1981, 1991, 2001–2007". Statistiques.public.lu. http://www.statistiques.public.lu/stat/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportId=1054. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f "Afghani, Tajik of Afghanistan Ethnic People Profile". Joshuaproject.net. http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  20. ^ "General Population Census 2008: Population Recensee et Population Estimee" (in French). Government of the Principality of Monaco. 2008. Archived from the original on 2011-06-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20110614212422/http://www.gouv.mc/devwww/wwwnew.nsf/e89a6190e96cbd1fc1256f7f005dbe6e/64a1643c86f9f661c12575ae004cc473/$FILE/Recensement2008_Ch1.pdf. Retrieved 7 October 2011. 
  21. ^ a b c "France shall be an indivisible, secular, democratic and social Republic. It shall ensure the equality of all citizens before the law, without distinction of origin, race or religion", Constitution of 4 October 1958
  22. ^ One point of friction can be the status of minority languages. However, though almost extinct, such regional languages are preserved in France and one can learn them at school as a second language (enseignement de langue regionale).
  23. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica "in the 19th and especially in the 20th century, [France has become] the prime recipient of foreign immigration into Europe" Encyclopædia Britannica Article: French ethnic groups.
  24. ^ Josephine Baker, one of the most famous American residents in France, has said: the USA is my country but Paris is my home.
  25. ^ For instance, the World Health Organization found that France provided the "best overall health care" in the world World Health Organization Assesses the World's Health Systems
  26. ^ Hughes LAGRANGES, Emeutes, renovation urbaine et alienation politique, Observatoire sociologique du changement, Paris, 2007 [1]
  27. ^ a b c Éric Gailledrat, Les Ibères de l'Èbre à l'Hérault (VIe-IVe s. avant J.-C.), Lattes, Sociétés de la Protohistoire et de l'Antiquité en France Méditerranéenne, Monographies d'Archéologie Méditerranéenne - 1, 1997
  28. ^ a b Dominique Garcia: Entre Ibères et Ligures. Lodévois et moyenne vallée de l'Hérault protohistoriques. Paris, CNRS éd., 1993; Les Ibères dans le midi de la France. L'Archéologue, n°32, 1997, pp. 38–40
  29. ^ a b The normans Jersey heritage trust
  30. ^ a b Dudo of St. Quentin's Gesta Normannorum, English translation How normans conquered the future Normandy, got established and allied with western Frankish by inter-marriage with Kings Rollo and William
  31. ^ W. Kruta, Dictionnaire des Celtes
  32. ^ Benjamin Z. Kedar, "The Subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant", in The Crusades: The Essential Readings, ed. Thomas F. Madden, Blackwell, 2002, pg. 244. Originally published in Muslims Under Latin Rule, 1100–1300, ed. James M. Powell, Princeton University Press, 1990. Kedar quotes his numbers from Joshua Prawer, Histoire du royaume latin de Jérusalem, tr. G. Nahon, Paris, 1969, vol. 1, pp. 498, 568-72.
  33. ^ "British North America: 1763–1841". British North America: 1763–1841. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. http://www.webcitation.org/query?id=1257036423799587. 
  34. ^ Hispanics in the American Revolution[dead link]
  35. ^ John Huxtable Elliott (1984). The revolt of the Catalans: a study in the decline of Spain (1598–1640). Cambridge University Press. p. 26. ISBN 0-521-27890-2. http://books.google.com/?id=X2Hf-crzPjUC&pg=PA26&dq&q=. 
  36. ^ Peter Sahlins (1991). Boundaries: the making of France and Spain in the Pyrenees. University of California Press. p. 105. ISBN 0-520-07415-7. http://books.google.com/?id=WPLEOKM1CI8C&pg=PA105&dq&q=. 
  37. ^ "French villages in Banat". Freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~banatdata/Documents/NewOnTheList.htm. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  38. ^ "Smaranda Vultur, De l'Ouest à l'Est et de l'Est à l'Ouest : les avatars identitaires des Français du Banat, Texte presenté a la conférence d'histoire orale "Visibles mais pas nombreuses : les circulations migratoires roumaines", Paris, 2001". Memoria.ro. http://www.memoria.ro/?location=view_article&id=1641&l=fr. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  39. ^ Être né en France d’un parent immigré, Insee Première, n°1287, mars 2010, Catherine Borrel et Bertrand Lhommeau, Insee
  40. ^ Répartition des immigrés par pays de naissance 2008, Insee, October 2011
  41. ^ Ethnic, Religious and Language Groups: Towards a Set of Rules for Data Collection and Statistical Analysis, Werner Haug
  42. ^ "CIA Factbook - France". Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fr.html. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  43. ^ France Population - Nation by Nation
  44. ^ Background Notes: France - U.S. Department of State
  45. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Article: French ethnic groups. Retrieved July 2003 2008
  46. ^ Race, Ethnicity, and National Identity in France and the United States: A Comparative Historical Overview George M. Fredrickson, Stanford University, 2003. Retrieved 17 March 2008
  47. ^ (English) (French) See, for example, Laurent Mouloud, "The Anger of the Suburbs", translated 6 November 2005, accessible on www.humaniteinenglish.com (in French. "La colère des banlieues". L'Humanité (France). 5 November 2005. Archived from the original on 26 November 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20051126161826/http://www.humanite.fr/journal/2005-11-05/2005-11-05-817323. Retrieved 3 May 2006. 
  48. ^ "An Estimation of the Foreign-Origin Populations of France, Michèle Tribalat". Cairn.info. http://www.cairn.info/revue-population-english-2004-1-page-49.htm. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  49. ^ Bardakdjian-Michau, M Bahuau, D Hurtrel, et al.2008, Neonatal screening for sickle cell disease in France, J Clin Pathol 2009 62: 31-33, doi:10.1136/jcp.2008.058867
  50. ^ a b Naissances selon le pays de naissance des parents 2010, Insee, septembre 2011
  51. ^ a b Les immigrés, les descendants d'immigrés et leurs enfants, Pascale Breuil-Genier, Catherine Borrel, Bertrand Lhommeau, Insee 2011
  52. ^ "Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. III. French Government and the Refugees". American Philosophical Society, James E. Hassell (1991). p.22. ISBN 0-87169-817-X
  53. ^ "The educated African: a country-by-country survey of educational development in Africa". Helen A. Kitchen (1962). p.256.
  54. ^ "For Pieds-Noirs, the Anger Endures". New York Times. 1988-04-06. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DEFDE1539F935A35757C0A96E948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  55. ^ Raimondo Cagiano De Azevedo (1994). "Migration and development co-operation.". p.25.
  56. ^ Unrest in France, November 2005 : immigration, islam and the challenge of integration, Justin Vaïsse, Presentation to Congressional Staff, 10 and 12 January 2006, Washington, DC
  57. ^ "Compared with the Europeans, the Tunisians belong to a much more recent wave of migration and occupy a much less favourable socioeconomic position, yet their pattern of marriage behaviour is nonetheless similar (...). Algerian and Moroccan immigrants have a higher propensity to exogamy than Asians or Portuguese but a much weaker labour market position. (...) Confirming the results from other analyses of immigrant assimilation in France, this study shows that North Africans seem to be characterized by a high degree of cultural integration (reflected in a relatively high propensity to exogamy, notably for Tunisians) that contrasts with a persistent disadvantage in the labour market.", Intermarriage and assimilation: disparities in levels of exogamy among immigrants in France, Mirna Safi, Volume 63 2008/2
  58. ^ Emmanuel Todd, Le destin des immigrés: assimilation et ségrégation dans les démocraties occidentales, Paris, 1994, p.307
  59. ^ Esther Benbassa, The Jews of France: A History from Antiquity to the Present, Princeton University Press, 1999
  60. ^ "Inflow of third-country nationals by country of nationality". Migrationinformation.org. http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/countrydata/data.cfm. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  61. ^ "Immigration and the 2007 French Presidential Elections" (PDF). http://www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/France_Elections050307.pdf. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  62. ^ "France, U.N. Start Ivory Coast Evacuation". Foxnews.com. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,138116,00.html. Retrieved 2012-06-06. 
  63. ^ The French Exodus, TIME
  64. ^ Michèle Tribalat, « Mariages « mixtes » et immigration en France », Espace populations sociétés [En ligne] , 2009/2 | 2009 , mis en ligne le 01 avril 2011
  65. ^ Carolyn Burke. No Regrets: The Life of Edith Piaf, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011, p.5
  66. ^ Michèle Tribalat, Revue Commentaire, juin 2009, n°126, p.436
  67. ^ Michèle Tribalat, Les yeux grands fermés, Denoël, 2010
  68. ^ Robert Castel, La discrimination négative, Paris, La République des idées/Seuil, 2007
  69. ^ Eric Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism since 1780 : programme, myth, reality (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990; ISBN 0-521-43961-2) chapter II "The popular protonationalism", pp.80-81 French edition (Gallimard, 1992). According to Hobsbawm, the base source for this subject is Ferdinand Brunot (ed.), Histoire de la langue française, Paris, 1927–1943, 13 volumes, in particular the tome IX. He also refers to Michel de Certeau, Dominique Julia, Judith Revel, Une politique de la langue: la Révolution française et les patois: l'enquête de l'abbé Grégoire, Paris, 1975. For the problem of the transformation of a minority official language into a mass national language during and after the French Revolution, see Renée Balibar, L'Institution du français: essai sur le co-linguisme des Carolingiens à la République, Paris, 1985 (also Le co-linguisme, PUF, Que sais-je?, 1994, but out of print) ("The Institution of the French language: essay on colinguism from the Carolingian to the Republic"). Finally, Hobsbawm refers to Renée Balibar and Dominique Laporte, Le Français national: politique et pratique de la langue nationale sous la Révolution, Paris, 1974.
  70. ^ "Les Gaulois figurent seulement parmi d'autres dans la multitude de couches de peuplement fort divers (Ligures, Ibères, Latins, Francs et Alamans, Nordiques, Sarrasins...) qui aboutissent à la population du pays à un moment donné ", Jean-Louis Brunaux, Nos ancêtres les Gaulois, éd. Seuil, 2008, p. 261
  71. ^ "Notre Midi a sa pinte de sang sarrasin", Fernand Braudel, L'identité de la France - Les Hommes et les Choses (1986), Flammarion, 1990, p. 215
  72. ^ " Les Sarrasins gardèrent longtemps sur les côtes de la Provence, à la Garde-Freinet, un solide point d'appui et de là purent faire des incursions dans une partie de la France. Au huitième siècle, lors de l'invasion des Berbères dit Arabes, ceux-ci avaient pénétré jusque dans la vallée de la Loire : on parle même de leur venue dans la région orientale de la France, à Luxeuil, dans les Vosges et devant Metz. [...] les observations des anthropologistes ne permettent pas de douter que nombre de familles françaises dans les bassins de la Garonne et du Rhône ne soient issus des envahisseurs musulmans, Berbères modifiés par leur croisement avec les Espagnols, les Arabes et les noirs d'Afrique.", Élisée Reclus, Nouvelle géographie universelle: la terre et les hommes, Élisée Reclus, éd. Hachette, 1881, t. 2, chap. 1-Vue d'ensemble - Le milieu et la race, Ançêtres de Français, p. 45-46
  73. ^ "L'élément sémitique, juif et arabe, était fort en Languedoc. Narbonne avait été longtemps la capitale des Sarrasins en France. (...) Ces nobles du Midi étaient des gens d'esprit qui savaient bien la plupart que penser de leur noblesse. Il n'y en avait guère qui, en remontant un peu, ne rencontrassent dans leur généalogie quelque grand-mère sarrasine ou juive.", Jules Michelet, Histoire de France, éd. Chamerot, 1861, t. 2, p. 335
  74. ^ "Bien que le séjour des Arabes en France n'ait été constitué que par une série de courtes invasions, ils ont laissé des traces profondes de leur passage dans la langue, et [...] ils en ont laissé également dans le sang. [...] L'ethnologie nous en fournit la preuve, en retrouvant, après tant de siècles, des descendants des Arabes sur plusieurs parties de notre sol. Dans le département de la Creuse, dans les Hautes-Alpes, et notamment dans plusieurs localités situées autour de Montmaure (montagne des Maures), dans le canton de Baignes (Charente), de même que dans certains villages des Landes, du Roussillon, du Languedoc, du Béarn, les descendants des Arabes sont facilement reconnaissables.", Gustave Le Bon, La Civilisation des Arabes (1884), La Fontaine au Roy, 1990, p. 237
  75. ^ "Il est certain que, de nos jours, on peut encore trouver en France des descendants des Sarrasins, notamment dans toute la région du sud de la Loire, dans les monts d'Auvergne, en Guyenne, en Languedoc et en Provence, voire même en Bourgogne.", René Martial, La Race française (1934), Mercure de France, 1934, p. 101-102
  76. ^ "Les premiers musulmans arrivèrent en France à la suite de l'occupation de l'Espagne par les Maures, il y a plus d'un millénaire, et s'installèrent dans les environs de Toulouse - et jusqu'en Bourgogne. À Narbonne, les traces d'une mosquée datant du VIIIe siècle sont le témoignage de l'ancienneté de ce passé. Lors de la célèbre, et en partie mythologique, bataille de Poitiers en 732, dont les historiens reconsidèrent aujourd'hui l'importance, Charles Martel aurait stoppé la progression des envahisseurs arabes. Des réfugiés musulmans qui fuyaient la Reconquista espagnole, et plus tard l'Inquisition, firent souche en Languedoc-Roussillon et dans le Pays basque français, ainsi que dans le Béarn", Justin Vaïsse, Intégrer l'Islam, Odile Jacob, 2007, pp. 32–33
  77. ^ Dominique Schnapper, "La conception de la nation", "Citoyenneté et société", Cahiers Francais, n° 281, mai-juin 1997
  78. ^ a b "What Is France? Who Are the French?". http://cdis.missouri.edu/exec/data/courses/2313/public/lesson01/lesson01.aspx. Retrieved 15 May 2010. 
  79. ^ a b c d e f Dr. Myriam Krepps (7-9 October 2011). "French Identity, French Heroes: From Vercingétorix to Vatel". Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, Kansas. http://www.unomaha.edu/esc/2010Proceedings/KreppsPaper.pdf. 
  80. ^ a b c d e Hugh Schofield (26 August 2012). ""France's ancient Alesia dispute rumbles on"". BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-19167600. 
  81. ^ (French) "Loi n° 2000-493 du 6 juin 2000 tendant à favoriser l'égal accès des femmes et des hommes aux mandats électoraux et fonctions électives". French Senate. 6 June 2000. Archived from the original on 15 December 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20051215170759/http://www.senat.fr/uip/loi_parite_elections.htm. Retrieved 2006-05-02. 
  82. ^ a b c d e f (French) B. Villalba. "Chapitre 2 - Les incertitudes de la citoyenneté". Catholic University of Lille, Law Department. http://droit.univ-lille2.fr/enseignants/villalba/cours_PSC/Psc_chap_citoyen.html. Retrieved 2006-05-03. 
  83. ^ if living in France
  84. ^ if there is no such representations of their own country
  85. ^ See Giorgio Agamben, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, Stanford University Press (1998), ISBN 0-8047-3218-3.
  86. ^ (French) P. Hassenteufel, "Exclusion sociale et citoyenneté", "Citoyenneté et société", Cahiers Francais, n° 281, mai-juin 1997), quoted by B. Villalba of the Catholic University of Lille, op.cit.
  87. ^ See Eric Hobsbawm, op.cit.
  88. ^ Even the biological conception of sex may be questioned: see gender theory
  89. ^ It may be interesting to refer to Michel Foucault's description of the discourse of "race struggle", as he shows that this medieval discourse - held by such people as Edward Coke or John Lilburne in Great Britain, and, in France, by Nicolas Fréret, Boulainvilliers, and then Sieyès, Augustin Thierry and Cournot -, tended to identify the French noble classes to a Northern and foreign race, while the "people" was considered as an aborigine - and "inferior" races. This historical discourse of "race struggle", as isolated by Foucault, was not based on a biological conception of race, as would be latter racialism (aka "scientific racism")
  90. ^ [2][dead link]
  91. ^ See John Locke's definition of consciousness and of identity. Consciousness is an act accompanying all thoughts (I am conscious that I am thinking this or that...), and which therefore doubles all thoughts. Personal identity is composed by the repeated consciousness, and thus extends so far in time (both in the past & in the future) as I am conscious of it (An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689), Chapter XXVII "Of Identity and Diversity", available here [3])
  92. ^ See e.g. Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951), second part on "Imperialism"
  93. ^ (English) Olivier LeCour Grandmaison (June 2001). "Torture in Algeria: Past Acts That Haunt France - Liberty, Equality and Colony". Le Monde diplomatique. http://mondediplo.com/2001/06/11torture2. 
  94. ^ Ernest Renan's 26 June 1856 letter to Arthur de Gobineau, quoted by Jacques Morel in Calendrier des crimes de la France outre-mer, L'esprit frappeur, 2001 (Morel gives as source: Ernest Renan, Qu'est-ce qu'une nation? et autres textes politiques, chosen and presented by Joël Roman, Presses Pocket, 1992, p 221.
  95. ^ "In eighteenth-century Europe, jus soli was the dominant criterion of nationality law in the two most powerful kingdoms : France and United Kingdom. It was the transfer of a feudal tradition to the a state level : human beings were linked to the lord who held the land where they were born. The French Revolution broke from this feudal tradition. Because jus soli connoted feudal allegiance, it was decided, against Napoléon Bonaparte's wish, that the new Civil Code of 1804 would grant French nationality at birth only to a child born to a French father, either in France or abroad . It was not ethnically motivated; it only meant that family links transmitted by the pater familias had become more important than subjecthood", Patrick Weil, Access to citizenship : A comparison of twenty five nationality laws , dans T. Alexander Aleinikoff and Douglas Klusmeyer (ed.), Citizenship Today: Global Perspectives and Practices, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington DC, 2001, p.17-35.
  96. ^ This ten-year clause is threatened by Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy's law proposition on immigration.
  97. ^ "Le Front national". Well.ac.uk. 16 March 1998. http://www.well.ac.uk/cfol/lefront.asp. Retrieved 2009-01-18. 
  98. ^ See Michèle Tribalat, study at the INED already quoted. See also Demographics in France.
  99. ^ Dumas, père, Alexandre (1852–1854). Mes Mémoires. Cadot. 
  100. ^ Aïcha Saïd Ben Mohamed (1876–1930) was born in Mogador, Morocco, Généalogie Magazine, N° 233, p. 30/36
  101. ^ Le Point, 8 February 2007
  102. ^ "One in three French 'are racist'". BBC News. 22 March 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4832238.stm. Retrieved 2006-05-03. 
  103. ^ (French) "L'illusion ethnique". L'Humanité (France). 15 April 1999. Archived from the original on 9 May 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060509030755/http://www.humanite.presse.fr/journal/1999-04-15/1999-04-15-287759. Retrieved 2006-05-03. 
  104. ^ Pastor, José Manuel Azcona (2004). Possible paradises: Basque emigration to Latin America. University of Nevada Press. ISBN 978-0-87417-444-1. http://books.google.com/?id=eiqFIaY0LpEC&printsec=frontcover. "In any event, between 1848 and 1939, one million people with French passports headed definitively abroad (page 296)." 
  105. ^ Canal Académie: Les merveilleux francophiles argentins[dead link]
  106. ^ "La emigración francesa en Chile, 1875–1914". http://alhim.revues.org/index1252.html. "El 80% de los colonos que llegan a Chile provienen del País Vasco, del Bordelais, de Charentes y de las regiones situadas entre Gers y Périgord." 
  107. ^ "La influencia francesa en la vida social de Chile de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX" (PDF). http://www.uai.cl/p3_humanidades/site/edic/20030530094405/asocfile/ASOCFILE220030428191759.pdf. "Los datos que poseía el Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Francia ya en 1863, cuando aúno se abría Agencia General de Colonización del Gobierno de Chile en Europa, con sede en París, daban cuenta de 1.650 ciudadanos franceses residentes. Esta cifra fue aumentando paulatinamente hasta llegar, tal como lo consignaba el Ministerio Plenipotenciario Francés en Chile, a un número cercano a los 30.000 franceses residentes a fines del siglo." 
  108. ^ Paris, Société d'éConomie Politique of; Paris, Société de Statistique de (1867). Journal des économistes. http://books.google.com/books?id=D6QJAAAAIAAJ&printsec=titlepage. "Le recensement de la population du Chili a constaté la présence de 23,220 étrangers. (...) Nous trouvons les étrangers établis au Chili répartis par nationalité de la manière suivante : Allemands (3,876), Anglais (2,818), Français (2,483), Espagnols (1,247), Italiens (1,037), Nord-Américains (831), Portugais (313) (page 281)." 
  109. ^ Collier, Simon; Sater, William F (2004). A history of Chile, 1808–2002. ISBN 978-0-521-53484-0. http://books.google.com/?id=y2h3KuCIQI4C&printsec=frontcover. "p. 29. The census of twenty-one years later put the total at around 25,000 - including 3,000 French." 
  110. ^ Eeuwen, Daniel van (2002). L'Amérique latine et l'Europe à l'heure de la mondialisation. ISBN 978-2-84586-281-4. http://books.google.com/?id=zDCbEhbfNMMC&printsec=frontcover. "p. 194. Chili : 10 000 (7%)." 
  111. ^ Possible paradises: Basque emigration to Latin America. http://books.google.com/books?id=eiqFIaY0LpEC&printsec=frontcover&hl=en. "The French colony in this country numbered 592 in 1888 and 5,000 in 1915 (page 226)." 
  112. ^ L'Amérique latine et l'Europe à l'heure de la mondialisation. http://books.google.com/books?id=zDCbEhbfNMMC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_v2_summary_r&cad=0. "p. 194. Brésil : 14 000 (9%)." 
  113. ^ "The Population of Bolivia. People and Culture. Demographics. Bolivia Population". Boliviabella.com. http://www.boliviabella.com/population.html. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  114. ^ "Ethnic People Groups of Cambodia". Joshua Project. http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=CB. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  115. ^ "Sarkozy raises hopes of expats". Baltimoresun.com. 2011-10-19. http://www.baltimoresun.com/business/bal-bz.expats04sep04,0,717461.story?track=rss. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  116. ^ Ramos-Luisa et al. (2009), "Phylogeography of French male lineages (supplemental data from 23rd International ISFG Congress held from 14 to 18 September 2009 in Puerto Madero, Buenos Aires)", Forensic Science International 2: 439-441, doi:10.1016/j.fsigss.2009.09.026
  117. ^ "Sample collection was performed drawing blood of unrelated male individuals with French surname after informed consent", Ramos-Luisa et al. (2009)
  118. ^ Chiaroni, Jacques (2011). The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean. BMC Evolutionary Biology. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-69. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/69/abstract. "The process of Greek colonization of the central and western Mediterranean during the Archaic and Classical Eras has been understudied from the perspective of population genetics. To investigate the Y chromosomal demography of Greek colonization in the western Mediterranean, Y-chromosome data consisting of 29 YSNPs and 37 YSTRs were compared from 51 subjects from Provence, 58 subjects from Smyrna and 31 subjects whose paternal ancestry derives from Asia Minor Phokaia, the ancestral embarkation port to the 6th century BCE Greek colonies of Massalia (Marseilles) and Alalie (Aleria, Corsica). Results 19% of the Phokaian and 12% of the Smyrnian representatives were derived for haplogroup E-V13, characteristic of the Greek and Balkan mainland, while 4% of the Provencal, 4.6% of East Corsican and 1.6% of West Corsican samples were derived for E-V13. An admixture analysis estimated that 17% of the Y-chromosomes of Provence may be attributed to Greek colonization. Using the following putative Neolithic Anatolian lineages: J2a-DYS445 = 6, G2a-M406 and J2a1b1-M92, the data predict a 0% Neolithic contribution to Provence from Anatolia. Estimates of colonial Greek vs. indigenous Celto-Ligurian demography predict a maximum of a 10% Greek contribution, suggesting a Greek male elite-dominant input into the Iron Age Provence population." 

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