French Quarter

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French Quarter
Vieux Carré
New Orleans Neighborhood
ChrisLitherlandFrenchQuarter2011.jpg
The French Quarter, looking north with Mississippi River to the right
CountryUnited States
StateLouisiana
CityNew Orleans
Planning DistrictDistrict 1, French Quarter/CBD
Elevation3 ft (0.9 m)
Coordinates29°57′31″N 90°03′54″W / 29.95861°N 90.06500°W / 29.95861; -90.06500
Area0.66 sq mi (1.7 km2)
 - land0.49 sq mi (1 km2)
 - water0.17 sq mi (0 km2), 25.76%
Population3,888 (2010)
Density7,935 / sq mi (3,064 / km2)
MayorMitch Landrieu
TimezoneCST (UTC-6)
 - summer (DST)CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP Codes70116 - 70130
Area code504
Location of the French Quarter and Central Business District in New Orleans
 
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This article is about the French Quarter in New Orleans. For other cities with "French Quarter" areas, see French Quarter (disambiguation).
"Vieux Carré" redirects here. For the play, see Vieux Carré (play).
Coordinates: 29°57′31″N 90°03′54″W / 29.95861°N 90.06500°W / 29.95861; -90.06500
French Quarter
Vieux Carré
New Orleans Neighborhood
ChrisLitherlandFrenchQuarter2011.jpg
The French Quarter, looking north with Mississippi River to the right
CountryUnited States
StateLouisiana
CityNew Orleans
Planning DistrictDistrict 1, French Quarter/CBD
Elevation3 ft (0.9 m)
Coordinates29°57′31″N 90°03′54″W / 29.95861°N 90.06500°W / 29.95861; -90.06500
Area0.66 sq mi (1.7 km2)
 - land0.49 sq mi (1 km2)
 - water0.17 sq mi (0 km2), 25.76%
Population3,888 (2010)
Density7,935 / sq mi (3,064 / km2)
MayorMitch Landrieu
TimezoneCST (UTC-6)
 - summer (DST)CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP Codes70116 - 70130
Area code504
Location of the French Quarter and Central Business District in New Orleans

The French Quarter, also known as the Vieux Carré, is the oldest neighborhood in the city of New Orleans. After New Orleans (La Nouvelle-Orléans in French) was founded in 1718 by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, the city developed around the Vieux Carré ("Old Square" in English), a central square. The district is more commonly called the French Quarter today, or simply "The Quarter," related to changes in the city with American immigration after the Louisiana Purchase.[1] Most of the present-day historic buildings were constructed during the late 18th century, during the city's period of Spanish rule, and reflect Spanish colonial architecture.

The district as a whole has been designated as a National Historic Landmark, with numerous contributing buildings that are separately deemed significant. It is a prime tourist destination in the city, as well as attracting loyal residents. Because of its distance from areas where the levee was breached during Hurricane Katrina in 2005, it suffered relatively light damage as compared to other areas of the city and the greater region.

Geography[edit]

The French Quarter is located at 29°57′31″N 90°03′54″W / 29.95861°N 90.06500°W / 29.95861; -90.06500[2] and has an elevation of 3 feet (0.9 m).[3] According to the United States Census Bureau, the district has a total area of 0.66 square miles (1.7 km2). 0.49 square miles (1.3 km2) of which is land and 0.17 square miles (0.4 km2) (25.76%) of which is water.

Boundaries[edit]

The most common definition of the French Quarter includes all the land stretching along the Mississippi River from Canal Street to Esplanade Avenue (13 blocks) and inland to North Rampart Street (seven to nine blocks). It equals an area of 78 square blocks. Some definitions, such as city zoning laws, exclude the properties facing Canal Street, which had already been redeveloped by the time architectural preservation was considered, and the section between Decatur Street and the river, much of which had long served industrial and warehousing functions.

Any alteration to structures in the remaining blocks is subject to review by the Vieux Carré Commission, which determines whether the proposal is appropriate for the historic character of the district. Its boundaries as defined by the City Planning Commission are: Esplanade Avenue to the north, the Mississippi River to the east, Canal Street, Decatur Street and Iberville Street to the south and the Basin Street, St. Louis Street and North Rampart Street to the west.[4]

The National Historic Landmark district is stated to be 85 square blocks.[5][6] The Quarter is subdistrict of the French Quarter/CBD Area.

Adjacent neighborhoods[edit]

Further information: New Orleans neighborhoods

Demographics[edit]

As of the census of 2000, there were 4,176 people, 2,908 households, and 509 families residing in the neighborhood.[7] The population density was 8,523 /mi² (3,212 /km²).

As of the census of 2010, there were 3,813 people, 2,635 households, and 549 families residing in the neighborhood.[7]

History[edit]

Vieux Carre Historic District
UpperChartersNOLA.jpg
French Quarter: Upper Chartres street looking towards Jackson Square and the spires of St. Louis Cathedral.
LocationNew Orleans, Louisiana
Built1734
ArchitectMultiple
Architectural styleNo Style Listed
Governing bodyLocal
NRHP Reference #66000377
Significant dates
Added to NRHPOctober 15, 1966[8]
Designated NHLDDecember 21, 1965[5]

Many of the buildings date from 1803, when New Orleans was acquired by the United States in the Louisiana Purchase, although some late 19th century and early 20th century buildings were added to the area. Since the 1920s the historic buildings have been protected by law and cannot be demolished, and any renovations or new construction in the neighborhood must be done according to city regulations to preserve the period historic architectural style.

Most of the French Quarter's architecture was built during the late 18th century and the period of Spanish rule over the city, which is reflected in the architecture of the neighborhood. The Great New Orleans Fire (1788) and another great fire in 1794 destroyed most of the Quarter's old French colonial architecture, leaving the colony's new Spanish overlords to rebuild it according to more modern tastes. Their strict new fire codes mandated that all structures be physically adjacent and close to the curb to create a firewall. The exception to that rule, The Cornstalk Hotel, also listed on the National Historical Register, still stands today at 915 Royal street and is most photographed hotel in the French Quarter. The old French peaked roofs were replaced with flat tiled ones, and wooden siding was banned in favor of fire-resistant stucco, painted in the pastel hues fashionable at the time. As a result, colorful walls and roofs and elaborately decorated ironwork balconies and galleries, from the late 18th and the early 19th centuries, abound. (In southeast Louisiana, a distinction is made between "balconies", which are self-supporting and attached to the side of the building, and "galleries," which are supported from the ground by poles or columns.)

When Anglophone Americans began to move in after the Louisiana Purchase, they mostly built on available land upriver, across modern-day Canal Street. This thoroughfare became the meeting place of two cultures, one Francophone Creole and the other Anglophone American. (Local landowners had retained architect and surveyor Barthelemy Lafon to subdivide their property to create an American suburb). The median of the wide boulevard became a place where the two contentious cultures could meet and do business in both French and English. As such, it became known as the "neutral ground", and this name is used for medians in the New Orleans area.

Before the Civil War, French Creoles had become a minority in the French Quarter.[9] In the late 19th century the Quarter became a less fashionable part of town, and many immigrants from southern Italy and Ireland settled there. In 1905, the Italian consul estimated that one-third to one-half of the Quarter’s population were Italian-born or second generation Italian-Americans. Irish immigrants also settled heavily in the Esplanade area, which was called the "Irish Channel".[10]

Elaborate ironwork galleries on the corner of Royal and St. Peter streets

In 1917, the Storyville neighborhood was closed, resulting in much of its vice and prostitution activities settling into the French Quarter near the river. "For most of the remaining French Creole families . . . [this] was the last straw, and they began to move uptown."[11] Two years later, the French Opera House burned down in the Quarter, marking an end to the era of French Creole culture there.[12] Many French Creoles moved to the University area.[13]

In the early 20th century, the Quarter's cheap rents and air of age attracted a bohemian artistic community, a trend which became pronounced in the 1920s. Many of these new inhabitants were active in the first preservation efforts in the Quarter, which began around that time.[14] As a result the Vieux Carré Commission (VCC) was established in 1925. Although initially only an advisory body, a 1936 referendum to amend the Louisiana constitution afforded it a measure of regulatory power. It began to exercise more power in the 1940s to preserve and protect the district.[15]

On December 21, 1965, the "Vieux Carre Historic District" was designated a National Historic Landmark.[5][6] In the 1980s, many long-term residents were driven away by rising rents, as property values rose dramatically with expectations of windfalls from the planned 1984 World's Fair site nearby.

More of the neighborhood was developed to support tourism, which is important to the city's economy. But, the French Quarter still combines residential, hotels, guest houses, bars, restaurants and tourist-oriented commercial properties.

Effect of Hurricane Katrina[edit]

As with other parts of the city developed before the late 19th century and on dry land predating New Orleans's levee systems, the French Quarter remained substantially dry following Hurricane Katrina. It is 5 feet (1.5 m) above sea level.[16] Some streets had minor flooding, and several buildings suffered significant wind damage. Most of the major landmarks suffered only minor damage.[17] In addition, the Quarter largely escaped the looting and violence that occurred after the storm; nearly all of the antique shops and art galleries in the French Quarter, for example, were untouched.[18]

Mayor Ray Nagin officially reopened the French Quarter on September 26, 2005 to business owners to inspect property and clean up. Within a month, a large selection of French Quarter businesses had re-opened. The Historic New Orleans Collection's Williams Research Center annex was the first new construction completed in the French Quarter after Hurricane Katrina.[19]

Landmarks and attractions[edit]

Jackson Square[edit]

Jackson statue and Saint Louis Cathedral

Jackson Square (formerly Place d'Armes), originally designed by architect and landscaper Louis H. Pilié (officially credited only with the iron fence), is a public gated park the size of a city-block, located at the front of the French Quarter ( GPS +29.95748 -090.06310 ). After the 1815 Battle of New Orleans, it was named after General (later President) Andrew Jackson. In 1856, city leaders purchased an equestrian statue of Jackson from the sculptor Clark Mills. The statue was placed at the center of the square, which was converted to a park from its previous use as a military parade ground and execution site (runaway slaves and others committing crimes were often hanged in the Place d’Armes).

The square originally overlooked the Mississippi River across Decatur Street; however, the view was blocked in the 19th century when larger levees were built along the river. The riverfront was long devoted to shipping-related activities at the heart of the port. The administration of Mayor Moon Landrieu put in a scenic boardwalk along the river across from the Square; it is known as the "Moon Walk" in his honor. At the end of the 1980s, old wharves and warehouses were demolished to create Woldenberg Park, extending the riverfront promenade up to Canal Street.

On the opposite side of the square from the River are three 18th‑century historic buildings, which were the city's heart in the colonial era. The center of the three is St. Louis Cathedral. The cathedral was designated a minor basilica by Pope Paul VI. To its left is The Cabildo, the old city hall, now a museum, where the Louisiana Purchase was signed. To the Cathedral's right is The Presbytère, built to match the Cabildo. The Presbytère, originally used to house the city's Roman Catholic priests and authorities, was adapted as a courthouse at the start of the 19th century after the Louisiana Purchase, when civilian government was elevated over the Catholic Church. In the 20th century it was adapted as a museum.

On each side of the square are the Pontalba Buildings, matching red-brick one-block-long, four‑story buildings built in the 1840s. The ground floors house shops and restaurants; the upper floors are apartments that are the oldest continuously rented such apartments in the United States.

The buildings are named for Baroness Micaela Almonester Pontalba, the only child of Don Andres Almonaster y Rojas, a leader of one of the oldest Creole (born there) families in New Orleans. Micaela Almonaster was born in 1795, and upon her father's death, she became sole heiress to his fortune.

Directly across from Jackson Square is the Jax Brewery building, the original home of a local beer. After the company ceased to operate independently, the building was converted for use by several businesses, including restaurants and specialty shops. In recent years, some retail space has been converted into riverfront condominiums. Behind the Jax Brewery lies the Toulouse Street Wharf, the regular pier of the steamboat, Natchez.

From the 1920s through the 1980s, Jackson Square became known for attracting painters, young art students, and caricaturists.[citation needed] In the 1990s the artists were joined by tarot card readers, mimes, fortune tellers, and other kinds of street performers.

Live music has been a regular feature of the entire quarter, including the Square for more than a century. Formal concerts are also held, although more rarely. Street musicians are known to play for tips.

Diagonally across the square from the Cabildo is Café du Monde, open 24 hours a day except for Christmas and during hurricanes. The historic cafe is well known for the café au lait, coffee spiced with chicory, and beignets, made and served there continuously since the 19th century. It is a custom to blow the powdered sugar of a beignet to anyone there for the first time, and to make a wish.

Bourbon Street[edit]

Main article: Bourbon Street

The most well known of the French Quarter streets, Bourbon Street, or Rue Bourbon, is known for its drinking establishments. Most of the bars frequented by tourists are new but the Quarter also has a number of notable bars with interesting histories. The Old Absinthe House has kept its name although the liquor has been illegal for a century in the United States because of its toxic qualities.

Pat O'Brien's Bar is well known both for inventing the red cocktail, Hurricane, as well as having the first Dueling Piano Bar. Pat O'Brien's is located at 718 St. Peter Street.[20]

Lafitte's Blacksmith Shop is a tavern located on the corner of Bourbon and St. Philip streets. Built sometime before 1772, it is one of the older surviving structures in New Orleans (the Ursuline Convent, for example, is older). It has been called the oldest continually occupied bar in the United States. According to legend, the structure was once owned by the pirate Jean Lafitte.

The Napoleon House bar and restaurant is in the former home of mayor Nicholas Girod. It was named for an unrealized plot to rescue Napoleon I from his exile in St. Helena and bring him to New Orleans.

The original Johnny White's bar is a favorite of motorcycle bikers. In 2005 an off-shoot called Johnny White's Hole in the Wall, along with Molly's at the Market, drew national media attention as the only businesses in the city to stay open throughout Hurricane Katrina and the weeks after the storm.

Spirits on Bourbon was featured on the season three of Bar Rescue. It has become a staple of Bourbon Street, with its light-up skull cup and Resurrection drink.

The Bourbon Pub and Oz, both located at the intersection of Bourbon and St. Ann streets, are the two largest gay clubs in New Orleans. Café Lafitte in Exile, located at the intersection of Bourbon and Dumaine, is the oldest continuously running gay bar in the United States. These and other gay establishments sponsor the raucous Southern Decadence Festival during Labor Day weekend. This festival is often referred to as New Orleans's "Gay Mardi Gras". St. Ann Street is often called "the Lavender Line," in reference to its being on the edge of the French Quarter's predominately gay district. While gay residents live throughout the French Quarter, that portion northeast of St. Ann Street is generally considered to be the gay district.

New Orleans and its French Quarter are one of a few places in the United States where possession and consumption of alcohol in open containers is allowed on the street.[21]

Restaurants[edit]

The neighborhood contains many restaurants, ranging from formal to casual, patronized by both visitors and locals. Some are well-known landmarks, such as Antoine's and Tujague's, which have been in business since the 19th century. Arnaud's, Galatoire's, Broussard's, and Brennan's are nearly as venerable. Less historic—but also well-known—French Quarter restaurants include those run by chefs Paul Prudhomme ("K-Paul's"), Emeril Lagasse ("NOLA"), and John Besh. Port of Call on Esplanade Avenue has been in business for more than 30 years, and is recognized for its popular Monsoon drinks as well as food.

Hotels[edit]

Accommodations in the French Quarter range from large international chains, to bed and breakfasts, to time-share condominiums, and small guest houses with only one or two rooms. Hotel Maison De Ville and the Audubon Cottages were built as a townhouses in 1800. The Audubon Cottages were home to Antoine Amedée Peychaud during its history. Tennessee Williams was a frequent guest, and the hotel works to maintain its historic ambiance. He set his play, A Streetcar Named Desire, in the Quarter.

The French Quarter is well known for its traditional-style boutique hotels, such as Hotel Monteleone, Royal Sonesta, The Astor, and the Hyatt French Quarter Hotel. These hotels offer prime location, beautiful views, and historic atmosphere.

Education[edit]

Residents are within the jurisdiction of the New Orleans Public Schools.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ New Orleans French Quarter History, Architecture and Pictures
  2. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  3. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^ Greater New Orleans Community Data Center. "French Quarter Neighborhood". Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  5. ^ a b c "Vieux Carre Historic District". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  6. ^ a b Patricia Heintzelman (February 1975). National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Vieux Carre Historic District. National Park Service. 
  7. ^ a b "French Quarter Neighborhood". Greater New Orleans Community Data Center. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  8. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-01-23. 
  9. ^ Ellis, Scott S. (2010). Madame Vieux Carré: the French Quarter in the Twentieth Century. University of Mississippi. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-60473-358-7. 
  10. ^ Madame Vieux Carré, p. 11
  11. ^ Madame Vieux Carré, p. 20-21
  12. ^ Madame Vieux Carré, p. 21
  13. ^ New Orleans 1900 to 1920 by Mary Lou Widmer. Pelican Publishing: 2007. ISBN 1-58980-401-5 pg 23
  14. ^ Madame Vieux Carré, p. 24
  15. ^ Madame Vieux Carré, p. 43
  16. ^ Officials rescue Katrina's survivors amid 'chaos' at the Wayback Machine (archived September 11, 2005) By Rick Wilking, Wed Aug 31, 2005, retrieved on 2009-11-27.
  17. ^ FrenchQuarter.com: The Essential Guide to New Orleans' Oldest Neighborhood
  18. ^ Rosenblatt, Susannah; Rainey, James (September 27, 2005). "Katrina Takes a Toll on Truth, News Accuracy – Los Angeles Times". Los Angeles Times. 
  19. ^ THNOC - WRC Addition
  20. ^ Lind, Angus. "Home of the 'Hurricane' Pat O'Brien's turns 75 this week". nola.com. Retrieved 2009-06-19. 
  21. ^ City of New Orleans memo

External links[edit]