F. W. de Klerk

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His Excellency

F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk in March 2012
State President of South Africa
In office
20 September 1989 (1989-09-20) – 9 May 1994 (1994-05-09)
Preceded byP. W. Botha
Succeeded byNelson Mandela
As President of South Africa
Deputy President of South Africa
In office
10 May 1994 (1994-05-10) – 30 June 1996 (1996-06-30)
Serving with Thabo Mbeki
PresidentNelson Mandela
Preceded byOffice Established
Succeeded byThabo Mbeki (solely)
Personal details
BornFrederik Willem de Klerk
(1936-03-18) 18 March 1936 (age 76)
Johannesburg, Transvaal Province, Union of South Africa
NationalitySouth African
Political partyNational Party
Other political
affiliations
New National Party
Spouse(s)Marike de Klerk nee Willemse (1959–1998)
Elita Georgiades (1998–present)
RelationsJohannes de Klerk
ChildrenJan de Klerk
Willem de Klerk
Susan de Klerk
ResidenceCape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
Alma materPotchefstroom University
OccupationPolitician
ProfessionAttorney
ReligionReformed Church
Signature
 
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His Excellency

F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk in March 2012
State President of South Africa
In office
20 September 1989 (1989-09-20) – 9 May 1994 (1994-05-09)
Preceded byP. W. Botha
Succeeded byNelson Mandela
As President of South Africa
Deputy President of South Africa
In office
10 May 1994 (1994-05-10) – 30 June 1996 (1996-06-30)
Serving with Thabo Mbeki
PresidentNelson Mandela
Preceded byOffice Established
Succeeded byThabo Mbeki (solely)
Personal details
BornFrederik Willem de Klerk
(1936-03-18) 18 March 1936 (age 76)
Johannesburg, Transvaal Province, Union of South Africa
NationalitySouth African
Political partyNational Party
Other political
affiliations
New National Party
Spouse(s)Marike de Klerk nee Willemse (1959–1998)
Elita Georgiades (1998–present)
RelationsJohannes de Klerk
ChildrenJan de Klerk
Willem de Klerk
Susan de Klerk
ResidenceCape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
Alma materPotchefstroom University
OccupationPolitician
ProfessionAttorney
ReligionReformed Church
Signature

Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936), often known as F. W. de Klerk, was the seventh and last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. de Klerk was also leader of the National Party (which later became the New National Party) from February 1989 to September 1997.

De Klerk is best known for engineering the end of apartheid, South Africa's racial segregation policy, and supporting the transformation of South Africa into a multi-racial democracy by entering into the negotiations that resulted in all citizens, including the country's black majority, having equal voting and other rights. He won the Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize in 1991, the Prince of Asturias Award in 1992 and the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 along with Nelson Mandela for his role in the ending of apartheid.

He was one of the Deputy Presidents of South Africa during the presidency of Nelson Mandela until 1996, the last white person to hold the position to date. In 1997 he retired from politics.

Contents

Background and early career

The name 'de Klerk' (literally meaning "the clerk" in Dutch) is derived from Le Clerc, Le Clercq, and de Clercq and is of French Huguenot origin,[1] as are a great number of other Afrikaans surnames, reflecting the French Huguenot refugees who settled in the Cape beginning in the 17th century alongside the Dutch, after they escaped religious persecution in France. de Klerk noted that he is of Dutch descent,[2][3] with an Indian ancestor.[4] He is also said to be descended from the Khoi interpreter known as Krotoa or Eva.[5]

Born in Johannesburg to Johannes "Jan" de Klerk and Hendrina Cornelia Coetzer - "her forefather was a Kutzer who stems from Austria".[6][7] He came from a family environment in which the conservatism of traditional white South African politics was deeply ingrained. His paternal great-grandfather was Senator Johannes Cornelis "Jan" van Rooy.[8][9] His aunt was married to NP Prime Minister J. G. Strijdom. In 1948, the year when the NP swept to power in whites-only elections on an apartheid platform, F. W. de Klerk's father, Johannes "Jan" de Klerk, became secretary of the NP in the Transvaal province and later rose to the positions of cabinet minister and President of the Senate, becoming interim State President in 1975.[10] His brother Willem is a liberal newspaperman and one of the founders of the Democratic Party. de Klerk matriculated from Monument High School in Krugersdorp. de Klerk graduated in 1958 from the Potchefstroom University with BA and LL.B degrees (the latter cum laude). Following graduation, de Klerk practised law in Vereeniging in the Transvaal. In 1959 he married Marike Willemse, with whom he had two sons and a daughter.[11]

"F.W.", as he became popularly known, was first elected to the House of Assembly in 1969 as the member for Vereeniging, and entered the cabinet in 1978. de Klerk had been offered a professorship of administrative law at Potchefstroom in 1972 but he declined the post because he was serving in Parliament. In 1978, he was appointed Minister of Posts and Telecommunications and Social Welfare and Pensions by Prime Minister Vorster. Under Prime Minister P.W. Botha, he held a succession of ministerial posts, including Posts and Telecommunications and Sports and Recreation (1978–1979), Mines, Energy and Environmental Planning (1979–1980), Mineral and Energy Affairs (1980–1982), Internal Affairs (1982–1985), and National Education and Planning (1984–1989). He became Transvaal provincial National Party leader in 1982. In 1985, he became chairman of the Minister's Council in the House of Assembly.

Ending apartheid

Frederik de Klerk and Nelson Mandela shake hands at the Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum held in Davos in January 1992.

As Minister of National Education, de Klerk was a supporter of segregated universities, and as a leader of the National Party in Transvaal, he was not known to advocate reform. However, after a long political career and with a very conservative reputation, in 1989 he placed himself at the head of verligte ("enlightened") forces within the governing party, with the result that he was elected head of the National Party in February 1989, and finally State President in September 1989 to replace then president P.W. Botha when the latter was forced to step down after an apparent stroke.

In his first speech after assuming the party leadership he called for a non-racist South Africa and for negotiations about the country's future. He lifted the ban on the African National Congress (ANC) and released Nelson Mandela. He brought apartheid to an end and opened the way for the drafting of a new constitution for the country based on the principle of one person, one vote. Nevertheless, he was accused by Anthony Sampson of complicity in the violence between the ANC, the Inkatha Freedom Party and elements of the security forces. In Mandela: The Authorised Biography Sampson accuses de Klerk of permitting his ministers to build their own criminal empires.[12] This was even more widespread than suspected at the time, according to the evidence obtained by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

His presidency was dominated by the negotiation process, mainly between his NP government and Mandela's ANC, which led to the democratisation of South Africa. In 1992, de Klerk held a whites-only referendum, with the result being an overwhelming "yes" vote to continue negotiations to end apartheid.

In 1990, de Klerk gave orders to end South Africa's nuclear weapons programme; the process of nuclear disarmament was essentially completed in 1991. The existence of the programme was not officially acknowledged before 1993.[13]

In 1993, de Klerk and Mandela were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their work ending apartheid.

After the first free elections in 1994, de Klerk became deputy president in the government of national unity under Nelson Mandela, a post he kept until 1996. In 1997 he also gave over the leadership of the National Party and retired from politics.

Later life

In 1998, de Klerk and his wife of 38 years, Marike de Klerk, were divorced following the discovery of his affair with Elita Georgiades,[14] then the wife of Tony Georgiades, a Greek shipping tycoon who had allegedly given de Klerk and the NP financial support.[15] Soon after his divorce, de Klerk and Georgiades were married. His divorce and re-marriage scandalised conservative South African opinion, especially among the Calvinist Afrikaners. In 1999 his autobiography, The Last Trek — A New Beginning, was published. de Klerk successfully had a chapter from Marike's biography, 'A Place Where the Sun Shines Again', dealing with his infidelity censored.[16]

In 2000 de Klerk established the pro-peace FW de Klerk Foundation of which he is the chairman. de Klerk is also chairman of the Global Leadership Foundation, an organisation he established after retiring from office. Formally inaugurated in March 2004, the Global Leadership Foundation works to "promote good governance – democratic institutions, open markets, human rights and the rule of law – and to contribute to the prevention and resolution of conflict through mediation."[17]

On 4 December 2001, Marike de Klerk was found stabbed and violently strangled to death in her Cape Town flat. de Klerk, who was on a brief visit to Stockholm, Sweden to celebrate the 100 year anniversary of the Nobel Prize foundation, announced he would immediately return to mourn his dead ex-wife. The atrocity was reportedly condemned strongly by South African president Thabo Mbeki and Winnie Mandela, among others, who openly spoke in favour of Marike de Klerk. On 6 December, 21 year old security guard Luyanda Mboniswa was arrested for the murder. On 15 May 2003 he received two life sentences for murder as well as three years for breaking into Marike de Klerk's apartment.

In 2004 de Klerk announced that he was quitting the New National Party and seeking a new political home after it was announced that the NNP would merge with the ruling ANC. That same year, while giving an interview to US journalist Richard Stengel, de Klerk was asked whether South Africa had turned out the way he envisioned it back in 1990. To which his response was: "There are a number of imperfections in the new South Africa where I would have hoped that things would be better, but on balance I think we have basically achieved what we set out to achieve. And if I were to draw balance sheets on where South Africa stands now, I would say that the positive outweighs the negative by far. There is a tendency by commentators across the world to focus on the few negatives which are quite negative, like how are we handling AIDS, like our role vis-à-vis Zimbabwe. But the positives – the stability in South Africa, the adherence to well-balanced economic policies, fighting inflation, doing all the right things in order to lay the basis and the foundation for sustained economic growth – are in place."[18] In 2008, he repeated in a speech that "despite all the negatives facing South Africa, he is very positive about the country".[19]

In 2006 he underwent surgery for a malignant tumour in his colon, discovered after an examination on 3 June. His condition deteriorated sharply, and he underwent a second operation after developing respiratory problems. On 13 June it was announced that he was to undergo a tracheotomy.[20][21][22] He recovered and on 11 September 2006 gave a speech at Kent State University Stark Campus.[23] In 2006, he underwent triple coronary artery bypass surgery.[24]

In January 2007 de Klerk was a speaker promoting peace and democracy in the world at the "Towards a Global Forum on New Democracies" event in Taipei, Taiwan, along with other dignitaries including Poland's Lech Wałęsa and now former Taiwan President Chen Shui-Bian.[25]

de Klerk is an Honorary Patron of the University Philosophical Society and Honorary Chairman of the Prague Society for International Cooperation.[24] He has also received the Gold Medal for Outstanding Contribution to Public Discourse from the College Historical Society for his contribution to ending apartheid.

In October 2008 de Klerk spoke at Brigham Young University concerning the global politics and role of the United States as the world's last remaining superpower.

After the inauguration of Jacob Zuma as South Africa's president in May 2009 de Klerk said he is optimistic that Zuma and his government can "confound the prophets of doom".[26]

As of 2011 he remains active as a lecturer, including within the United States.[27]

In a BBC interview broadcast in April 2012, he said he lived in an all-white neighbourhood. He had five servants, three coloured and two black: "We are one great big family together; we have the best of relationships." About Nelson Mandela he said, "When Mandela goes it will be a moment when all South Africans put away their political differences, will take hands, and will together honour maybe the biggest South African that has ever lived."[28]

References

  1. ^ Lugan, Bernard (1996). Ces Français qui ont fait l'Afrique du Sud (The French People Who Made South Africa). Bartillat. ISBN 2-84100-086-9.
  2. ^ 'Diplomatic' FW to cheer for Dutch
  3. ^ "Frederik en Marike de Klerk vinden hun wortels in Zeeland – Trouw". Trouw.nl. 13 November 1995. http://www.trouw.nl/krantenarchief/1995/11/13/2572116/Frederik_en_Marike_de_Klerk_vinden_hun_wortels_in_Zeeland.html. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
  4. ^ FW de Klerk Reveals Colourful Ancestry
  5. ^ http://www.southafrica.info/about/history/mixedmarriages-genealogy.htm
  6. ^ http://www.sahistory.org.za/people/johannes-jan-de-klerk
  7. ^ A. Kamsteeg, E. Van Dijk, F.W. de Klerk, man of the moment. 1990
  8. ^ http://www.vanrooy.org.za/b3_Jan.html
  9. ^ J. Ball, F.W. de Klerk: the man in his time. 1991
  10. ^ Johnson, Anthony. "Frederik Willem de Klerk: a conservative revolutionary." UNESCO Courier (November 1995): 22(2). Expanded Academic ASAP. Thomson Gale. Brandeis University. 12 March 2007. Thomson Gale Document Number:A17963676
  11. ^ Abrams, Irwin, Nobelstiftelsen. Peace 1991–1995, 1999. Page 71.
  12. ^ Sampson, Anthony; John Battersby (2011). Mandela — The authorised biography. HarperPress. pp. 439–40, 442–4, 478, 485, 511. ISBN 978-0-00-743797-9.
  13. ^ "Country Overviews: South Africa: Nuclear Chronology". NTI. http://www.nti.org/e_research/profiles/SAfrica/Nuclear/2149_3277.html. Retrieved 29 June 2009.[dead link]
  14. ^ "Ex-wife of de Klerk Murdered: S. African Police". People's Daily Online. 6 December 2001. http://english.people.com.cn/200112/06/eng20011206_86069.shtml. Retrieved 18 April 2006.
  15. ^ Crawford-Browne, Terry. "A question of priorities". Peace News Issue 2442. http://www.peacenews.info/issues/2442/244220.html. Retrieved 18 April 2006.
  16. ^ http://www.news24.com/Entertainment/SouthAfrica/FW-balked-at-Marikes-book-20101003
  17. ^ Agi.co.uk. "Welcome to GLF Global Leadership Foundation". G-l-f.org. http://www.g-l-f.org/. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
  18. ^ "HBO History Makers Series: Frederik Willem de Klerk". http://www.cfr.org/publication/7114/hbo_history_makers_series.html?breadcrumb=%2Fregion%2F151%2Fsouthern_africa.
  19. ^ Independent Online. "News – Politics: de Klerk sanguine about SA". Iol.co.za. http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=6&art_id=vn20081203053256125C466613. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
  20. ^ "FW undergoes tumour surgery". 3 June 2006. http://www.news24.com/News24/South_Africa/News/0,,2-7-1442_1944991,00.html. Retrieved 9 June 2006.
  21. ^ "FW de Klerk 'stable'". 9 June 2006. http://www.news24.com/News24/South_Africa/News/0,6119,2-7-1442_1948500,00.html. Retrieved 9 June 2006.
  22. ^ "FW to have tracheotomy". 13 June 2006. http://www.news24.com/News24/South_Africa/News/0,6119,2-7-1442_1950877,00.html. Retrieved 13 June 2006.
  23. ^ "FW de Klerk Foundation Website – Speeches". 11 September 2006. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060822234542/http://www.fwdklerk.org.za/speeches.php. Retrieved 11 September 2006.
  24. ^ a b de Klerk, CNN World Africa, 2006-12-21.
  25. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China; Press Release: H.E Young Sam, Kim, Former President of the Republic of Korea and his delegation arrived in Taiwan". Mofa.gov.tw. 25 January 2007. http://www.mofa.gov.tw/webapp/content.asp?cuItem=25192&mp=6. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
  26. ^ "News – Election 2009: 'Zuma will confound the prophets of doom'". Iol.co.za. http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=3086&art_id=vn20090513051442596C157812. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
  27. ^ Changing the Course of History Description of a March 2011 lecture in Walnut Creek, California
  28. ^ Interview by Stephen Sackur on Hardtalk, broadcast on BBC World Service 18 & 19 April 2012.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Pieter Willem Botha
State President of South Africa
1989–1994
Succeeded by
Nelson Mandela
as President of South Africa
New titleDeputy President of South Africa
1994–1996
Served alongside: Thabo Mbeki
Succeeded by
Thabo Mbeki