Frederick, Maryland

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Frederick, Maryland
City of Frederick
Frederick's C. Burr Artz Public Library in September 2004.
Frederick's C. Burr Artz Public Library in September 2004.
Motto: "The City of Clustered Spires"[1]
Location in Maryland
Location in Maryland
Coordinates: 39°25′35″N 77°25′13″W / 39.42639°N 77.42028°W / 39.42639; -77.42028
Country United States of America
State Maryland
County Frederick
 • MayorRandy McClement (R-MD)
 • Police ChiefThomas Ledwell
 • City59.89 km2 (23.13 sq mi)
 • Land59.41 km2 (22.94 sq mi)
 • Water0.48 km2 (0.19 sq mi)
Elevation92 m (302 ft)
Population (2010)[3]
 • City65,239
 • Estimate (2012[4])66,382
 • Density1,145.5/km2 (2,966.8/sq mi)
 • Metro5,860,342[dubious ]
Time zoneEST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s)301, 240
FIPS code24-30325
GNIS feature ID0584497
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Frederick, Maryland
City of Frederick
Frederick's C. Burr Artz Public Library in September 2004.
Frederick's C. Burr Artz Public Library in September 2004.
Motto: "The City of Clustered Spires"[1]
Location in Maryland
Location in Maryland
Coordinates: 39°25′35″N 77°25′13″W / 39.42639°N 77.42028°W / 39.42639; -77.42028
Country United States of America
State Maryland
County Frederick
 • MayorRandy McClement (R-MD)
 • Police ChiefThomas Ledwell
 • City59.89 km2 (23.13 sq mi)
 • Land59.41 km2 (22.94 sq mi)
 • Water0.48 km2 (0.19 sq mi)
Elevation92 m (302 ft)
Population (2010)[3]
 • City65,239
 • Estimate (2012[4])66,382
 • Density1,145.5/km2 (2,966.8/sq mi)
 • Metro5,860,342[dubious ]
Time zoneEST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s)301, 240
FIPS code24-30325
GNIS feature ID0584497
A view of Catoctin Mountain from the south of Frederick

Frederick is the county seat of Frederick County, the largest county by area in the U.S. state of Maryland. Frederick is a community of the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is part of a greater Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV Combined Statistical Area. The city's population was 65,239 people at the 2010 United States Census, making it the second-largest incorporated city in Maryland, behind only Baltimore.

Frederick is home to Frederick Municipal Airport (IATA: FDK), which primarily accommodates general aviation traffic, and to the U.S. Army's Fort Detrick military installation, the largest employer in the county focusing on multiple bioscience and communications programs.[6]


Colonial era[edit]

“Frederick Town” was laid out by Daniel Dulany — a land speculator — in 1745;[7] it was settled by a German immigrant party led by a young German Reformed schoolmaster from the Rhineland Palatinate named Johann Thomas Schley (d. 1790), who came to the Maryland colony with his wife, Maria Winz. Schley built the first house of the new town; as late as the 20th century, it stood at the northwest corner of Middle Alley and East Patrick Street. The settlement was founded upon a tract of land granted by Dulany on the banks of Carroll Creek. Within three years, the settlement had become the county seat of Frederick County. It is uncertain which Frederick the town was named for, but the likeliest candidates are Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore (one of the proprietors of Maryland[8]), Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales,[9] and Frederick "The Great" of Prussia. Most sources favor Calvert .[citation needed]

The settlers founded a German Reformed Church (today the church is known as Evangelical Reformed Church, UCC), which also served as a public school, in keeping with the German Reformed tradition of sponsoring universal public education. Many Pennsylvania Dutch (ethnic Germans) settled in Frederick as they migrated westward in the late 18th century. Frederick was a stop along the German migration route that led down through the "Great Valley" (Shenandoah Valley, etc.) to the western Piedmont in North Carolina.

The city served as a major crossroads from colonial times. British General Edward Braddock marched west in 1755 through Frederick on the way to the fateful ambush near Fort Duquesne (later Fort Pitt, then Pittsburgh, in Pennsylvania during the French and Indian War. To control this crossroads during the American Revolution, the British garrisoned a German Hessian regiment in the town during the war (the stone, L-shaped "Hessian Barracks" still stand). Afterward, with no way to return to their homeland, the men of the Hessian regiment stayed on and married into the families of the town, strengthening its German identity.[citation needed]

When President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the building of the National Road from Baltimore to St. Louis (eventually built to Vandalia, the territorial capital of Illinois by the 1850s), the "National Pike" ran through Frederick along Patrick Street. (This later became US Route 40.)

Early 19th century[edit]

From these early beginnings, Frederick grew to an important market town, but by the first third of the 19th century, the town had also become one of the leading mining counties of the United States, producing gold, copper, limestone, marble, iron and other minerals. As early as the American Revolution, Catoctin Furnace near Thurmont had been a significant site for iron production.[10] In 1831 the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) completed its Frederick Branch line from the Frederick or Monocacy Junction off the main Western Line from Baltimore westward to Harpers Ferry, Cumberland, the Ohio River, and eventually Chicago and St. Louis by the 1850s.[11]

When the first wave of Irish refugees from the potato famine settled in the city in 1846, one of the leading members of the Schley family married into the Wilson family from Ireland. Consequently, many of the Schleys converted to Catholicism, and residents of Frederick began to speak English for the first time in the town's history — up until then, the language had been German.[citation needed] Frederick was known during the nineteenth century for its religious pluralism, with one of its main thoroughfares, Church Street, hosting half a dozen major churches. The main Catholic church, St. John's, was built in 1800, then rebuilt in 1837 (across the street) one block north of Church Street on East Second Street, where it still stands.[12] Together, these churches dominated the town, set against the backdrop of the first ridge of the Appalachians, Catoctin Mountain. The abolitionist poet John Greenleaf Whittier immortalized this view of Frederick in his poem to Barbara Fritchie: "The clustered spires of Frederick stand / Green-walled by the hills of Maryland."[13]

Civil War[edit]

Confederate troops marching west on East Patrick Street, September 12, 1862

Frederick's status as a major crossroads put the town at the center of the Maryland campaigns of the Civil War, during which both Union and Confederate troops marched through the city. General Stonewall Jackson led his light infantry division through Frederick on his way to the battles of Crampton's, Fox's and Turner's Gaps on South Mountain and Antietam near Sharpsburg, Maryland in September 1862. An incident with Pennsylvania Dutch resident Barbara Fritchie was commemorated in the poem of the same name by John Greenleaf Whittier. Union Major General Jesse L. Reno's IX Corps followed Jackson's men through the city a few days later on the way to the Battle of South Mountain, where Reno was killed. In July 1864, in the third Southern invasion, Confederate troops led by Lieutenant General Jubal Early fought through Frederick towards Washington DC via Monocacy or Frederick Junction. Union troops under Major General Lew Wallace awaited the Confederate advancement at Monocacy Junction which led to the Battle of Monocacy Junction. Slaves escaped from Frederick and the area (since Maryland was still a "slave state" although an unseceeded border state) to join the Union forces, work against the Confederacy and seek freedom.

Sites of historical interest[edit]

1896 print illustrating the legend of Barbara Fritchie.

Several historic Civil War landmarks are located in and around Frederick. It was the site of a Civil War succinct speech given by President Abraham Lincoln, on his way to visit Gen. George McClellan after the Battle of Antietam and South Mountain which he gave at what was then the B. & O. Railroad depot at the current intersection of East All Saints and South Market Streets. A plaque commemorates the speech at what is today the Frederick Community Action Agency, a community Social Services office).

At the Prospect Hall mansion off Jefferson Street to Buckeystown Pike near what is now Butterfly Lane, in the early morning hours of June 28, 1863, a messenger from President Abraham Lincoln and General-in-Chief Henry Halleck arrived to inform General George Meade that he would be replacing General Joseph Hooker after the latter's earlier disaster at Chancellorsville in May. The Army of the Potomac, which was camped around the Prospect Hall property for the last several days in pursuit of Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia prior to Gettysburg, went on to fight several major battles. A large granite rectangular monument made from one of the boulders at the "Devil's Den" in Gettysburg to the east along the driveway commemorates the midnight change-of-command. The National Museum of Civil War Medicine is located downtown on East Patrick Street with many exhibits on the state of medicine and surgery under the extreme war-time strains.

Due west along the National Road, now Alternate U.S. Route 40, and west of Burkittsville, lie the sites of three episodes in the Battle of South Mountain: the battles of Crampton's (September 14, 1862), Fox's, and Turner's Gaps, where Confederate troops under Jackson and Walker unsuccessfully attempted to halt the Federal army's westward advance into the Cumberland Valley and towards Sharpsburg in Washington County. The War Correspondents' Memorial stone arch erected by reporter/editor George Alfred Townsend (1841-1914) can be found at Gathland State Park at Crampton's Gap, just west of Burkittsville. The 1889 memorial by Union soldiers of his IX Corps to the slain Major General Jesse L. Reno lies on the south side of the National Road, Alternate U.S. Route 40, west of Middletown, just below the summit of Fox's Gap on Reno Monument Road, along with a more recent Confederate memorial from 1993 to Brig. Gen. Sameul L. Garland, Jr., who was also killed along with a monument (2005), one-half mile south to North Carolina troops who held the line here.

The Monocacy National Battlefield of 1864 lies just southeast of the city limits, along the Monocacy River at the B. & O. Railroad junction known as "Frederick Junction" or "Monocacy Junction" where two bridges cross the stream - an iron-truss bridge for the railroad and a covered wooden bridge for the Frederick-Urbana-Georgetown Pike, which was the site of the main battle of July 1864. Some skirmishing occurred further north across the Monocacy at the stone-arched "Jug Bridge" for the crossing of the National Road east of Frederick (built 1806) and an artillery bombardment occurred west of town along the National Road near Red Man's Hill where Prospect Hall mansion was sited as the Union troops retreated eastward. Antietam National Battlefield and South Mountain State Battlefield Park of 1862 and Gettysburg National Battlefield of 1863 lie approximately 35 miles (56 km) to the west and northeast, respectively.

The reconstructed home of Barbara Fritchie on West Patrick Street, just past Carroll Creek linear park, who according to legend waved the Stars and Stripes in defiance of Confederate commander Stonewall Jackson and his troops as they marched through downtown Frederick in 1862, stands as another historical site. Though the legend has been generally discredited, it was widely believed during the Civil War and was the subject of an 1864 poem by John Greenleaf Whittier, a poem that remained popular for decades. Barbara Fritchie, a significant figure in Maryland history in her own right, is buried in Frederick's Mount Olivet Cemetery. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill quoted the famous poem to President Franklin D. Roosevelt when they stopped here in 1941 on a car trip to the presidential retreat, then called "Shangra-La" (now "Camp David") on Catoctin Mountain near Thurmont.

All the Civil War sites around Frederick are recently commemorated by illustrated placards on table-style supports of the new "Civil War Trails" system adopted by several eastern states and their tourism agencies including Maryland . These are connected with appropriate brochures and internet websites for further detailed descriptions. (

Late 19th century[edit]

Admiral Winfield Scott Schley (1839-1911) was born at "Richfields", the mansion home of his father. He became an important naval commander of the American fleet on board his flagship and heavy cruiser U.S.S. Baltimore along with Admiral William T. Sampson in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba off the shores of the Spanish island colony of Cuba in the Spanish-American War in 1898. Major Henry Schley's son, Dr. Fairfax Schley, was instrumental in setting up the Frederick County Agricultural Society and the Great Frederick Fair.[14] Gilmer Schley served as Mayor from 1919–1922, and the Schleys remained one of the town's leading families into the late twentieth century. Nathaniel Wilson Schley, a prominent banker, and his wife Mary Margaret Schley helped organize and raise funds for the annual Great Frederick Fair, one of the two largest agricultural fairs in the State. Since the 1960s, the fair has featured many outstanding country-western singers and become a major music festival.[15] Schley Avenue commemorates the family's role in the city's heritage.

The Frederick and Pennsylvania Line railroad ran from Frederick, Md to the Pennsylvania-Maryland State line, or Mason–Dixon line near Kingsdale,PA chartered in 1867, the railroad started construction in 1869 and opened October 8, 1872. It defaulted on its interest payments in 1874 and was subsequently leased to the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1875. In July of that year, PRR formed a new division, the Frederick division to operate the rail line. In the spring of 1896, the Frederick and Pennsylvania Line railroad was liquidated in a judicial sale to the Pennsylvania Railroad for $150,000.

The railroad survived thru mergers and the Penn-Central bankruptcy. The Frederick and Pennsylvania Line was transferred to the State of Maryland in 1982 for unpaid taxes and as of 2013, all but two miles (3.2 km) at the southern terminus at Frederick Md. still exist, operated by either the Walkersville Southern RR, or the Maryland Midland Railway (MMID) railroads.

Jewish pioneers Henry Lazarus and Levy Cohan settled in Frederick in the 1740s as merchants. Mostly German Jewish immigrants organized a community in the mid-19th century, creating the Frederick Hebrew Congregation in 1858. Later the congregation lapsed, but was reorganized in 1917 as a cooperative effort between the older settlers and more recently arrived Eastern European Jews under the name Beth Sholom Congregation.

In 1905, Rev. E.B. Hatcher started the First Baptist Church of Frederick.

After the Civil War, the Maryland legislature established racially segregated public facilities by the end of the 19th century, re-imposing white supremacy. Black institutions were typically underfunded in the state, and it was not until 1921 that Frederick established a public high school for African Americans. First located at 170 West All Saints Street, it moved to 250 Madison Street, where it eventually was adapted as South Frederick Elementary. The building presently houses the Lincoln Elementary School.

Notable houses[edit]

Possibly the oldest house in the city of Frederick is Schifferstadt, built in 1756 by German settler Joseph Brunner. It is now the Schifferstadt Architectural Museum.

In 1814, Dr. John Tyler built what is called the Tyler Spite House at 112 W. Church Street in Frederick to prevent the city from extending Record Street south through Tyler's land to meet West Patrick Street.[16][17]


Carroll Creek running through Baker Park, with the Joseph Dill Baker Carillon in the background

Frederick is located in Frederick County in the northern part of the state of Maryland, and is occasionally considered part of Western Maryland. The city has served as a major crossroads since colonial times. Today it is located at the junction of Interstate 70, Interstate 270, U.S. Route 340, U.S. Route 40, U.S. Route 40 Alternate and U.S. Route 15 (which runs north-south). In relation to nearby cities, Frederick lies 46 miles (74 km) west of Baltimore, 49 miles (79 km) north and slightly west of Washington, D.C., 24 miles (39 km) southeast of Hagerstown, Maryland, and 71 miles (114 km) southwest of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The city's coordinates 39°25'35" North, 77°25'13" West (39.426294, -77.420403).[18]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 23.13 square miles (59.91 km2), of which, 22.94 square miles (59.41 km2) is land and 0.19 square miles (0.49 km2) is water.[2] The city's area is predominantly land, with small areas of water being the Monocacy River, which runs to the east of the city, Carroll Creek (which runs through the city and causes periodic floods, such as that during the summer of 1972 and fall of 1976), as well as several neighborhood ponds and small city owned lakes, such as Culler Lake, a man-made small body of water in the downtown area.[citation needed]


Historical population
Est. 201266,3821.8%
U.S. Decennial Census
2012 estimate

2010 census[edit]

As of the 2010 U.S. census[19], there were 65,239 people residing in Frederick city and roughly 27,000 households. The city's population grew by 23.6% in the ten years since the 2000 census, making it the fastest growing incorporated area in the state of Maryland with a population of over 50,000 for 2010.[citation needed]

2010 census data put the racial makeup of the city at 61% White, 18.6% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 5.8% Asian American, and 14.4% Hispanic or Latino of any race. Roughly 4% of the city’s population was of two or more races.

In regard to minority group growth, the 2010 census data show the city's Hispanic population at 9,402, a 271 percent increase compared with 2,533 in 2000, making Hispanics/Latinos the fastest growing race group in the city and in Frederick county (267 percent increase). Frederick city had 3,800 Asian residents in 2010, a 128 percent increase from the city's 1,664 Asian residents in 2000. The city's black or African-American population increased 56 percent, from 7,777 in 2000 to 12,144 in 2010.[20]

For the roughly 27,000 households in the city, 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.7% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41% were non-families. Approximately 31% of all households were made up of individuals living alone and 8.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.11.

2009 American Community Survey[edit]

As of 2009, 27.5% of the city’s population was under the age of 19, 24.5% were between 20 and 34, 28.1% were between 35 and 54, 9.0% were between 55 and 64, and 10.5% were 65 years of age or older. The median age of a Frederick city resident for 2009 was 34 years. For adults aged 18 or older, the population was 48.6% male and 51.4% female.[21]

According to U.S. census data for 2009, the median annual income for a household in Frederick city was $64,833, and the median annual income for a family was $77,642. Males had a median annual income of $49,129 versus $41,986 for females. The per capita income for the city was $31,123. Approximately 7.7% of the total population, 5.3% of families, and 5.2% of adults aged 65 and older were living below the poverty line. The unemployment rate in the city for adults over the age of 18 was 5.1%.

In regard to educational attainment for individuals aged 25 or older as of 2009, 34% of the city's residents had a bachelor's or advanced professional degree, 29.6% had some college or an associate's degree, 21.6% had a high school diploma or equivalency, 6.8% had between a 9th and 12th grade level of education, and 3.6% had an 8th grade or lower level of education.

The median value of a home in Frederick city as of 2009 was $303,900, with the bulk of owner-occupied homes valued at between $300,000 and $500,000. The median cost of a rental unit was $1,054 per month, with the bulk of rental units priced between $1,000 and $1,500 per month. The value of the housing stock in Frederick is above the national average and significantly higher than small nearby cities such as Hagerstown, MD and Harrisburg, PA.[22][dubious ] This discrepancy likely reflects Frederick’s location as a desirable and growing commuter suburb of Washington, DC (and related areas in Montgomery County MD such as Bethesda), one of the most expensive housing and rental markets in the nation.[23][dubious ]

2009 census data indicated that roughly 89% of the workforce commuted to work by automobile, with an average commute time of approximately 30 minutes.[24] This suggests that a substantial portion of those residing in Frederick city are, in fact, commuting out of the county for work.[citation needed]


City executive[edit]

The current mayor of Frederick is Randy McClement. Previous mayors include:

  • Lawrence Brengle (1817)
  • Hy Kuhn (1818–1820)
  • George Baer, Jr. (1820–1823)
  • John L. Harding (1823–1826)
  • George Kolb (1826–1829)
  • Thomas Carlton (mayor)|Thomas Carlton]] (1829–1835)
  • Daniel Kolb (1835–1838)
  • Michael Baltzell (1838–1841)
  • George Hoskins (1841–1847)
  • M. E. Bartgis (1847–1849)
  • James Bartgis (1849–1856)
  • Lewis Brunner (1856–1859)
  • W. G. Cole (1859–1865)
  • J. Engelbrecht (1865–1868)
  • Valerius Ebert (1868–1871)
  • Thomas M. Holbruner (1871–1874)
  • Lewis M. Moberly (1874–1883)
  • Hiram Bartgis (1883–1889)
  • Lewis H. Doll (1889–1890)
  • Lewis Brunner (1890–1892)
  • John E. Fleming (1892–1895)
  • Aquilla R. Yeakle (1895–1898)
  • William F. Chilton (1898–1901)
  • George Edward Smith (1901–1910)
  • John Edward Schell (1910–1913)
  • Lewis H. Fraley (1913–1919)
  • Gilmer Schley (1919–1922)
  • Lloyd C. Culler (1922–1931)
  • Elmer F. Munshower (1931–1934)
  • Lloyd C. Culler (1934–1943)
  • Hugh V. Gittinger (1943–1946)
  • Lloyd C. Culler (1946–1950)
  • Elmer F. Munshower (1950–1951)
  • Donald B. Rice (1951–1954)
  • John A. Derr (1954–1958)
  • Jacob R. Ramsburg (1958–1962)
  • E. Paul Magaha (1962–1966)
  • John A. Derr (1966–1970)
  • E. Paul Magaha (1970–1974)
  • Ronald N. Young (1974–1990)
  • Paul P. Gordon (1990–1994)
  • James S. Grimes (1994–2002)
  • Jennifer Dougherty (2002–2006)
  • W. Jeff Holtzinger (2006–2009)
  • Randy McClement (2009–Present)
City Hall in Frederick
Fountain in Frederick

Representative body[edit]

Frederick has a Board of Aldermen of six members (one of whom is the mayor) which serves as its legislative body. Elections are held every 4 years. The current board was elected November 3, 2009, and consists of Shelley Aloi, Carol Krimm, Michael O'Connor, Kelly Russell, and Karen Young. The most recent elections were held on November 5, 2013. Democrats Kelly Russell, Michael O'Connor, Josh Bokee, and Donna Kuzemchak were elected along with Republican Philip Dacey. Republican Randy McClement was reelected Mayor.[25]


The city has its own police department.


According to the City's 2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[26] the top employers in the city are:

#Employer# of Employees
1Fort Detrick10,000
2Frederick County Board of Education5,538
3Frederick Memorial Healthcare System2,800
4Frederick County Government2,130
5Wells Fargo Home Mortgage1,881
6Leidos Biomedical Research (formerly SAIC - Frederick) / National Cancer Institute-Frederick1,800
7Frederick Community College899
8Frederick City Government852
9United Health Care832
10State Farm Insurance793

Frederick's relative proximity to Washington, DC has always been an important factor in the development of its local economy and has greatly affected its growth, particularly in recent years. More recently, its economy has been influenced by it being a center for cancer research, as evidenced by the presence of Fort Detrick, its main employer. Its economy is also strongly influenced by several other industries, including education, government, health care, mortgage and insurance, banking, science and engineering, tourism, transportation, retail, and construction.

Frederick is the home of Riverside Research Park, a large biomedical research park being developed on Frederick's east side. Current tenants include relocated offices of the National Cancer Institute (Fort Detrick) as well as Charles River Labs. As a result of continued and enhanced Federal Government investment, the Frederick area will likely maintain a continued growth pattern over the next decade.[27] Frederick has also been impacted by recent national trends centered on the gentrification of the downtown areas of cities across the nation (particularly in the northeast and mid-Atlantic), and to re-brand them as sites for cultural consumption.

Frederick's historic downtown houses more than 200 retailers, restaurants and antique shops along Market, Patrick and East streets.[28] Restaurants feature a diverse array of cuisines, including Italian American, Thai, Vietnamese, and Cuban, as well as a number of regionally recognized dining establishments, such as Volt and The Tasting Room. Outside of the downtown area are garden variety chain dining establishments that comprise a typical suburban landscape (Famous Dave's BBQ; The Olive Garden; Red Lobster; Denny's; etc.) as well as several independently owned restaurants.

In addition to retail and dining, downtown Frederick is home to 600 businesses and organizations totaling nearly 5,000 employees. A growing technology sector can be found in downtown’s historic renovated spaces, as well as in new office buildings located along Carroll Creek Park. Carroll Creek Park began as a flood control project in the late 1970s.[28] It was an effort to reduce the risk to downtown Frederick from the 100-year floodplain and restore economic vitality to the historic commercial district. Today, more than $150 million in private investing is underway or planned in new construction, infill development or historic renovation in the park area.[28]

The first phase of the Park improvements, totaling nearly $11 million in construction, run from Court Street to just past Carroll Street.[28] New elements to the Park include brick pedestrian paths, water features, planters with shade trees and plantings, pedestrian bridges and a 350-seat amphitheater for outdoor performances.

A recreational and cultural resource, Carroll Creek Park also serves as an economic development catalyst, with private investment along the creek functioning as a key component to the park’s success. More than 400,000 sf of office space; 150,000 sf of commercial/retail space; nearly 300 residential units; and more than 2,000 parking spaces are planned or under construction.

Completed projects include:

(1) Creekside Plaza, a 90,000 sf office/commercial/residential building on the northeast corner of Court Street along Carroll Creek. This building is home to The Green Turtle and Wells Fargo Bank on the first floor, three floors of office space which is home to Warner Construction, R&J Builders, America East Mortgage, United Title Services, LLC. and, Real Estate Teams. The top two floors house 11 residential condominiums.

(2) The new South Market Center, on the north side of the creek between Market Street and Carroll Street. The 3-story, 43,000+ sf building offers 2 floors of office condominiums and ground floor retail and restaurant space offering outside patio seating. Office tenants occupy the upper two floors and Ben & Jerry’s, Five Guys Hamburgers, Hinode Japanese Restaurant & The Wine Kitchen are on the ground floor.

On the first Saturday of every month, Frederick hosts an evening event in the downtown area called "First Saturday." Each Saturday has a theme, and activities are planned around those themes in the downtown area (particularly around the Carroll Creek Promenade). The event spans a 10-block area of Frederick and takes place from 5-9 PM. During the late spring, summer, and early fall months, this event draws particularly large crowds from neighboring cities and towns in Maryland, and nearby locations in the tri-state area (Virginia and Pennsylvania). The average number of attendees visiting downtown Frederick during first Saturday events is around 11,000, with higher numbers from May to October.[29]



A panorama of downtown Frederick along North Court Street.
The Community Bridge mural.

Frederick is well known for the "clustered spires" skyline of its historic downtown churches. These spires are depicted on the city's seal and many other city-affiliated logos and insignia.

Another view of downtown Frederick

The housing stock of downtown Frederick is mostly composed of 19th and 20th-century row housing and duplexes.[citation needed] The scale of this older part of the city is dense, with streets and sidewalks suitable for pedestrians, and a variety of shops and restaurants, comprising what Forbes magazine in 2010 called one of the United States' "Greatest Neighborhoods".[30] Adjacent to downtown are many older communities composed of larger, detached housing built mostly in the early 20th century.[citation needed] Beyond that is housing from the mid-20th century and beyond, becoming suburban in character the further one travels out. The most extensive growth is to the south of the downtown area, including the business corridor along Maryland highway 85 (Buckeystown Pike) outside the city.

Frederick has a bridge painted with a mural titled Community Bridge. The artist William Cochran has been acclaimed for the trompe l'oeil realism of the mural. Thousands of people sent ideas representing "community", which he painted on the stonework of the bridge. The residents of Frederick call it "the mural", "painted bridge", or more commonly, the "mural bridge".[31]


The Frederick Arts Council is the designated arts organization for Frederick County. The organization is charged with promoting, supporting, and advocating the arts. There are over ten art galleries in downtown Frederick, and three theaters are located within 50 feet of each other (Cultural Arts Center, Weinberg Center for the Arts, and the Maryland Ensemble Theatre). Frederick is the home of The Delaplaine Visual Arts Education Center, a leading non-profit in the region,[32] as well as the Maryland Shakespeare Festival.

In August 2007, the streets of Frederick were adorned with 30 life-size fiberglass keys as part of a major public art project entitled "The Keys to Frederick". In October 2007, artist William Cochran created a large-scale glass project titled The Dreaming. The project is in the historic theater district, across from the Wienberg Center for the Arts.[33]

The movie Blair Witch Project (1999) was set in the woods west of Burkittsville, Maryland, in western Frederick County, but it was not filmed there.


The Maryland Ensemble Theatre (MET), a professional theater company, is housed on the lower level of the Francis Scott Key Hotel. The MET first produced mainstage theater in 1997, but the group began performing together with its creation of The Comedy Pigs sketch comedy/improv troupe in April 1993.[34]


Frederick has a community orchestra, the Frederick Symphony Orchestra, that performs five concerts per year consisting of classical masterpieces. Other musical organizations in Frederick include the Frederick Chorale, the Choral Arts Society of Frederick, the Frederick Regional Youth Orchestra, and the Frederick Symphonic Band. The Frederick Children's Chorus has performed since 1985. It is a five-tier chorus, with approximately 150 members ranging in age from 5 to 18.

A weekly recital is played on the Joseph Dill Baker Carillon each Sunday at noon for half an hour. The carillon can be heard from anywhere in Baker Park, and the City Carillonneur can be seen playing in the tower, which is open each week at that time.

Frederick is home to the Frederick School of Classical Ballet, the official school for Maryland Regional Ballet. Approximately 30 dance studios are located around the city. Each year, these studios perform at the annual DanceFest event.

Frederick also has a large amphitheatre in Baker Park, which features regular music performances of local and national acts, particularly in the summer months.

Frederick was home to defunct indie-rock band Silent Old Mtns.


The city's main mall is Francis Scott Key Mall.

Cultural organizations[edit]

Frederick organizations include the Peace Resource Center of Frederick County, a chapter of Women in Black, and the Frederick Progressive Action Coalition or FredPac.

The UNESCO Center for Peace has been working since 2004 in the city and around the state to promote the ideals of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The O Center for Peace is partner to County's Public Schools, Hood College, Frederick Community College, Maryland School for The Deaf (MSD), Frederick County Public Libraries, on a variety of community projects that include various after-school programs, Ambassador Speaker Series, Regional Model United Nations, International Model United Nations, celebrations of major United Nations International Days, the Frederick Stamp Festival, and exchange programs for high school and college-level students and schools.


There are numerous religious denominations in Frederick: the first churches were established by early Protestant settlers, followed by Irish Catholics and other European Catholics.

St. Paul African Methodist Episcopal Church in Della, is one of the oldest active African American Churches in Frederick County, Maryland.[citation needed] Saint Paul AME Church started in the Black communities of Della and Greenfield Mills.[citation needed] Members of the communities were attending the Methodist Church in Point of Rocks or the Catholic Church in Buckeystown, but these churches were too far away to be easily accessible.[citation needed]

Around 1898 services were held in the homes of various members and the Church then organized as The Della Mission.[citation needed] They were granted the use of a privately owned hall in Greenfield, where Reverend Edwards served as pastor. It is speculated that the affiliation with the African Methodist Episcopal Conference began at this time.[who?] Eventually the hall was sold and services were held in the home of church member, Richard Harris.[citation needed]

By 1908, the Della Mission African Methodist Episcopal Church was formed and purchased a half-acre of land from Nathan and Agnes Bell.[citation needed] The deed to the property was recorded on October 26, 1908. Trustees were Nathan Bell, Frank Chase, Charles Naylor, William Simms, and Hacklus Williams.[citation needed]

In Frederick City proper, Lutheran, Evangelical (German) Reformed, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic (East Second Street), Methodist (West Second Street), Episcopal Church (United States) and United Church of Christ (Congregationalist) churches predominate.[citation needed] Mount Olivet Cemetery is the largest[citation needed] cemetery in the City and is Roman Catholic. Maryland was originally founded as a Catholic colony by Cecil Calvert, a Roman Catholic supporter of England's King Charles I. Frederick County also retains ties to the Pennsylvania Dutch and some Old Order Amish cultivate land as small-scale truck farmers.[citation needed] Other denominations represented in Frederick City and in the surrounding county include large numbers of Brethren, as well as some Pentecostal churches.[35] Quinn Chapel, of the African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church, is located on East Third Street. The AME Church, founded in Philadelphia in the early 19th century by free blacks, is the first black independent denomination in the United States.[36] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) has had a presence in Frederick since the 1970s when the first congregation was organized and now includes four congrations in two buildings within the City.[37]

Beth Sholom Congregation, an unaffiliated synagogue, has been in Frederick since 1917. Congregation Kol Ami, a Reform synagogue, was founded in 2003.

The Islamic Society of Frederick, founded in the early 1990s, serves Frederick's Muslim community.[38]



Frederick is licensed one Maryland Public Television station affiliate: WFPT 62 (PBS/MPT).


The city is home to WWFD/820 (the former WZYQ/1370), relaying WFED/1500; WFMD/930AM broadcasting a News/Talk/Sports format; WFRE/99.9 broadcasting Country Music; and WAFY/103.1 which has an Adult Contemporary format. The following box details all of the radio stations in the local market.


Frederick's newspaper of record is The Frederick News-Post.



C. Burr Artz Public Library

Public schools[edit]

Frederick County Public Schools (FCPS) operates area public schools.

FCPS ranks number 1 in the state of Maryland in the 2012 School Progress Index accountability data, which includes overall student performance, closing achievement gaps, student growth and college and career readiness.[citation needed] FCPS holds the lowest dropout rate in the state of Maryland at just 5.05%,[citation needed] FCPS also holds the 3rd highest graduation rate at 91.5%.[citation needed] In 2013 FCPS's SAT average combined mean score was 1538,[citation needed] which is 55 points higher than Maryland’s combined average of 1483[citation needed] and 40 points higher than the nation’s average of 1498.[citation needed] 8 of FCPS's high schools are ranked in the top 10% of the nation for encouraging students to take AP classes[citation needed] [4] *Excludes Oakdale High School, was not open to all grade levels at the time

High schools serving Frederick City students:

Other high schools in Frederick County:

Other public schools: Adult Education, Career and Technology Center, Heather Ridge School, Outdoor School, Rock Creek School, and The Earth and Space Science Laboratory. Frederick County was long-time home to a highly innovative outdoor school for all sixth graders in Frederick County.[39] This school was located at Camp Greentop, near the presidential retreat at Camp David and Cunningham Falls State Park.[39]

Private K-8 schools[edit]

K-12 schools[edit]

Private high schools[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]


Frederick's location as a crossroads has been a factor in its development as a minor distribution center both for the movement of people in Western Maryland, as well as goods. This intersection has created an efficient distribution network for commercial traffic and movement in and out, as well as through the city.

Major roads and streets in Frederick are intersected by Interstate 70, and Interstate 270, as well as U.S. Route 15 and U.S. Route 340.

From 1896 to 1961, Frederick was served by the Hagerstown & Frederick Railway, an interurban trolley service that was among the last surviving systems of its kind in the United States.

Currently, the city is served by MARC commuter rail service, which operates several trains daily on the old B&O line to Washington, D.C.; Express bus route 991, which operates to the Shady Grove Metrorail Station, and a series of buses operated by TransIT services of Frederick, Maryland. Greyhound Lines, and Megabus (North America) also serve the city.[citation needed]

Frederick has an airport with a mile-long runway and a second 3600' runway.[41] It is the home airport of the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association due to its proximity to Washington and ability to handle small twin engine jets.[citation needed]

In recent years, Frederick has invested in several urban infrastructure projects,[42] including a circular road known as Monocacy Boulevard, which is also becoming an important component to the revitalization of its historic core.[43]

Notable people[edit]


  1. ^ "City of Frederick". City of Frederick. Retrieved August 25, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2013". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-02-5. 
  3. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  4. ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  5. ^ By Patti S. Borda and Bethany Rodgers (09/07/12). "City grows by 552 acres". Archives. Frederick News Post. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  6. ^ [1]|work= Comprehensive Annual Financial Report|author=Department of Finance|publisher=City of Frederick, Maryland|page=87|accessdate=24 September 2012
  7. ^ See for example the Overall history of Frederick, pp 2-6.
  8. ^ "Fort Frederick State Park History". Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original on 2007-10-05. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  9. ^ "Frederick, Maryland". Maryland Municipal League. Retrieved 2007-10-09. 
  10. ^ J. Thomas Scharf, History of Western Maryland, Vol. I, Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1882, p. 629.
  11. ^ Dilts, James D. (1996). The Great Road: The Building of the Baltimore and Ohio, The Nation's First Railroad, 1828-1853. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-8047-2629-0. 
  12. ^ "St. John the Evangelist, Roman Catholic Church – Frederick, Maryland". Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  13. ^ Dana, Charles Anderson, ed. (1879). The Household Book of Poetry. D. Appleton. pp. 381–382. 
  14. ^ J. Thomas Scharf, History of Western Maryland, Vol. I, Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1882, pp. 418-19
  15. ^ The Great Frederick Fair Official Website
  16. ^ Williams, N. "This Maryland House was built just for spite", Los Angeles Times, 29 April 1990
  17. ^ "A Matter of Spite", Frederick News Post
  18. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  19. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  20. ^ "Racial, ethnic groups grow in city, county". Frederick News Post. Retrieved 2011-03-27. 
  21. ^ "Frederick city, Maryland ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2005-2009 Data Set: 2005-2009 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Survey: American Community Survey". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-03-27. 
  22. ^ "City Data: Frederick, Maryland". Retrieved 2011-04-06. 
  23. ^ "City Data: Washington, DC". Retrieved 2011-04-06. 
  24. ^ "Selected Economic Characteristics: 2005-2009 Data Set: 2005-2009 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Survey: American Community Survey". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-03-27. 
  25. ^ [2]
  26. ^ [3]|work= Comprehensive Annual Financial Report|author=Department of Finance|publisher=City of Frederick, Maryland|accessdate=6 November 2013
  27. ^ "Riverside Research Park/National Cancer Institute". Retrieved 2011-09-07. 
  28. ^ a b c d "Economic Development: Carroll Creek Park". Retrieved 2011-03-27. 
  29. ^ "First Saturday Attendee Profile Study". Retrieved 2011-03-27. 
  30. ^ Wingfield, Brian (2010-11-03). "America's Best Neighborhoods 2010". Forbes. 
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^ "About MET". Maryland Ensemble Theatre. Retrieved July 26, 2010. 
  35. ^
  36. ^,+Maryland&fb=1&gl=us&hq=Churches+of&hnear=Frederick,+MD&view=text&ei=JN0JTMCBHI72Mqn1-bUE&sa=X&oi=local_group&ct=more-results&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQtQMwAA
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^ a b
  40. ^
  41. ^ "Airport Information". Frederick Airport Association. Retrieved 29 March 2013. 
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^ Nassour, Ellis, Honky Tonk Angel: The Intimate Story Of Patsy Cline. St. Martin's, 1994. Pp. 35, 118.
  46. ^
  47. ^ O’Conner, Thomas H. "Breaking the religious barrier", The Boston Globe, Boston, 10 May 2004.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 39°25′35″N 77°25′13″W / 39.426294°N 77.420403°W / 39.426294; -77.420403