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Franklin D. Roosevelt's paralytic illness began in 1921 at age 39, when he got a fever after exercising heavily during a vacation in Canada. While Roosevelt's bout with illness was well known during his terms as President of the United States, the extent of his paralysis was kept from public view. After his death, his illness and paralysis became a major part of his image. He was diagnosed with poliomyelitis two weeks after he fell ill. A 2003 retrospective study favored a diagnosis of Guillain–Barré syndrome, a conclusion criticized by other researchers.
In August 1921, at the age of 39, while vacationing at Campobello Island in Canada, Roosevelt contracted an illness characterized by fever; protracted symmetric, ascending paralysis of the upper and lower extremities; facial paralysis; bladder and bowel dysfunction; numbness; and dysesthesia. The symptoms gradually resolved except for paralysis of the lower extremities.
A peer-reviewed study published in 2003, using Bayesian analysis, found that six of eight posterior probabilities favored a diagnosis of Guillain–Barré syndrome over poliomyelitis. For the purposes of the Bayesian analysis in the 2003 study, a best estimate of the annual incidence of Guillain–Barré syndrome was 1.3 per 100,000. For paralytic poliomyelitis in Roosevelt's age group, the best estimate of the annual incidence was 2.3 per 100,000.
Based on the incidence rates for Guillain–Barré syndrome and paralytic polio, and the symptom probabilities for eight key symptoms in Roosevelt's paralytic illness, six of the eight key symptoms favored Guillain–Barré syndrome:
Two of the eight key symptoms favored polio:
However, there are several aspects in discordance with this retrospective diagnosis. Guillain–Barré Syndrome was first described 5 years earlier in 1916, in Europe, and was not generally recognized in the United States. Dr. Lovett, a physician specialized in causes of infantile paralysis, nevertheless diagnosed polio based on a first-hand examination of the patient. Additionally, two of eight posterior probabilities in the Bayesian analysis favored poliomyelitis over Guillain–Barré Syndrome. FDR had an elevated fever up to 102 Fahrenheit, which is rare in GBS. Additionally he had permanent paralysis which occurs in approximately fifty percent of polio survivors, whereas it occurs in only fifteen percent of cases of GBS. Furthermore, the onset of disease following a day of strenuous exercise and the eventual asymmetric paralysis of Roosevelt's legs and arms is consistent with a study showing that motor neurons innervating muscles vigorously at the start of polio are those most likely to become paralyzed. It is likely FDR would have been especially vulnerable to polio since he was raised on an isolated estate at Hyde Park, New York, and had little contact with other children until he entered Groton at age fourteen. The gold standard for poliomyelitis diagnosis is made by analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid, which unfortunately was not done in FDR's case.
Roosevelt was totally and permanently paralyzed from the waist down. Fitting his hips and legs with iron braces, he laboriously taught himself to walk a short distance by swiveling his torso while supporting himself with a cane. Despite the lack of a cure for paralysis, for the rest of his life Roosevelt refused to accept that he was permanently paralyzed. He tried a wide range of therapies, but none had any effect. Nevertheless, he became convinced of the benefits of hydrotherapy, and in 1926 he bought a resort at Warm Springs, Georgia, where he founded a hydrotherapy center for the treatment of polio patients which still operates as the Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation, with an expanded mission.
Before his paralysis Roosevelt had weighed 170 pounds, thin for a man 6'2" tall, and had suffered many illnesses. The loss of his legs and two inches of height, and the consequent development of the rest of his body, gave Roosevelt a robust physique—Jack Dempsey praised his upper-body musculature, and he once landed a 237-pound shark after fighting it on his line for two hours—and many years of excellent health.:219,241–242,266–267
After he became President, he helped to found the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, now known as the March of Dimes. The March of Dimes initially focused on the rehabilitation of victims of paralytic polio, and supported the work of Jonas Salk and others that led to the development of polio vaccines. Today, the Foundation focuses on preventing premature birth, birth defects and infant mortality.
Roosevelt was able to convince many people that he was in fact getting better, which he believed was essential if he was to run for public office again. In private he used a wheelchair. But he was careful never to be seen in it in public, although he sometimes appeared on crutches. He usually appeared in public standing upright, while being supported on one side by an aide or one of his sons. For major speaking occasions, an especially solid lectern was placed on the stage so that he could support himself on it; as a result, in films of his speeches Roosevelt can be observed using his head to make gestures, because his hands were usually gripping the lectern. He would occasionally raise one hand to gesture, but his other hand held the lectern.
Roosevelt was very rarely photographed while sitting in his wheelchair, and his public appearances were choreographed to avoid the press covering his arrival and departure at public events, which would have shown him getting into or out of a car. When possible, his limousine was driven into a building's parking garage for his arrivals and departures. On other occasions, his limo would be driven onto a ramp to avoid steps, which Roosevelt was unable to ascend. When that was not practical, the steps would be covered with a ramp with railings, with Roosevelt using his arms to pull himself upward. Likewise, when traveling by train as he often did, Roosevelt often appeared on the rear platform of the presidential railroad car. When he boarded or disembarked, the private car was sometimes shunted to an area of the railroad yard away from the public for reasons of security and privacy. A private rail siding underneath the Waldorf Astoria was also used. When Roosevelt's trains used a ramp and the president was on a publicly known trip, he insisted on walking on the ramp no matter how difficult. In 1940 an elevator was installed.:140
When Roosevelt gave a speech on March 1, 1945 to Congress about the Yalta Conference he spoke sitting down, and said that doing so "makes it a lot easier for me not to have to carry about ten pounds of steel around on the bottom of my legs". One biographer has written that the speech, a month before his death, was "almost for the first time in twenty years" that he mentioned his disability in public.:363 In keeping with social customs of the time, the media generally treated Roosevelt's disability as taboo. News stories did not mention it, and editorial cartoonists, favorable and unfavorable, never caricatured his immobility. Many people, including world leaders, were unaware of his paralysis.:239 David Brinkley, who was a young White House reporter in World War II, stated that the Secret Service actively interfered with photographers who tried to take pictures of Roosevelt in a wheelchair or being moved about by others. However, there were occasional exceptions.