Frank Ocean

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Frank Ocean

Ocean in 2011
Background information
Birth nameChristopher Breaux
Born(1987-10-28) October 28, 1987 (age 25)
Long Beach, California
OriginNew Orleans, Louisiana
GenresR&B[1][2][3]
OccupationsSinger-songwriter[3]
InstrumentsVocals, keyboards
Years active2007 – present
LabelsOdd Future Records, Def Jam, The Island Def Jam Music Group
Associated actsOdd Future, Kanye West, Jay-Z
Websitefrankocean.com
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Frank Ocean

Ocean in 2011
Background information
Birth nameChristopher Breaux
Born(1987-10-28) October 28, 1987 (age 25)
Long Beach, California
OriginNew Orleans, Louisiana
GenresR&B[1][2][3]
OccupationsSinger-songwriter[3]
InstrumentsVocals, keyboards
Years active2007 – present
LabelsOdd Future Records, Def Jam, The Island Def Jam Music Group
Associated actsOdd Future, Kanye West, Jay-Z
Websitefrankocean.com

Christopher Francis Ocean (born Christopher Breaux; October 28, 1987), better known by his stage name Frank Ocean, is an American singer-songwriter from New Orleans, Louisiana. Ocean's early career was as a ghostwriter for artists such as Brandy, Justin Bieber, and John Legend. In 2010, he became a member of alternative hip hop collective OFWGKTA, and his debut mixtape, Nostalgia, Ultra, was released the following year to critical acclaim. He released two singles: "Novacane" and 'Swim Good", which both achieved chart success. The mixtape gained the interest of recording artists such as Kanye West, Beyoncé Knowles and Jay-Z, and he consequently appeared on West and Jay-Z's Watch the Throne album.

In 2012, the BBC announced that Ocean finished second place in its Sound of 2012 poll.[4] Ocean appeared at the Coachella Festival as well as at Lollapalooza at the end of his 2012 summer tour.[5]

His debut studio album, Channel Orange, was released in July 2012 as a digital download exclusively on iTunes, one week ahead of its scheduled full release. The album was promoted with three charting singles: "Thinkin Bout You," "Pyramids," and "Sweet Life." Ocean wrote an open letter, intended for the liner notes on Channel Orange, that would preemptively address "speculation about his same-sex attraction,"[6] he instead blogged it on Tumblr.[7][8] Ocean became one of the first major African-American music artists to announce that he had fallen in love with someone of the same sex, notable because the industry is known for expressions of homophobia.[9][10]

Contents

Early life

Ocean was born Christopher "Lonny" Breaux on October 28, 1987, in Long Beach, California.[11] When he was around five years old, he and his family moved to New Orleans, Louisiana.[11] He grew up around its local jazz scene and listened to his mother's CDs on her car stereo, including albums by Celine Dion, Anita Baker, and The Phantom of the Opera soundtrack.[3] As a teenager, he did neighborhood chores and saved up money to rent studio time.[3] As he recalled, "Oh man I had numerous hustles [...] Washing cars was one of them, and mowing lawns and walking dogs."[3] He enrolled in the University of New Orleans and moved into its dormitory in 2005.[3]

Career

2005–10: Beginnings in Los Angeles

In 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit Ocean's hometown of New Orleans and his recording facility was looted and destroyed by floodwater.[12] To continue recording music, he moved to Los Angeles and intended to stay for six weeks.[3][12] However, after acclimating himself with music industry circles, Ocean planned to stay longer and develop his music career.[12] He recorded demos at a friend's studio and shopped them around Los Angeles.[3] After getting a songwriting deal, he started working with other record producers and writing songs for artists such as Justin Bieber, John Legend, and Brandy.[3][12] Ocean later said of his work at the time, "There was a point where I was composing for other people, and it might have been comfy to continue to do that and enjoy that income stream and the anonymity. But that's not why I moved away from school and away from family."[12]

After meeting them in 2009 through networking, Ocean joined the Los Angeles-based hip hop collective OFWGKTA, also known as Odd Future.[13][14] His friendship with Odd Future member Tyler, The Creator reinvigorated Ocean's songwriting.[15] In late 2009, he met Tricky Stewart, who helped him sign a contract with Def Jam Recordings as a solo artist, though he was initially unable to build a relationship with the company.[14][16][17] In 2010, through a legal website, he changed his name from Christopher Breaux to Christopher Francis Ocean,[14] which was inspired partly by the 1960 film Ocean's 11.[15]

2011–present: Nostalgia, Ultra and Channel Orange

Ocean performing at the Coachella Festival in 2012

Ocean has written songs for Justin Bieber, John Legend, Brandy,[14] and Beyoncé Knowles.[18][19] He has also worked with artists such as Nas[20][21] and Pharrell Williams.[22] On February 18, 2011, Ocean released his first mixtape, Nostalgia, Ultra, to critical acclaim.[14][17] The mixtape focuses on interpersonal relationships, personal reflection and social commentary.[14] NPR's Andrew Noz said Ocean's songwriting is "smart and subtle...setting him apart from the pack."[23] Rolling Stone magazine's Jonah Weiner wrote that Ocean was a "gifted avant-R&B smoothie".[24] In April 2011, Ocean stated that his relationship with Def Jam strengthened since the release of the mixtape.[13]

Ocean first appeared in Tyler, The Creator's music video for the single "She", from Tyler's second studio album Goblin (2011).[25][26] His first performance was in collaboration with Odd Future at the 2011 Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival, where he later joined them for their first tour across the east coast of the United States.[27] On May 19, 2011 Ocean's record label Def Jam announced its plans to re-release Nostalgia, Ultra as an EP.[28] The single 'Novacane' was released to iTunes in May 2011, and the EP originally was set to be released the next month, but was delayed.[29][30] In June 2011, Ocean revealed that he would be working on the upcoming Kanye West and Jay-Z collaborative album, Watch the Throne.[31] Ocean co-wrote and featured on two tracks: "No Church in the Wild" and "Made in America".[32][33]

On July 28, 2011, a song titled 'Thinking About You', leaked on the internet.[34] It was later revealed the song was a reference track, written by Ocean, for Roc Nation artist Bridget Kelly's debut studio album.[35] Kelly renamed the song 'Thinking About Forever'.[36] In September 2011, a music video directed by High5Collective for Ocean's version was released, yet the song still appeared on Kelly's debut EP Every Girl.[37] In March 2012, a re-mastered version of "Thinking About You" leaked, intended to be a single.[38] Ocean released the cover art for his debut studio album's lead single, titled "Thinkin Bout You", revealing the song would be released to digital retailers on April 10.[39] "It succinctly defines me as an artist for where I am right now and that was the aim," he said of the follow-up to his acclaimed Nostalgia, Ultra. "It’s about the stories. If I write 14 stories that I love, then the next step is to get the environment of music around it to best envelop the story and all kinds of sonic goodness."[39]

Ocean reappropriated the music from The Eagles' song 'Hotel California', without permission, on his own song, "American Wedding." When asked about it, Ocean stated that Eagles band member "Don Henley is apparently intimidated by my rendition of 'Hotel California'. He threatened to sue if I perform it again." In response to Ocean's comments, The Eagles released a statement: “Frank Ocean did not merely 'sample' a portion of the Eagles’ 'Hotel California,' he took the whole master track, plus the song’s existing melody, and replaced the lyrics with his own. This is not creative, let alone 'intimidating.' It’s illegal. For the record, Don Henley has not threatened or instituted any legal action against Frank Ocean, although the Eagles are now considering whether they should."[40][41] Chris Richards of The Washington Post remarked that "certain boomers don't like [Ocean] as much" as "information-age babies" due to the controversy.[42]

On June 8, 2012, a single from the album Channel Orange, entitled 'Pyramids', was made available for download on Ocean's Tumblr blog.[43] On July 10, 2012, Ocean made his debut television performance with "Bad Religion" on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon.[44] The same day, Ocean released his album one week ahead of schedule[45] for digital download on iTunes and free streaming on his Tumblr blog.[46] All other forms of distribution for the album will be available on July 17, 2012.[47][48] On September 6, 2012, Frank Ocean performed an acoustic version of his Channel Orange single, Thinkin Bout You, at the 2012 MTV Video Music Awards which was held at the Staples Center arena at L.A. Live in Downtown Los Angeles.[49]

Artistry

Ocean's music has been characterized by music writers as idiosyncratic in style.[51][52][53] Ocean generally plays the electronic keyboard,[51] and is backed by a subdued rhythm section in the production.[54] His compositions are often midtempo and feature unconventional melodies,[51][54] occasionally having experimental song structure.[53][54] In his songwriting, Jon Pareles of The New York Times observes "open echoes of self-guided, innovative R&B songwriters like Prince, Stevie Wonder, Marvin Gaye, Maxwell, Erykah Badu and particularly R. Kelly and his way of writing melodies that hover between speech and song, asymmetrical and syncopated."[54] While nostalgia, ULTRA featured both original music by Ocean and tracks relying on sampled melodies,[55] channel ORANGE showcased Ocean as the primary musical composer, of which music journalist Robert Christgau opines, "when he's the sole composer Ocean resists making a show of himself—resists the dope hook, the smart tempo, the transcendent falsetto itself."[56]

Ocean's lyrics deal with themes of love, longing, misgiving,[54] and nostalgia.[57] His debut single "Novacane" juxtaposes the numbness and artificiality of a sexual relationship to that of mainstream radio,[54] while "Voodoo" merges themes of spirituality and sexuality,[58] and is an eccentric take on such subject matter common in R&B.[50] The latter song was released by Ocean on his Tumblr account and references both the traditional spiritual "He's Got the Whole World in His Hands" and the female anatomy in its chorus: "she's got the whole wide world in her juicy fruit / he's got the whole wide world in his pants / he wrapped the whole wide world in a wedding band / then put the whole wide world on her hands / she's got the whole wide world in her hands / he’s got the whole wide world in his hands."[50][59] Certain songs on channel ORANGE allude to Ocean's experience with unrequited love.[51] Culture critic Nelson George asserts that, along with Miguel, Ocean has "staked out ground where [he is] not competing with those hit-driven [commercial R&B] acts" and is "cultivating a sound that balances adult concerns with a sense of young men trying to understand their own desires (an apt description of Ocean, particularly)."[60]

Ocean describes himself as "a baritone, with tenor moments."[61] Jody Rosen of Rolling Stone calls him a torch singer due to "his feel for romantic tragedy, unfurling in slow-boiling ballads".[62] Ocean's stage presence during live shows is often low-key.[63][64][65]

Personal life

On July 4, 2012, Ocean published an open letter on his Tumblr blog recounting unrequited feelings he had for another young man when he was 19 years old, citing it as his first true love.[7] He used the blog to thank the man for his influence, and also thanked his mother and other friends, saying "I don't know what happens now, and that's alrite [sic]. I don't have any secrets I need kept anymore...I feel like a free man."[66]

Members of the hip hop industry generally responded positively to the announcement.[67] Russell Simmons, a business magnate in the hip hop industry, wrote a congratulatory article in Global Grind saying "Today is a big day for hip-hop. It is a day that will define who we really are. How compassionate will we be? How loving can we be? How inclusive are we? [...] Your decision to go public about your sexual orientation gives hope and light to so many young people still living in fear."[68] Other artists who expressed their support included Beyoncé and Jay-Z.[69] Tyler, The Creator also tweeted his support for Ocean, along with other members of OFWGKTA.[70]

Discography

Albums
Collaborations
Mixtapes

Awards and nominations

YearOrganizationAwardWorkResult
2011GQ[71]Rookie of the YearWon
BET Hip Hop Awards [72]Best MixtapeNostalgia, UltraNominated
Rookie of the YearNominated
Soul Train Awards [73]Best New ArtistNominated
2012BBC[4]Sound of 2012Second
Grammis[74]International Album of the YearNostalgia, UltraNominated
mtvU Woodie Awards [75]Woodie of the Year (nostalgia, ULTRA)Nostalgia, UltraNominated
O Music Awards [76]Best Web Born ArtistNominated
MTV Video Music Awards[77]Best DirectionSwim GoodNominated
Best Male VideoSwim GoodNominated
Best New ArtistSwim GoodNominated
Q Awards [78]Q's Next Big ThingPending
MOBO Awards [79]Best International ActPending
201355th Grammy Awards[80]Best New Artist[81]Pending
Record of the Year"Thinkin Bout You"Pending
Album of the YearChannel OrangePending
Best Urban Contemporary AlbumPending
Best Rap/Sung Collaboration"No Church in the Wild" (with Kanye West & Jay-Z)Pending
Best Long Form Music VideoPending

References

  1. ^ Noz, Andrew (April 21, 2011). "Frank Ocean: Smart And Subtle R&B Songwriting". NPR. http://www.npr.org/2011/06/10/135514908/frank-ocean-smart-and-subtle-r-b-songwriting. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
  2. ^ Fennessey, Sean (March 23, 2011). "Love vs. Money: The Weeknd, Frank Ocean, and R&B's Future Shock". The Village Voice Blogs. Village Voice Media. http://blogs.villagevoice.com/music/2011/03/the_weeknd_frank_ocean.php. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Jeffries, David. "Frank Ocean - Music Biography, Credits and Discography". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. http://www.allmusic.com/artist/frank-ocean-mn0002592086. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  4. ^ a b "Sound of – 2012 – Frank Ocean". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/music/soundof/2012/artists/frankocean/. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
  5. ^ Frank Ocean’s Summer Tour Sold Out BET. July 11, 2012.
  6. ^ "Frank Ocean Interview: Happy To Wake Up Without 'This Freakin' Boulder On My Chest'". Instinct Magazine. July 21, 2012. http://instinctmagazine.com/blogs/blog/frank-ocean-interview-happy-to-wake-up-without-this-freakin-boulder-on-my-chest?directory=100011. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  7. ^ a b Frank Ocean (July 4, 2012). "thank you's". Tumblr. http://frankocean.tumblr.com/post/26473798723. archived here.
  8. ^ Nicholson, Rebecca (July 20, 2012). "Frank Ocean: the most talked-about man in music". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2012/jul/21/frank-ocean-guardian-exclusive-interview. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  9. ^ Frank Ocean effect: What happens when a hip hop artist confesses same sex love? CNN. July 11, 2012.
  10. ^ Gold, Scott (August 18, 2012). "For hip-hop and gay rights, a transformative moment: The notoriously homophobic music scene is having a change of heart. In song or in interviews, headliners are showing support for the gay community.". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/music/posts/la-et-ms-hip-hop-gay-rights-20120818,0,6286807.story. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  11. ^ a b "Frank Ocean: BBC News Interview - BBC Sound of 2012". BBC. 2012-01-11. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hOVrXdCWIuU. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
  12. ^ a b c d e Youngs, Ian (2012-05-01). "Sound of 2012: Frank Ocean". BBC. BBC Online. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-16390456. Retrieved 2012-07-06.
  13. ^ a b Nadeska Alexis (2011-04-21). "Odd Future’s Frank Ocean Does Not Make R&B – BlackBook". Blackbookmag.com. http://www.blackbookmag.com/article/odd-future-frank-ocean-does-not-make-rb/25615. Retrieved 2011-04-28.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Baker, Ernest (MAR 18, 2011). "In His Own Words: Who is Frank Ocean?". Complex Magazine. http://www.complex.com/music/2011/03/who-is-frank-ocean. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
  15. ^ a b Shepherd, Julianne Escobedo (April 17, 2012). "Frank Ocean Has a Cold". Spin (New York: Spin Media). http://www.spin.com/#articles/frank-ocean-has-cold?page=1. Retrieved 2012-07-14.
  16. ^ Fennessey, Sean (March 23, 2011). "Love vs. Money: The Weeknd, Frank Ocean, and R&B's Future Shock". The Village Voice. http://blogs.villagevoice.com/music/2011/03/the_weeknd_frank_ocean.php. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
  17. ^ a b Meatto, Keith (March 15, 2011). "Swimming with Frank Ocean – A review of Nostalgia, ULTRA". FrontPsych.com. http://frontpsych.com/2011/03/15/swimming-with-frank-ocean-a-review-of-nostalgia-ultra/. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
  18. ^ "Frank Ocean in the Studio with Beyoncé". Complex. http://www.complex.com/music/2011/03/frank-ocean-in-the-studio-with-beyonce. Retrieved 2011-04-28.
  19. ^ "Beyoncé – 4 (CD, Album) at Discogs". Discogs.com. 2011-06-24. http://www.discogs.com/Beyonc%C3%A9-4/release/2954561. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  20. ^ "Nas Hits the Studio with Frank Ocean". Rap-Up.com. 2011-04-23. http://www.rap-up.com/2011/04/23/nas-hits-the-studio-with-frank-ocean/. Retrieved 2011-04-28.
  21. ^ Markman, Rob (2011-04-29). "Nas Calls Odd Future's Frank Ocean 'New, Fresh' – Music, Celebrity, Artist News". MTV. http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1664025/nas-frank-ocean-odd-future.jhtml. Retrieved 2011-05-20.
  22. ^ Horowitz, Steven (May 2, 2011). "Pharrell In The Studio With OFWGKTA's Frank Ocean". Hip Hop DX. http://www.hiphopdx.com/index/news/id.14912/title.pharrell-in-the-studio-with-ofwgktas-frank-ocean/. Retrieved May 3, 2011.
  23. ^ Noz, Andrew (April 21, 2011). "Frank Ocean: Smart And Subtle R&B Songwriting". NPR. http://www.npr.org/2011/04/21/135514908/frank-ocean-smart-and-subtle-r-b-songwriting?ps=cprs. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
  24. ^ By Jonah Weiner (2011-04-28). "The New Wu-Tang Clan: Odd Future | Rolling Stone Music". Rollingstone.com. http://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/the-new-wu-tang-clan-odd-future-20110505. Retrieved 2011-05-07.
  25. ^ "BTS: Tyler The Creator x Frank Ocean – 'She'". The Source. http://www.thesource.com/blog/post/62148/BTS%3A-Tyler,-The-Creator-x-Frank-Ocean---%27She%27?thesource-prod=hccgqibtvdq8gn4l8p7t0kk1o1. Retrieved 2011-04-28.
  26. ^ "On Set of Tyler, the Creator and Frank Ocean’s ‘She’ Video". Rap-Up.com. 2010-10-18. http://www.rap-up.com/2011/04/25/on-set-of-tyler-the-creator-and-frank-oceans-she-video/. Retrieved 2011-04-28.
  27. ^ "Frank Ocean Joining Odd Future For East Coast Tour! | News | Frank Ocean | Artists | Def Jam". Island Def Jam. 2011-04-27. http://www.islanddefjam.com/artist/news_single.aspx?nid=9242&artistID=7449. Retrieved 2011-05-07.
  28. ^ "Def Jam To Rerelease Frank Ocean's 'Nostaliga, Ultra'". The Source. http://www.thesource.com/blog/post/66144/Def-Jam-To-Rerelease-Frank-Ocean's-'Nostaliga,-Ultra'-?thesource-prod=0rsckmvoqv0nblobdjufug70k1. Retrieved 2011-05-20.
  29. ^ » by Danielle Canada May 19, 2011, 15:16pm. "Frank Ocean To Release "Nostalgia, Ultra" Mixtape In Stores " Hip-Hop Wired: Keeping You Informed With The Latest on Hip-Hop Culture, Rappers, Hip Hop News, Rap and Entertainment News, Black Politics, Video Vixens, Music Reviews and Urban Lifestyle...". Hiphopwired.com. http://hiphopwired.com/2011/05/19/frank-ocean-to-release-%E2%80%9Cnostalgia-ultra%E2%80%9D-mixtape-in-stores/. Retrieved 2011-05-20.
  30. ^ "Is nostalgia LITE still dropping 7/26?". 2011-07-24. http://frankocean.tumblr.com/post/8079765446/is-nostalgia-lite-still-dropping-7-26-ily/.
  31. ^ » by Mark Iraheta June 11, 2011, 12:43am. "Frank Ocean to Work With Kanye West & Jay-Z on "Watch The Throne"". Complex. http://www.complex.com/music/2011/06/frank-ocean-to-work-with-kanye-west-jay-z-on-watch-the-throne. Retrieved 2011-06-11.
  32. ^ "‘Watch the Throne’ Production Credits Revealed". Rap-Up.com. 2011-07-18. http://www.rap-up.com/2011/07/18/watch-the-throne-production-credits-revealed/. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  33. ^ "JAY Z* & Kanye West – Watch The Throne (File, Album) at Discogs". Discogs.com. 2011-08-12. http://www.discogs.com/JAY-Z-Kanye-West-Watch-The-Throne/release/3042535. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  34. ^ "MP3: Bridget Kelly – Thinking About Forever – TheNext2Shine:Exclusive RNB Music Downloads". Blog.thenext2shine.com. http://blog.thenext2shine.com/mp3-bridget-kelly-thinking-about-forever. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
  35. ^ "‘Bridget Kelly – Thinking About Forever". 2DopeBoyz.com. 2011-09-15. http://www.2dopeboyz.com/2011/07/29/bridget-kelly-thinking-about-forever/. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
  36. ^ "Bridget Kelly – Thinking About Forever (Acoustic Video)". 2DopeBoyz.com. 2011-09-15. http://www.2dopeboyz.com/2011/08/17/bridget-kelly-thinking-about-forever-acoustic-video/. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
  37. ^ "Frank Ocean – Thinking Of You (Video)". 2DopeBoyz.com. 2011-09-15. http://www.2dopeboyz.com/2011/09/15/frank-ocean-thinking-of-you-video/. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
  38. ^ "Frank Ocean – Thinking About You". cloudmusiq.com. 2012-03-08. http://cloudmusiq.com/?p=14148. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
  39. ^ a b "SINGLE COVER: FRANK OCEAN – ‘THINKIN BOUT YOU’". Rap-Up. 2012-04-05. http://www.rap-up.com/2012/04/05/single-cover-frank-ocean-thinkin-bout-you/. Retrieved 2012-04-09.
  40. ^ Did R&B singer steal entire melody of 'Hotel California'?
  41. ^ Frank Ocean Debuts New Song At Coachella & Performs "American Wedding" (VIDEOS) globalgrind.com. July 11, 2012.
  42. ^ Richards, Chris (July 24, 2012). "Frank Ocean at the 9:30 Club: Contemplative, confident, rewarding". The Washington Post (Washington, D.C.). Archived from the original on 2012-09-14. http://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/frank-ocean-at-the-930-club-contemplative-confident-rewarding/2012/07/24/gJQAIQMt6W_story.html. Retrieved 2012-07-27.
  43. ^ Hogan, Marc (2012-06-08). "Frank Ocean Hints at 'Channel Orange' Release". Spin. Spin Media LLC. http://www.spin.com/articles/frank-ocean-hints-channel-orange-release-sleek-video. Retrieved 2011-08-04.
  44. ^ Breihan, Tom (July 10, 2012). "Watch Frank Ocean’s Stunning Fallon Performance". Stereogum. http://stereogum.com/1087041/watch-frank-oceans-stunning-fallon-performance/video/.
  45. ^ "Frank Ocean Performs On 'Jimmy Fallon' After Early Album Release". MTV News. July 10, 2012. http://rapfix.mtv.com/2012/07/10/frank-ocean-jimmy-fallon-performance-album-release/.
  46. ^ Clark, Matt (July 10, 2012). "Frank Ocean 'Channel Orange" Album Free Stream and Download Now Online". Gather Inc. http://entertainment.gather.com/viewArticle.action?articleId=281474981464779. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
  47. ^ Frank Ocean Releases “Channel Orange” on iTunes A Week Before Release Date July 12, 2012.
  48. ^ "Frank Ocean Introduces Channel Orange". Pitchfork. http://pitchfork.com/news/46786-frank-ocean-introduces-channel-orange/. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
  49. ^ "Frank Ocean Gives Stunning, Stripped-Down VMA Performance". MTV. http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1693361/frank-ocean-thinkin-bout-you-2012-vmas.jhtml. Retrieved 2012-09-13.
  50. ^ a b c Hogan, Marc (January 30, 2012). "INTERVIEWSHear Frank Ocean's Odd, Brief R&B Slow Jam 'Voodoo'". Spin (New York: Spin Media). http://www.spin.com/#articles/hear-frank-oceans-odd-brief-rb-slow-jam-voodoo. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
  51. ^ a b c d Petridis, Alexis (July 11, 2012). "Frank Ocean: Channel Orange – review". The Guardian (London: Guardian News and Media Limited): section G2, p. 21. http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2012/jul/11/frank-ocean-channel-orange-review1?newsfeed=true. Retrieved 2012-07-11.
  52. ^ Locker, Melissa (July 10, 2012). "Frank Ocean Pours His Heart Out on Channel Orange: Album Review". Time (Time Inc.). http://entertainment.time.com/2012/07/10/frank-ocean-channelorange-review/. Retrieved 2012-07-11.
  53. ^ a b Lipshutz, Jason (July 10, 2012). "Frank Ocean, 'Channel Orange': Track-By-Track Review". Billboard (Prometheus Global Media). http://www.billboard.com/new-releases/frank-ocean-channel-orange-track-by-track-1007539152.story. Retrieved 2012-07-11.
  54. ^ a b c d e f Pareles, Jon (July 28, 2012). "Introspection Celebrated in a Crowd". The New York Times (New York: The New York Times Company): p. C1. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/28/arts/music/frank-ocean-at-terminal-5.html?_r=1. Retrieved 2012-07-28.
  55. ^ Lipshutz, Jason (July 6, 2012). "Frank Ocean Releases 'Sweet Life' Song, Announces 'Fallon' TV Debut". Billboard (Prometheus Global Media). http://www.billboard.com/column/the-juice/frank-ocean-releases-sweet-life-song-announces-1007510952.story. Retrieved 2012-07-27.
  56. ^ Christgau, Robert (July 20, 2012). "Frank Ocean/Greenberger Greenberg Cebar". MSN Music. Microsoft. http://social.entertainment.msn.com/music/blogs/expert-witness-blogpost.aspx?post=d66eaeae-f1da-49fe-9dd4-b968c1df0b10. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
  57. ^ Kellman, Andy. "Nostalgia, Ultra - Frank Ocean". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. http://www.allmusic.com/album/nostalgia-ultra-mw0002120003. Retrieved 2012-07-28.
  58. ^ "NME Track Reviews - Frank Ocean - 'Voodoo'". NME (IPC Media). February 3, 2012. http://www.nme.com/reviews/frank-ocean/12694. Retrieved 2012-07-28.
  59. ^ Ocean, Frank (January 2012). "darker times they’re telling boulder heavy lies ...". Tumblr. http://frankocean.tumblr.com/post/16668624161/darker-times-theyre-telling-boulder-heavy-lies. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
  60. ^ "For The Ladies: R. Kelly, Teddy Pendergrass And The State Of R And B". NPR. October 18, 2012. http://www.npr.org/blogs/therecord/2012/10/17/163095398/for-the-ladies-r-kelly-teddy-pendergrass-and-the-state-of-r-b. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
  61. ^ Ocean, Frank (March 16, 2011). "i am a baritone, with teno ...". Twitter. http://twitter.com/frank_ocean/status/48108717073375232. Retrieved 2012-07-28.
  62. ^ Rosen, Jody (July 13, 2012). "Channel Orange". Rolling Stone (Jann S. Wenner). http://www.rollingstone.com/music/albumreviews/channel-orange-20120713. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  63. ^ Richards, Chris (July 24, 2012). "Frank Ocean at the 9:30 Club: Contemplative, confident, rewarding". The Washington Post (Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post Company). http://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/frank-ocean-at-the-930-club-contemplative-confident-rewarding/2012/07/24/gJQAIQMt6W_story.html. Retrieved 2012-07-27.
  64. ^ Kohn, Daniel (July 18, 2012). "Frank Ocean - The Wiltern - 7/17/12". OC Weekly (Costa Mesa: Village Voice Media). http://blogs.ocweekly.com/heardmentality/2012/07/frank_ocean_-_the_wiltern_-_71.php. Retrieved 2012-07-27.
  65. ^ Goble, Corban (July 27, 2012). "Frank Ocean @ Terminal 5, NYC 7/26/12". Stereogum. Buzz Media. http://stereogum.com/1105121/frank-ocean-terminal-5-nyc-72612/top-stories/lead-story/. Retrieved 2012-07-27.
  66. ^ Frank Ocean Opens Up About Sexuality Billboard Magazine. July 4, 2012. archived here.
  67. ^ Frank Ocean's Sexual Declaration: Will It Spark Change In Hip-Hop Community? MTV. July 12, 2012.
  68. ^ Russell Simmons (9:23 am, July 4, 2012). "The Courage Of Frank Ocean Just Changed The Game!". Global Grind. http://globalgrind.com/entertainment/russell-simmons-letter-to-frank-ocean-gay-bi-sexual-comes-out-photos. archived here.
  69. ^ Carter Maness (July 9, 2012). "Beyonce Applauds Frank Ocean for Coming Out". MTV. http://rapfix.mtv.com/2012/07/09/frank-ocean-sexaulity-speaking-out-beyonce-applauds/. Retrieved July 10, 2012.
  70. ^ Chen, Joyce. "R&B Singer Frank Ocean Comes Out". NY Daily News, Sexual Orientation Collection. NYDailyNews.com. http://www.nydailynews.com/entertainment/gossip/b-singer-frank-ocean-odd-future-summer-romance-a-man-changed-life-article-1.1107779. Retrieved July 13, 2012.
  71. ^ "Frank Ocean: GQ Men of the Year Issue". GQ. 2011. http://www.gq.com/moty/2011/frank-ocean-gq-men-of-the-year-issue. Retrieved 2012-30-7.
  72. ^ "Lil Wayne Leads BET Hip Hop Awards Nominations With 18". Hollywood Reporter. September 8, 2011. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/lil-wayne-leads-bet-hip-hop-awards-nominations-232900. Retrieved 2012-01-08.
  73. ^ "Chris Brown Leads 2011 Soul Train Awards Nominees". Singers Room. October 21, 2011. http://www.singersroom.com/content/2011-10-21/Chris-Brown-Leads-2011-Soul-Train-Awards-Nominees/. Retrieved 2012-01-08.
  74. ^ "Grammi Nominees 2012". Grammis.ca. January 14, 2011. http://www.grammis.se/?ha_events=180. Retrieved 2011-11-16.
  75. ^ "2012 MTVU WOODIE AWARDS NOMINEES - Breaking Woodie". MTV. MTV Networks. http://www.mtv.com/ontv/woodieawards/2012/breaking-woodie/. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  76. ^ "O Music Awards Best Web Born Artist Nominees". http://www.omusicawards.com/vote/best-web-born-artist. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  77. ^ Martin, Andrew (2012-08-02). "MTV Reveals 2012 VMA Nominees Including Drake, Frank Ocean & Rihanna". Complex. http://www.complex.com/music/2012/07/mtv-reveals-2012-vma-nominees. Retrieved 2011-09-23.
  78. ^ "Blur, Stone Roses To Battle It Out With Lady Gaga For Q Awards Best Act - Plus Full List Of Nominations". HuffingtonPost.Co.UK. September 9, 2012. http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2012/09/06/blur-stone-roses-lady-gaga-q-awards-adele_n_1860554.html. Retrieved 2012-9-9.
  79. ^ "MOBO Award 2012: The Nominations". scotsman.com. September 17, 2012. http://www.scotsman.com/lifestyle/music/news-and-features/mobo-awards-2012-the-nominations-1-2531674. Retrieved 2012-9-17.
  80. ^ http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/envelope/grammys/la-en-grammys-2013-nominees-complete-list,0,7075586.htmlstory
  81. ^ http://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/2013-grammy-nominations-black-keys-jay-z-fun-lead-the-pack-20121205

External links