Fox News Channel controversies

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Fox News Channel controversies
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Fox News Channel logo
LaunchedOctober 7, 1996
Owned byNews Corporation
Picture format480i (SD/16:9 letterbox)
720p (HD)
Slogan"Move Forward"
"Fair & Balanced"
"We Report. You Decide."
"The Most Powerful Name in News"
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
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HeadquartersNew York City
United States
Sister channel(s)Fox Business Network
Fox Broadcasting Company
Sky News
Sky News Australia
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WebsiteFoxnews.com
 
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Fox News Channel controversies
Fox News Channel.svg
Fox News Channel logo
LaunchedOctober 7, 1996
Owned byNews Corporation
Picture format480i (SD/16:9 letterbox)
720p (HD)
Slogan"Move Forward"
"Fair & Balanced"
"We Report. You Decide."
"The Most Powerful Name in News"
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Broadcast areaUnited States and worldwide
HeadquartersNew York City
United States
Sister channel(s)Fox Business Network
Fox Broadcasting Company
Sky News
Sky News Australia
SKY TG 24
WebsiteFoxnews.com

Critics of Fox News Channel have accused the network of having various biases in their coverage of certain events. Fox News has publicly denied such charges,[1] stating that the reporters in the newsroom provide separate, neutral reporting.[2]

Accusations of bias[edit]

Political figures[edit]

Former Democratic National Committee chairman Howard Dean has referred to Fox News as a "right-wing propaganda machine",[3] and several Democratic Party politicians have boycotted events hosted or sponsored by the network.[4][5] In 2007, several major Democratic Party presidential candidates (Hillary Rodham Clinton, John Edwards, Barack Obama, and Bill Richardson) boycotted or dropped out of Fox News-sponsored or -hosted debates,[4][6] forcing their cancellation. The Nevada State Democratic Party had originally agreed to co-host a Democratic debate with Fox News Channel in Reno, Nevada. Despite the opposition of groups like MoveOn.org, the party agreed to bring in Fox News in an effort to find new ways to talk to new people.

Similar accusations have been levied against Fox News in response to its decision to exclude Ron Paul and Duncan Hunter from the January 5, 2008, Republican candidate debate.[7] In response, many individuals and organizations petitioned Fox News to reconsider its decision. When Fox refused to change its position and continued to exclude Paul and Hunter, the New Hampshire Republican Party officially announced it would withdraw as a Fox partner in the forum.[8]

While the network has been criticized for its tendency to support the Republican Party and its interests, David Frum, former speechwriter for George W. Bush, has also said, "Republicans originally thought that Fox worked for us and now we're discovering we work for Fox."[9]

Media figures[edit]

CNN's Larry King said in a January 17, 2007, interview with the Chicago Sun-Times, "They're a Republican brand. They're an extension of the Republican Party with some exceptions, [like] Greta van Susteren. But I don't begrudge them that. [Fox CEO] Roger Ailes is an old friend. They've been nice to me. They've said some very nice things about me. Not [Bill] O'Reilly, but I don't watch him."[10]

Writing for the Los Angeles Times, Republican and conservative columnist Jonah Goldberg indicated his belief that Fox News was rightward-leaning: "Look, I think liberals have reasonable gripes with Fox News. It does lean to the right, primarily in its opinion programming but also in its story selection (which is fine by me) and elsewhere. But it's worth remembering that Fox is less a bastion of ideological conservatism and more a populist, tabloid-like network."[11]

Fox News host Bill O'Reilly has stated that "Fox does tilt right" (although he states this in specific reference to the coverage of the Iraq war, not FNC's coverage in general), but that the network does not "actively campaign or try to help Bush-Cheney."[12][13]

Media watchdogs[edit]

Progressive media watch dog groups such as Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR)[14] and Media Matters for America,[15] have argued that Fox News reporting contains conservative editorializing within news stories. FAIR also asserted that in a study of a 19 week period from January 2001 to May 2001 the ratio of conservative guests to liberals on Special Report with Brit Hume was 50:6, and obtained similar data from other Fox shows.[16] Accuracy in Media has claimed that there was a conflict of interest in Fox News' co-sponsorship of the May 15, 2007, Republican presidential candidates debate, pointing out that candidate and former New York City mayor Rudolph Giuliani's law firm had tackled copyright protection and legislation on the purchase of cable TV lineups for News Corporation, the parent company of Fox News, and suggesting that Fox might be biased in favor of Giuliani's candidacy for the Republican Party presidential nomination.[17]

Ownership and management[edit]

Reports, polls, surveys and studies[edit]

Polls and surveys[edit]

A poll conducted by Rasmussen Reports during September 2004 found that Fox News was seen as second to CBS as the most politically biased network in the public view. 37% of respondents thought CBS, in the wake of the Memogate scandal, was trying to help elect John Kerry, while 34% of respondents said they believed that Fox's goal was to "help elect Bush."[30] However, a poll conducted by Public Policy Polling in January 2010 found Fox News to be the only US television news network to receive a positive rating by the public for trustworthiness with results strongly split depending on the political affiliation of the respondents [31] A survey by the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press showed "a striking rise in the politicization of cable TV news audiences . . . This pattern is most apparent with the fast-growing Fox News Channel."[32] Another Pew survey of news consumption found that Fox News has not suffered a decline in credibility with its audience, with one in four (25%) saying they believe all or most of what they see on Fox News Channel, virtually unchanged since Fox was first tested in 2000.[33]

According to the results of a 2006 study by the Project for Excellence in Journalism a survey of 547 journalists, found that Fox was most frequently cited by surveyed journalists as an outlet taking an ideological stance in its coverage, and most identified as advocating conservative political positions,[34] with 56% of national journalists citing Fox News as being especially conservative in its coverage of news. Additionally Fox was viewed as having the highest profile as a conservative news organization; it was cited unprompted by 69% of national journalists.[35]

Studies and reports[edit]

The “2011 State of the News Media” Report by the Pew Center on Excellence in Journalism found that in 2010, Fox News Channel had average daytime audience of 1.2 million and nighttime viewership of 1.1 million, higher than its cable competitors but down 11% and 9% respectively from 2009. Fox's cumulative audience (unique viewers who watched at least 60 minutes in an average month) was 41.1 million, coming in second to CNN with 41.7 million. For 2010, CNN's digital network continued to lead Fox's digital network online; CNN with 35.7 million unique visitors per month, compared to Fox's 15.5 million. For the first time Fox outspent its competitors, with a total news investment of $686 million. 72% of this investment went to program costs, reflecting their focus on high profile hosts. They also increased their revenues 17% over 2009 to $1.5 billion, well ahead of second-place CNN at $1.2 billion.[36][37]

Content analysis studies[edit]

The Project on Excellence in Journalism report in 2006 showed that 68 percent of Fox cable stories contained personal opinions, as compared to MSNBC at 27 percent and CNN at 4 percent. The "content analysis" portion of their 2005 report also concluded that "Fox was measurably more one-sided than the other networks, and Fox journalists were more opinionated on the air."[38]

A 2006 University of California, Berkeley study cited that there was a correlation between the presence of the Fox News Channel in cable markets and increases in Republican votes in those markets.[39]

Studies of reporting bias[edit]

In a 2006 academic content analysis of election news, Rasmussen Reports showed that coverage at ABC, CBS, and NBC was more favorable toward Kerry than Bush, while coverage at Fox News Channel were more favorable toward Bush.[40]

A study published in November 2005 by Tim Groseclose, a professor of political science at UCLA, scoring political bias from twenty mainstream news reporting outlets, concluded that all "except Fox News’ Special Report and the Washington Times, received scores to the left of the average member of Congress." In particular, Fox News' Special Report with Brit Hume had an Americans for Democratic Action rating that was right of the political center. Groseclose's model used the number of times a host cited a particular think tank on his or her program and compared it with the number of times a member of the U.S. Congress cited a think tank, correlating that with the politician's Americans for Democratic Action rating.[41][42]

Geoff Nunberg, a professor of linguistics at UC Berkeley and a National Public Radio commentator, criticized the methodology of the study and labeled its conclusions invalid.[43] He pointed to what he saw as a Groseclose's reliance on interpretations of facts and data that were taken from sources that were not, in his view, credible. Groseclose and Professor Jeff Milyo rebutted, saying Nunberg "shows a gross misunderstanding [of] our statistical method and the actual assumptions upon which it relies."[44] Mark Liberman (a professor of Computer Science and the Director of Linguistic Data Consortium at the University of Pennsylvania), who helped post Groseclose and Milyo's rebuttal, later posted how the statistical methods used to calculate this bias pose faults.[45][46] Mark concluded "that many if not most of the complaints directed against G&M are motivated in part by ideological disagreement — just as much of the praise for their work is motivated by ideological agreement. It would be nice if there were a less politically fraught body of data on which such modeling exercises could be explored."[45]

A December 2007 study/examination by Robert Lichter of a self-described nonpartisan media watchdog group, the Center for Media and Public Affairs found that Fox News's evaluations of all of the 2008 Democratic presidential candidates combined was 51% positive and 49% negative, while the network's evaluations of the Republican presidential candidates 51% negative and 49% positive. The study, however, did find that Fox's coverage was less negative toward Republican candidates than the coverage of broadcast networks.[47]

Tests of knowledge of Fox viewers[edit]

A study by the Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA) at the University of Maryland School of Public Affairs, as published in the Winter 03-04 issue of the Political Science Quarterly,[48] reported that poll-based findings[49] indicated that viewers of Fox News, the Fox Broadcasting Company and local Fox affiliates were more likely than viewers of other news networks to hold three misperceptions:[48]

In response, Fox News frequent guest Ann Coulter characterized the PIPA findings as "misperceptions of pointless liberal factoids" and called it a "hoax poll."[50] Bill O'Reilly called the study "absolute crap."[51] Roger Ailes referred to the study as "an old push poll."[52] James Taranto, editor of OpinionJournal.com, the Wall Street Journal's online editorial page, called the poll "pure propaganda."[53] PIPA issued a clarification on October 17, 2003, stating that "The findings were not meant to and cannot be used as a basis for making broad judgments about the general accuracy of the reporting of various networks or the general accuracy of the beliefs of those who get their news from those networks. Only a substantially more comprehensive study could undertake such broad research questions," and that the results of the poll show correlation, but do not prove causation.[54][55]

PIPA also conducted a statistical study on purported misinformation evidenced by registered voters prior to the 2010 election. According to the results of the study, "...false or misleading information is widespread in the general information environment..."[56] but viewers of Fox News were more likely to be misinformed on specific issues when compared to viewers of comparable media,[57] that this likelihood also increased proportionally to the frequency of viewing Fox News[57] and that these findings showed statistical significance.[58] Media critic David Zurawik pointed to what he saw as weaknesses in the study, such as that certain government agencies are defined as holding the "true" positions on issues and that the study didn't differentiate between the influences of FNC shows as opposed to political ads that aired within shows.[59]

A 2007 Pew Research Center poll of general political knowledge ("Who is the governor of your state?", "Who is the President of Russia?") indicated that Fox News Channel viewers scored 35% in the high-knowledge area, the same as the national average. This was not significantly different than local news, network news and morning news, and was slightly lower than CNN (41%). Viewers of The O'Reilly Factor (51%) scored in the high category along with Rush Limbaugh (50%), NPR (51%), major newspapers (54%), Newshour with Jim Lehrer (53%) The Daily Show (54%) and The Colbert Report (54%).[60]

A 2010 Stanford University survey found "more exposure to Fox News was associated with more rejection of many mainstream scientists’ claims about global warming, [and] with less trust in scientists".[61] A 2011 Kaiser Family Foundation survey on U.S. misperceptions about health care reform found that Fox News viewers had a poorer understanding of the new laws and were more likely to believe in falsehoods about the Affordable Care Act such as cuts to Medicare benefits and the death panel myth.[62] A 2010 Ohio State University study of public misperceptions about the so-called "Ground Zero Mosque", officially named Park51, found that viewers who relied on Fox News were 66% more likely to believe incorrect rumors than those with a "low reliance" on Fox News.[63]

In 2011, a study by Fairleigh Dickinson University found that New Jersey Fox News viewers were less well informed than people who did not watch any news at all. The study employed objective questions, such as whether Hosni Mubarak was still in power in Egypt.[64][65][66]

Internal memos and e-mails[edit]

Daily memos[edit]

Fox News executives exert a degree of editorial control over the content of their daily reporting. In the case of Fox News, some of this control comes in the form of daily memos issued by Fox News' Vice President of News, John Moody. In the documentary Outfoxed, former Fox News employees are interviewed to better understand the inner workings of Fox News. In memos from the documentary, Moody instructs employees on the approach to be taken on particular stories. Critics of Fox News claim that the instructions on many of the memos indicate a conservative bias. The Washington Post quoted Larry Johnson, a former part-time Fox News commentator, describing the Moody memos as "talking points instructing us what the themes are supposed to be, and God help you if you stray."[67]

Former Fox News producer Charlie Reina explained, "The roots of Fox News Channel's day-to-day on-air bias are actual and direct. They come in the form of an executive memo distributed electronically each morning, addressing what stories will be covered and, often, suggesting how they should be covered. To the newsroom personnel responsible for the channel's daytime programming, The Memo is the Bible. If, on any given day, you notice that the Fox anchors seem to be trying to drive a particular point home, you can bet The Memo is behind it."[68][69]

Photocopied memos from John Moody instructed the network's on-air anchors and reporters to use positive language when discussing pro-life viewpoints, the Iraq war, and tax cuts, as well as requesting that the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse scandal be put in context with the other violence in the area.[70] Such memos were reproduced for the film Outfoxed, which included Moody quotes such as, "The soldiers [seen on Fox in Iraq] in the foreground should be identified as 'sharpshooters,' not 'snipers,' which carries a negative connotation."

Two days after the 2006 election, The Huffington Post reported they had acquired a copy of a leaked internal memo from Mr. Moody that recommended: "…[L]et's be on the lookout for any statements from the Iraqi insurgents, who must be thrilled at the prospect of a Dem-controlled congress." Within hours of the memo's publication, Fox News anchor Martha McCallum, went on-air on the program The Live Desk with reports of Iraqi insurgents cheering the firing of Donald Rumsfeld and the results of the 2006 congressional election.[71][72]

Bill Sammon e-mails[edit]

In December 2010, Media Matters for America released a leaked October 2009 e-mail between Fox News Washington managing editor Bill Sammon and the network's senior producers, which seemed to issue directives slanting Fox News' coverage of President Barack Obama's health care reform efforts. In the e-mail, Sammon instructed producers to not use the phrase "public option" when discussing a key measure of President Obama's reform bill, and instead use the terms "government option" or "government-run health insurance", noting negative connotations; Sammon also suggested that the qualifier "so-called" be said before any proper mention of the public option. Another e-mail by Fox News senior vice president Michael Clemente accepted Sammon's conditions. Critics claimed that Sammon took advice from Republican pollster Frank Luntz, who appeared on Hannity shortly before the e-mail was written and made the same suggestions in identifying the public option. Critics also noticed that reporters and panelists on Special Report with Bret Baier used the term "public option" before the e-mail was sent, but used the term "government option" immediately afterwards. Sammon, in an interview with Howard Kurtz for The Daily Beast, defended the directive and denied he was trying to skew Fox News' coverage.[73]

Later that month, Media Matters released an e-mail by Sammon from December 2009, in which he pressured Fox News reporters to include the views of climate change skeptics in light of the Climategate controversy.[74][75]

Wikipedia edits[edit]

In August 2007, a new utility, Wikipedia Scanner, revealed that Wikipedia articles relating to Fox News had been edited from IP addresses owned by Fox News,[76] though it was not possible to determine exactly who the editors were. The tool showed that self-referential edits from IP ranges owned by corporations and news agencies were common, including from The New York Times.[76] Fox edits received attention in the blogosphere and on some online news sites. Wikipedia articles edited from Fox computers from 2005 through 2007 included Al Franken, Keith Olbermann, Chris Wallace and Brit Hume.[77]

Photo manipulation[edit]

Fox News Channel image of Steinberg superimposed on a poodle, and Reddicliffe superimposed on the man holding the poodle's leash
Left: Original photo of Jacques Steinberg. Right: Photo aired on Fox News Channel.
Left: Original photo of Steven Reddicliffe. Right: Photo aired on Fox News Channel.

On the July 2, 2008 edition of Fox and Friends, co-hosts Brian Kilmeade and Steve Doocy aired photos of New York Times reporter Jacques Steinberg and Times television editor Steven Reddicliffe that appeared to have been crudely doctored, apparently in order to portray the journalists unflatteringly. This occurred during a discussion of a piece in the June 28 edition of The New York Times, which pointed out what Steinberg called "ominous trends" in Fox News' ratings.[78]

According to Media Matters, the photos depict New York Times reporter Jacques Steinberg with yellowed teeth, "his nose and chin widened, and his ears made to protrude further." The other image, of Times television editor Steven Reddicliffe, had similar yellow teeth, as well as "dark circles ... under his eyes, and his hairline has been moved back."[79]

During the discussion, Doocy called the Times report, written by Steinberg, a "hit piece" ordered up by Reddicliffe.[78] The broadcast then showed an image of Steinberg's face superimposed over a picture of a poodle, while Reddicliffe's face was superimposed over the man holding the poodle's leash.[78]

Times culture editor Sam Sifton called the photo that was aired on Fox "disgusting," and the criticism of the paper's reporting a "specious and meritless claim" while denying that it was a "hit piece."[78]

9/12 newspaper ad controversy[edit]

On September 18, 2009, Fox News Channel took out full-page ads in The Washington Post, the New York Post, and The Wall Street Journal with a prominent caption reading, "How did ABC, CBS, NBC, MSNBC, and CNN miss this story?" with pictures of a Tea Party movement protest on the United States Capitol lawn. A still picture in the ad was in fact taken from a CNN broadcast covering the event. The veracity of this ad was called into question on the air by then-CNN commentator Rick Sanchez, along with others pointing to various coverage of the event.[80][81][82] CNN, NBC, CBS, MSNBC, and CBS Radio News provided various forms of live coverage of the rally in Washington throughout the day on Saturday, including the lead story on CBS Evening News.[80][82][83][84]

Fox News' vice president of marketing, Michael Tammero, responded, "it's fair to say that from the tea party movement . . . to ACORN . . . to the march on 9/12, the networks either ignored the story, marginalized it or misrepresented the significance of it altogether."[85]

Obama administration conflict with Fox News[edit]

In September 2009, the Obama administration engaged in a verbal conflict with Fox News Channel. On September 20, 2009, President Obama appeared on all the major news programs except Fox News, a snub partially in response to remarks about the President by commentators Glenn Beck and Sean Hannity and general coverage by Fox with regard to Obama's Health Care proposal.[86][87] Fox News Sunday host Chris Wallace called White House administration officials "crybabies" in response. Following this, a senior Obama adviser told U.S. News that the White House would never get a fair shake from Fox News.[87]

In late September 2009, Obama senior advisor David Axelrod and Roger Ailes met in secret to try to smooth out tensions between the two camps without much success. Two weeks later, White House officials referred to FNC as “not a news network", communications director Anita Dunn asserting that “Fox News often operates as either the research arm or the communications arm of the Republican Party.”[88][89] President Obama followed with "If media is operating basically as a talk radio format, then that's one thing, and if it's operating as a news outlet, then that's another," [90] and then White House chief of staff Rahm Emanuel stated that it was important "to not have the CNN's and the others in the world basically be led in following Fox."[91]

Within days it was reported that Fox had been excluded from an interview with administration official Ken Feinberg, with bureau chiefs from the White House Pool (ABC, CBS, NBC, and CNN) coming to the defense of Fox.[92] One of the major bureau chiefs stated, "If any member had been excluded it would have been the same thing, it has nothing to do with Fox or the White House or the substance of the issues."[93] Shortly after this story broke the White House admitted to a low-level mistake, but said that Fox had not made a specific request to interview Feinberg. Fox White House correspondent Major Garrett responded by stating that he had not made a specific request, but that he had a "standing request from me as senior White House correspondent on Fox to interview any newsmaker at the Treasury at any given time news is being made."[94]

On November 8, 2009 the Los Angeles Times reported that an unnamed Democratic consultant was warned by the White House not to appear on Fox News again. According to the article, Anita Dunn claimed in an e-mail to have checked with colleagues who "deal with TV issues" and had been told that nobody had been instructed to avoid Fox. Patrick Caddell, a Fox News contributor and former pollster for President Jimmy Carter said he had spoken with other Democratic consultants who had received similar warnings from the White House.[95]

Video footage manipulation[edit]

Comedian Jon Stewart reported on his November 10, 2009 broadcast of The Daily Show that Fox News pundit Sean Hannity misrepresented video footage purportedly showing large crowds on a health-care protest orchestrated by Rep. Michele Bachmann. Stewart showed inconsistencies in alternating shots according to the color of the sky and tree leaves, showing that spliced in the shots was footage from Glenn Beck's much larger 9/12 rally which had occurred two months earlier. Hannity estimated 20,000 protesters were in attendance, the Washington Post estimated 10,000 and Luke Russert reported that three Capitol Hill police officers guessed "about 4,000."[96][97] Sean Hannity apologized to his viewers for the error during his November 11, 2009 broadcast.[98] Stewart also has periodically accused Fox of playing video footage out of context, such as when Sean Hannity played footage of Obama stating the DREAM Act could not be passed by executive order to make the president seem hypocritical even though when the footage is continued Obama goes on to clarify that the president does have the authority to halt deportations.[99]

On November 18, 2009, Fox News anchor Gregg Jarrett told viewers that a Sarah Palin book signing in Grand Rapids, Michigan had a massive turnout while showing footage of Palin with a large crowd. Jarrett noted that the former Republican vice-presidential candidate is "continuing to draw huge crowds while she's promoting her brand-new book", adding that the images being shown were "some of the pictures just coming in to us.... The lines earlier had formed this morning."[100] The video was actually taken from a 2008 McCain/Palin campaign rally. Fox senior vice-president of news Michael Clemente issued an initial statement saying, "This was a production error in which the copy editor changed a script and didn't alert the control room to update the video."[100] Fox offered an on-air apology the following day during the same "Happening Now" segment citing regrets for what they described as a "video error" with no intent to mislead.[101]

Criticisms of pundits[edit]

Notable pundits[edit]

Discredited military and counterterrorism editor[edit]

Other criticisms[edit]

Criticism of media coverage[edit]

Criticism of individuals[edit]

The Fox News report on Malmö was replayed on Swedish television, here on SVT1.

Fox News responses[edit]

In June 2004, CEO Roger Ailes responded to some of the criticism with a rebuttal in an editorial in the Wall Street Journal's OpinionJournal,[167] saying that Fox's critics intentionally confuse opinion shows such as The O'Reilly Factor with regular news coverage. Ailes stated that Fox News has broken stories harmful to Republicans, offering "Fox News is the network that broke George W. Bush's DUI four days before the election" as an example, referring to Bush's DUI charge in 1976 that had not yet been made public. The DUI story was broken by then-Fox affiliate WPXT in Portland, Maine, although Fox News correspondent Carl Cameron also contributed to the report and, in the words of National Public Radio ombudsman Alicia C. Shepard, Fox News Channel "sent the story ping-ponging around the nation" by broadcasting WPXT's coverage.[168] WPXT News Director Kevin Kelly said that he "called Fox News in New York City to see if we were flogging a dead horse" before running the story, and that Fox News Channel confirmed the arrest with the campaign and ran the story shortly after 6 p.m.[168]

Upon the release of Outfoxed, Fox News issued a statement[140] denouncing MoveOn.org, Greenwald and The New York Times for copyright infringement. Fox dismissed their judgments of former employees featured in the documentary as the partisan views of disgruntled workers who never vocalized concern over any alleged bias while they were employed at the network. Ailes also shrugged off criticisms of the former Fox employees by noting that they worked in Fox affiliates and not at the actual channel itself. Fox News also challenged any news organization that sought to portray Fox as a "problem" with the following proposition: "If they will put out 100 percent of their editorial directions and internal memos, Fox News Channel will publish 100 percent of our editorial directions and internal memos, and let the public decide who is fair. This includes any legitimate cable news network, broadcast network, The New York Times, The Los Angeles Times, and The Washington Post."

Former Fox News personality Eric Burns has suggested in an interview that Fox "probably gives voice to more conservatives than the other networks. But not at the expense of liberals." Burns justifies a higher exposure of conservatives by saying that other media often ignore conservatives.[169]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Interview transcript: Rupert Murdoch and Roger Ailes, the Financial Times, October 6, 2006
  2. ^ "White House Escalates War of Words With Fox News". Fox News. October 12, 2009. 
  3. ^ Dean On President Clinton Standing Up To Right-Wing Propaganda On Fox News Sunday, The Democratic Party, September 25, 2006
  4. ^ a b Fox News Boss Hits Edwards' Boycott, CBS News, March 9, 2007
  5. ^ Obama to Nix Fox Debate, ABC News's Political Radar, April 09, 2007
  6. ^ Clinton Joins Boycott of Fox Debate
  7. ^ "ABC, Fox News cutting low-polling presidential candidates out of debates - International Herald Tribune". 31 December 2007. Archived from the original on 17 January 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2008. 
  8. ^ "NH REPUBLICAN PARTY WITHDRAWS AS FOX FORUM PARTNER". 5 January 2008. Archived from the original on 5 January 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2008. 
  9. ^ "David Frum on GOP: Now We Work for Fox". Nightline (ABC). March 23, 2010. 
  10. ^ King Says Fox News Is "A Republican Brand" (But "They've Been Nice To Me")
  11. ^ Fox, John Edwards and the Two Americas
  12. ^ The Radio Factor with Bill O'Reilly, July 19, 2004
  13. ^ O'Reilly: "FOX does tilt right", Media Matters for America
  14. ^ The Most Biased Name in News – Fox News Channel's extraordinary right-wing tilt, FAIR, July/August 2001
  15. ^ 33 internal FOX editorial memos reviewed by MMFA reveal FOX News Channel's inner workings, Media Matters, July 14, 2004
  16. ^ Fox's Slanted Sources; Conservatives, Republicans far outnumber others by Steve Rendall, Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR), July/August 2001
  17. ^ "Giuliani's Firm Lobbied Government – Republican Party – Democratic Party – Political Spectrum". [dead link]
  18. ^ Rupert Murdoch: Bigger than Kane by Andrew Walker, BBC News, July 31, 2002
  19. ^ Fox executive spoke five times with cousin Bush on Election Night, CNN.com, December 12, 2000
  20. ^ 2000 Official Presidential General Election Results
  21. ^ Cousin John's calls tipped election tally by Melinda Wittstock, The Guardian, November 19, 2000
  22. ^ Moore's Myths by John R. Lott Jr. and Brian Blase, New York Post, July 12, 2004
  23. ^ [1] by David Carr, The New York Times, January 9, 2010
  24. ^ [2] by Andrew Edgecliffe, Financial Times January 10, 2010
  25. ^ [3] by Tim Arango, New York Times October 22, 2008
  26. ^ King Jr, Neil; Radnofsky, Louise (August 18, 2010). "News Corp. Gives $1 Million to GOP". Wall St Journal (News Corporation). Retrieved August 22, 2010. 
  27. ^ Kennedy, Dan (August 19, 2010). "Rupert Murdoch's Republicanism". The Guardian (London: Guardian Media Group). Retrieved August 22, 2010. 
  28. ^ Lichtblau, Eric; Stelter, Brian (August 17, 2010). "News Corp. Gives Republicans $1 Million". New York Times. Retrieved August 22, 2010. 
  29. ^ Kurtz, Howard (August 18, 2010). "News Corp. defends $1 million donation to Republican Governors Association". Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved September 20, 2010. 
  30. ^ Broadcast Bias
  31. ^ Fox Most Trusted Name in News? Public Policy Polling, 2010.
  32. ^ Trends 2005, Media Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, 2005. (PDF file)
  33. ^ Online Papers Modestly Boost Newspaper Readership The Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, 2006.
  34. ^ Project for Excellence in Journalism, State of the News Media 2006: An Annual Report on American Journalism
  35. ^ Project for Excellence in Journalism, Press Going Too Easy on Bush.
  36. ^ 2011 State of the News Media Report
  37. ^ 2010 State of the News Media Report
  38. ^ State of the News Media 2005: An Annual Report on American Journalism – Cable TV: Content Analysis
  39. ^ DellaVigna, Stefano & Ethan Kaplan (2006-03-30). The Fox News Effect: Media Bias and Voting (PDF). March 30, 2006. University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 2006-10-09. 
  40. ^ Stephen Farnsworth and S. Robert Lichter, The Nightly News Nightmare: How Television Portrays Presidential Elections, Second Edition, Rowman & Littlefield, 2006
  41. ^ Media Bias Is Real, Finds UCLA Political Scientist December 14, 2005
  42. ^ A Measure of Media Bias by Tim Groseclose and Jeffery Milyo, UCLA
  43. ^ Geoff Nunberg, "'Liberal Bias', Noch Einmal". Language Log, July 05, 2004
  44. ^ Mark Liberman, "Groseclose and Milyo respond". Language Log, August 2, 2004
  45. ^ a b Liberman, Mark (2005-12-23). "Multiplying ideologies considered harmful". Language Log. Retrieved 2006-11-06. 
  46. ^ Liberman, Mark (2005-12-22). "Linguistics, politics, mathematics". Language Log. Retrieved 2006-11-06. 
  47. ^ http://www.cmpa.com/releases/07_12_21_Election_Study.pdf
  48. ^ a b Kull, Steven; Ramsay, Clay; Lewis, Evan (2003). "Misperceptions, the Media, and the Iraq War". Political Science Quarterly (The Academy of Political Science) 118 (4): 569–598. Retrieved July 28, 2011. 
  49. ^ PIPA / Knowledge Networks Poll Misperceptions, the Media, and the Iraq War. Program on International Policy Attitudes October 2003
  50. ^ Crazy-Like-A-Fox News Viewer by Ann Coulter, Townhall.com, May 13, 2004
  51. ^ The O'Reilly Factor, February 22, 2006
  52. ^ Elite, Arrogant, Condescending by Roger Ailes, OpinionJournal.com, June 2, 2004
  53. ^ Best of the Web Today James Taranto. OpinionJournal, The Wall Street Journal. October 7, 2003.
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External links[edit]