Fort Lawton

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Fort Lawton
Fort Lawton post exchange and gymnasium
Location:Seattle, Washington
Built:1900–1917
Architect:Unknown
Architectural style:Colonial Revival
NRHP Reference#:78002752
Added to NRHP:August 15, 1978
 
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Fort Lawton
Fort Lawton post exchange and gymnasium
Location:Seattle, Washington
Built:1900–1917
Architect:Unknown
Architectural style:Colonial Revival
NRHP Reference#:78002752
Added to NRHP:August 15, 1978
In the Historic District, looking toward Puget Sound. The visible buildings are, left to right, the Band Barracks, Guard House and Quartermasters Stables.

Fort Lawton was a United States Army post located in the Magnolia neighborhood of Seattle, Washington. A large majority, 534 acres of Fort Lawton, was given to the city of Seattle and dedicated as Discovery Park in 1973. The fort was included in the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure list. Fort Lawton officially closed on September 14, 2011.

Contents

History

In 1896, the Secretary of War selected what would later be Fort Lawton for construction of an artillery battery intended to defend Seattle and the south Puget Sound from naval attack. Local citizens and governments donated 703 acres (2.84 km2) land to the United States Army for the installation the next year.

Fort Lawton was named after Maj. Gen. Henry Ware Lawton (1843–1899), a veteran of the American Civil War, the Indian Wars, and Spanish-American War campaigns who was killed in action in the Philippines. The fort opened on February 9, 1900 [1] on a 1,100 acre (4.5 km²) site, which was redesigned in 1902 for infantry use. In 1910 a design overhaul, to include housing for officers and enlisted men, was prepared by landscape architect John C. Olmsted. In 1938, the Army offered to sell Fort Lawton back to the city of Seattle for one dollar, but the city declined, citing maintenance concerns.

At least 20,000 troops were stationed at Fort Lawton at a time during World War II, with over 1 million troops passing through both before and after the war. The post was also used as a Prisoner of War (POW) camp, with more than 1,000 Germans imprisoned there and approximately 5,000 Italians passing through en route to Hawaii for imprisonment. On August 15, 1944 an Italian POW, Guglielmo Olivotto, was found murdered at Fort Lawton after a night of rioting between Italian POWs and American soldiers. Twenty-eight African-American soldiers were later court-martialed, convicted of the crime, and sent to prison. The convictions were set aside in 2007. A formal army apology ceremony was held on July 26, 2008 and to present to the relatives of former soldiers and the two remaining survivors years of back pay following the overturn of their dishonorable discharges.[2][3]

On Memorial Day 1951, a grove of trees and monument honoring the war dead was dedicated near the post chapel. The Korean War brought a flurry of activity as troops headed to or returned from Korea processed through Fort Lawton. In February 1953, the Fort Lawton Processing Center transferred half of its functions, the out-bound tasks, to Fort Lewis (now called Joint Base Lewis McChord). Returnees continued to process through Fort Lawton.

see also: Fort Lawton Air Force Station

In the late 1950s, Nike anti-aircraft missiles and Air Force radars were in use at Fort Lawton, but in 1968 the site was rejected for proposed defense upgrades. The Army surplussed 534 acres (2.16 km2) in 1971, which was given back to the city in 1972, and dedicated as Discovery Park in 1973.[4]

Fort Lawton's family housing has been used by the U.S. Navy for Navy and Coast Guard personnel for almost 40 years. It is currently being vacated, with the officer and NCO housing scheduled to be sold to the public when the market improves. The Capehart Housing in the center of the park was vacated by Dec. 2009 and demolished during the summer of 2010; the land has become part of Discovery Park. Fort Lawton officially closed on Sept. 14, 2011, and the 364th Expeditionary Sustainment Command, the last U.S. Army Reserve tenant on the post, moved to its new facility in Marysville, Wash. A closing ceremony took place on February 25, 2012.[5] The remainder of the fort property (with the exception of the military cemetery on site) will be transferred to the City of Seattle sometime in 2012.

The future of the last fort property has been contentious, as local residents, city leaders and local homeless advocates have battled over its proposed use.

Historic district

The Fort Lawton Historic District (FLHD) in the heart of Discovery Park contains numerous historic buildings and structures that were once in, and part of, Fort Lawton. The following list includes only buildings and structures that survived at least into the 1980s.

Official
structure
number
StructureConstructedCommentsImage
417Administration Building1902 Administration Building
640Double Officers Quarters1904  
642Double Officers Quarters1904  
644Double Officers Quarters1904  
653Air Defense Operations Building1960torn down 2008 
654FAA Radar Buildingca. 1959torn down 2008Radar Building and Antenna Dome
Radar buildings

Building 672 and 670 can also be seen at left, and 640–644 at right.
655FAA Radar Antenna Domeca. 1959 
670Single Officers Quarters1904 670-area housing
670-area housing
672Double Officers Quarters1899 
676Double Officers Quarters1899 
679Double Officers Quarters1899 
681Reviewing Stand1900  
730Double Barracks1904Destroyed by fire February 13, 1983 
731Double Barracks1899  
S-732Post Gymnasium1942 
733Post Exchange and Gymnasium1905 Post Exchange and Gymnasium
734Band Barracks1904 Band Barracks
735Bakehouse1902Bakery until ca. 1938, offices until ca. 1960, no longer exists 
754Quartermaster Shops1905no longer exists 
755Civilian Employees Quarters1908 Civilian Employees Quarters and Quartermasters Stables
T-756Commissary Warehouse1939no longer exists 
757Quartermaster Storehouse1899no longer exists 
759Guard House1902 Guard House
T-760Storehouse1938Used at some point as a garage for a fire truck, no longer exists 
T-761Bus Stop1949Scenes from movie Expiration Date (released 2006), filmed at this locationBus Stop
901Double NCO Quarters1933 900-area housing
900-area housing
900-area housing
902Double NCO Quarters1933 
903Double NCO Quarters1904 
904Single Family NCO Quarters1930sBurned down approximately 2000 
905Double NCO Quarters1899 
906Single NCO Quarters1902Former hospital steward's quarters; previously adjacent to post hospital, north east of administration building, moved to present location around WWII
907Double NCO Quarters1899 
909Double NCO Quarters1904 
915Quartermaster Storehouse1905no longer exists 
915AAddition to Quartermaster Storehouse1939no longer exists 
915BBulk Storage Warehouse1938no longer exists 
916Quartermaster Stables1908 Quartermaster Stables (Building 916)
Building 916
917Quartermaster Stables1902 
S-918Post Engineer Facility and Vehicle Storage Building1904Later turned into a groundskeeper's building, no longer exists 

Source for buildings, construction dates, comments:[6]

The Chapel

In addition, the chapel, which is outside the Historic District, has the status of a city landmark.[7]

Notes, References

  1. ^ David Wilma,Fort Lawton is established on February 9, 1900. HistoryLink.org Essay 1757, October 17, 1999. Accessed 2 Apr 2010
  2. ^ , "http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/07/27/soldiers.apology.ap/index.html?eref=rss_topstories"
  3. ^ Yardley, "1944 Conviction of Black G.I.’s Is Ruled Flawed"
  4. ^ Duane Colt Denfeld, Fort Lawton to Discovery Park., HistoryLink.org Essay 8772, September 23, 2008. Accessed 2 April 2010.
  5. ^ Gutierrez, Scott (24 Feb 2012). "Historic Fort Lawton will officially close during weekend ceremony" (Newspaper article). Seattle Post-Intelligencer. http://www.seattlepi.com/local/article/Historic-Fort-Lawton-3356965.php. Retrieved 2012-02-25. 
  6. ^ Steve Wilke and Karen James, An Archeological Evaluation of the Fort Lawton Historical District, Seattle, Geo-Recon International (Seattle), July 1984. A report submitted to the City of Seattle Department of Parks and Recreation. p 43–47.
  7. ^ Landmarks Alphabetical Listing for F, Individual Landmarks, Department of Neighborhoods, City of Seattle. Accessed 28 December 2007.

External links

Coordinates: 47°39′40″N 122°24′53″W / 47.66104°N 122.414792°W / 47.66104; -122.414792