Forskolin

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Forskolin
Forskolin.svg
Identifiers
CAS number66428-89-5 YesY
PubChem47936
ChemSpider43607 YesY
UNII1F7A44V6OU YesY
DrugBankDB02587
ChEBICHEBI:42471 YesY
ChEMBLCHEMBL52606 YesY
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaC22H34O7
Molar mass410.50 g mol−1
Solubilitysoluble in organic solvents such as ethanol, chloroform and DMSO[1]
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references
 
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Forskolin
Forskolin.svg
Identifiers
CAS number66428-89-5 YesY
PubChem47936
ChemSpider43607 YesY
UNII1F7A44V6OU YesY
DrugBankDB02587
ChEBICHEBI:42471 YesY
ChEMBLCHEMBL52606 YesY
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaC22H34O7
Molar mass410.50 g mol−1
Solubilitysoluble in organic solvents such as ethanol, chloroform and DMSO[1]
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Forskolin (also called Coleonol) is a labdane diterpene that is produced by the Indian Coleus plant (Coleus forskohlii). Forskolin is commonly used to raise levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the study and research of cell physiology. Forskolin activates the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and increases intracellular levels of cAMP. cAMP is an important second messenger necessary for the proper biological response of cells to hormones and other extracellular signals. It is required for cell communication in the hypothalamus/pituitary gland axis and for the feedback control of hormones.[2] Cyclic AMP acts by activating cAMP-sensitive pathways such as protein kinase A and Epac.

Further information: function of protein kinase A

Biosynthesis[edit]

Chemical, biological and medical potential[edit]

The sometimes successful use of forskolin to reduce intraocular pressure may be due to its unique ability to stimulate adenylate cyclase activity and increase cAMP which regulates and activates critical enzymes required for the cellular energy required to move fluid out of the eye.

Forskolin can also be used to promote nerve repair by increasing cAMP concentrations. Forskolin can activate or upregulate the proliferation of Schwann cells in culture, together with Fibroblast growth factor or Transforming Growth Factor-Beta.[citation needed]

Various experimental studies are underway in using Forskolin as an adjuvant in treatment for diseases such as Parkinsons and/or nerve damage caused by trauma/accident.[citation needed]

Adverse Reactions[edit]

There are limited clinical trials about the adverse effects of forskolin. One study has shown that the lethal dose in rats (with the oral formulation) was >2,000 mg/kg. [16]

Safety in Pregnancy[edit]

There is limited information on forskolin’s use in pregnant women. The safety has not yet been determined.[17] Historically, Forskolin has been used to stimulate or promote menses in women as well as a form of oral birth control. [18] Forskolin should be used with caution or avoided altogether in women who are pregnant.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Forskolin" (pdf). Sigma Aldrich. 
  2. ^ "Forskolin For Weight Loss And Side Effects". www.ywdiet.com. Retrieved 7 December 2014. 
  3. ^ Dewick, P. M. (2009). Medicinal Natural Products (3rd ed.). Wiley. p. 232. ISBN 978-0470741689. 
  4. ^ In: "Innovative approaches in drug Research", A.F. Harms (Editor), Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam. 1986. p. 191-207; Forskolin - The Chemical Entity and Structure Activity Relationships of Forskolin and its Derivatives. de Souza N.J. In: Rupp, RH; de Souza, NJ; Dohadwalla, AN.(Eds). Proceedings of an international symposium on "Forskolin: Its Chemical, Biological and Medical Potential", Hoechst India Limited, Bombay. 1985. 5-12, 39-50;Structures and Sterochemistry of new Labdane diterpenoids from Coleus forskohlii Briq. Bhat, SV; Bajwa, BS; Dornauer, H; de Souza, NJ; Fehlhaber, HW. Tetrahedron Letters. 1977. 19: 1669.
  5. ^ McEwan, D. G.; Brunton, V. G.; Baillie, G. S.; Leslie, N. R.; Houslay, M. D.; Frame, M. C. (2007). "Chemoresistant KM12C Colon Cancer Cells Are Addicted to Low Cyclic AMP Levels in a Phosphodiesterase 4-Regulated Compartment via Effects on Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase". Cancer Research 67 (11): 5248–5257. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-0097. PMID 17545604. 
  6. ^ Otmakhov, N.; Khibnik, L.; Otmakhova, N.; Carpenter, S.; Riahi, S.; Asrican, B.; Lisman, J. (2004). "Forskolin-Induced LTP in the CA1 Hippocampal Region Is NMDA Receptor Dependent". Journal of Neurophysiology 91 (1): 1955–1962. doi:10.1152/jn.00941.2003. PMID 14702333. 
  7. ^ Godard, M. P.; Johnson, B. A.; Richmond, S. R. (2005). "Body Composition and Hormonal Adaptations Associated with Forskolin Consumption in Overweight and Obese Men". Obesity Research 13 (8): 1335–1343. doi:10.1038/oby.2005.162. PMID 16129715. 
  8. ^ D.L. Pinto-Pereira. In: Rupp, RH; de Souza, NJ; Dohadwalla, AN.(Eds). Proceedings of an international symposium on "Forskolin: Its Chemical, Biological and Medical Potential", Hoechst India Limited, Bombay. 1985. pp. 183 - 191;
  9. ^ Wagh VD, Patil PN, Surana SJ, Wagh KVForskolin: Upcoming antiglaucoma molecule. J Postgrad Med. 2012 Jul;58(3):199-202
  10. ^ English, J. (January 2000). "Research preview for the new millenium". Vitamin Research News. 
  11. ^ Zeng, S.; Shen, B.; Wen, L.; Hu, B.; Peng, D.; Chen, X.; Zhou, W. (1995). "Experimental studies of the effect of Forskolin on the lowering of intraocular pressure". Yan Ke Xue Bao (Eye Science) 11 (3): 173–176. PMID 8758848. 
  12. ^ Head, K. A. (2001). "Natural Therapies for Ocular Disorders, Part Two: Cataracts and Glaucoma". Alternative Medicine Review 6 (2): 141–166. PMID 11302779. 
  13. ^ Amaro-Ortiz, A. (2013). "Pharmacologic induction of epidermal melanin and protection against sunburn in a humanized mouse model.". J. Vis. Exp. (79). doi:10.3791/50670. PMID 24056496. 
  14. ^ "Herbal treatment Forskolin may help knock out for urinary tract infections once and for all". News Medical. 2007-04-08. 
  15. ^ Bishop BL. et al. (May 2007). "Cyclic AMP-regulated exocytosis of Escherichia coli from infected bladder epithelial cells.". Nat Med 13 (5): 625–30. doi:10.1038/nm1572. PMID 17417648. 
  16. ^ In: Huerta M, Urzúa Z, Trujillo X, González-Sánchez R, Trujillo-Hernández B. Forskolin compared with beclomethasone for prevention of asthma attacks: a single-blind clinical trial. J Int Med Res . 2010;38(2):661-668.
  17. ^ a b "Forskolin". Drugs.com. www.drugs.com. 
  18. ^ In:Lukhoba CW, Simmonds MS, Paton AJ. Plectranthus : a review of ethnobotanical uses. J Ethnopharmacol . 2006;103(1):1-24..

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]