Ford Modular engine

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Ford Modular engine
1999-2000-2001-2002-2003-2004-ford-mustang-8.jpg
A 1999 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra engine.
Overview
ManufacturerFord Motor Company
Also calledFord Triton
Lincoln InTech
Production1991–present
Combustion chamber
Displacement281 CID (4601 cc) V8
302 CID (4951 cc) V8
305 CID (4992 cc) V8
323 CID (5284 cc) V8
330 CID (5408 cc) V8
351 CID (5753 cc) V10
354 CID (5808 cc) V8
415 CID (6760 cc) V10
Cylinder bore3.552 in (90.2 mm)
3.629 in (92.2 mm)
3.68 in (93.5 mm)
3.700 in (94 mm)
Piston stroke3.543 in (90 mm)
3.649 in (92.7 mm)
3.750 in (95.3 mm)
4.165 in (105.8 mm)
ValvetrainOHC with Roller Finger Followers
Chronology
PredecessorFord Windsor V8
Ford 385 V8
 
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Ford Modular engine
1999-2000-2001-2002-2003-2004-ford-mustang-8.jpg
A 1999 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra engine.
Overview
ManufacturerFord Motor Company
Also calledFord Triton
Lincoln InTech
Production1991–present
Combustion chamber
Displacement281 CID (4601 cc) V8
302 CID (4951 cc) V8
305 CID (4992 cc) V8
323 CID (5284 cc) V8
330 CID (5408 cc) V8
351 CID (5753 cc) V10
354 CID (5808 cc) V8
415 CID (6760 cc) V10
Cylinder bore3.552 in (90.2 mm)
3.629 in (92.2 mm)
3.68 in (93.5 mm)
3.700 in (94 mm)
Piston stroke3.543 in (90 mm)
3.649 in (92.7 mm)
3.750 in (95.3 mm)
4.165 in (105.8 mm)
ValvetrainOHC with Roller Finger Followers
Chronology
PredecessorFord Windsor V8
Ford 385 V8

The Ford Modular engine is Ford Motor Company's overhead camshaft (OHC) V8 and V10 engine family, which has been produced in 4.6L, 5.0L (Cammer, Coyote), 5.4L, 5.8L and 6.8L variations. Contrary to popular belief, the Modular engine did not get its name from its design or sharing of certain parts among the engine family. Instead, the name was derived from a manufacturing plant protocol, "Modular", where the plant and its tooling could be changed out in a matter of hours to manufacture different versions of the engine family.[1] The Modular engines are used in various Ford, Lincoln, and Mercury vehicles. Modular engines used in Ford trucks were marketed under the Triton name from 1997–2010 while the InTech name was used for a time at Lincoln for vehicles equipped with DOHC versions of the engines.

The engines were first produced in Romeo, Michigan but additional capacity was added in Windsor, Canada.

4.6 L[edit]

The 4.6 L (4601 cc, 281 CID)[2] 90-degree V8 has been offered in 2-valve SOHC, 3-valve SOHC, and 4-valve DOHC versions. The engines were also offered with both aluminum and cast iron blocks, depending on application. The 4.6 L's bore and stroke are nearly square at 90.2 mm (3.552 in) and 90 mm (3.543 in), respectively. Deck height for the 4.6 block is 227 mm (8.937 in) and connecting rod length is 150.7 mm (5.933 in) center to center, giving the 4.6 L a 1.67:1 rod to stroke ratio. Cylinder bore spacing measures 100 mm (3.937 in), which is common to all members of the Modular engine family. All Modular V8s, save for the new 5.0 L Coyote, utilize the same firing order as the Ford 5.0 L HO and 351 CID V8s (1-3-7-2-6-5-4-8). The 4.6 L engines have been assembled at Romeo Engine Plant, located in Romeo, MI, and at Windsor Engine Plant and Essex Engine Plant, both located in Windsor, Ontario.[3]

The 4.6L is no longer in production due to the introduction of the 5.0L "coyote" V8 engine. The Ford Crown Victoria, Mercury Grand Marquis, and Lincoln Town Car were the last Ford vehicles to offer this engine, until the Ford E-Series Vans ends its production after the 2013 model year. However this engine is still being produced for the MV-1.

2-valve[edit]

The first production Modular engine was the 4.6 L 2-valve SOHC V8 introduced in the 1991 Lincoln Town Car.

The 4.6 L 2V has been built at both Romeo Engine Plant and Windsor Engine Plant, and the plants have different designs for main bearings, heads (cam caps: interconnected cam "cages" vs individual caps per cam journal), camshaft gears (bolt-on vs. press-on), valve covers (11 bolts vs. 13 bolts), crankshaft (6 bolts vs. 8 bolts), and cross bolt fasteners for main bearing caps.[4]

In 1999, the F-Series 5.4 L 2V and the Mustang 4.6 L 2V received upgrades which included cylinder heads with improved port and combustion chamber designs, a more aggressive cam profile, and improved intake manifolds. This upgrade was known as the PI (Performance Improved) package. In 2001, the F150 and Crown Victoria 4.6 Ls received the PI package. In keeping with traditional Ford practice, as engine design is revised over time and compatibility with previous versions is considered low priority,[5] so that parts from a Modular engine made in one model year are not necessarily likely to fit an engine made in another; and parts from an engine manufactured in Romeo are unlikely to fit an engine made in Windsor.[6]

Vehicles equipped with the 16-valve SOHC 4.6 L include the following:

3-valve[edit]

4.6 L 3-valve SOHC V8 installed in a 2006 Ford Mustang GT

The 3-valve SOHC 4.6 L with variable camshaft timing (VCT) first appeared in the redesigned 2005 Ford Mustang.

The engines are equipped with an electronic Charge Motion Control Valve (CMCV) system that provides increased air velocity at low engine speeds for improved emissions and low-rpm torque. Cylinder block material varies between aluminum used in the 2005+ Mustang GT and cast iron used in the 2006+ Ford Explorer and the 2007+ Ford Explorer Sport Trac (see below), though the same aluminum heads are used in all applications.[citation needed]

The 3-valve SOHC 4.6 L engine was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2005–2008.

Vehicles equipped with the 24-valve SOHC VCT 4.6 L include the following:

4-valve[edit]

4.6 L 4-valve DOHC InTech V8 installed in a 1996 Lincoln Mark VIII
4.6 L 4-valve DOHC supercharged V8 installed in a 2003 and 2004 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra

The 4-valve DOHC version of the Modular engine was introduced in the 1993 Lincoln Mark VIII as the 4.6 L Four-Cam V8. Lincoln marketed the engine under the name InTech after 1995.[7]

The 1993–1998 4-valve engines featured cylinder heads with two intake ports per cylinder (split-port) and variable runner length intake manifolds with either vacuum or electrically activated intake manifold runner controls (IMRC) depending on application. The engine was revised for 1999 with new cylinder heads featuring tumble-style intake ports (one intake port feeding two intake valves), new camshaft profiles, and fixed runner-length intake manifolds. These changes resulted in more power, torque and a broader power-band when compared to the earlier 4-valve engines.[4]

All 4.6 L 4-valve engines featured aluminum engine blocks with 6-bolt main bearing caps, the only exception being the 2003–2004 SVT Cobra which had a 4-bolt main cast iron block. The 1999 and earlier engines featured an aluminum block cast in Italy by Fiat subsidiary Teksid S.p.A. Since 1996, all of the 4.6 L 4-valve engines manufactured for use in the SVT Cobra have been hand-built by SVT technicians at Ford's Romeo, Michigan plant.[8]

The 4-valve DOHC 4.6 L engine was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 1996 and 1997.

Vehicles equipped with the 32-valve DOHC 4.6 L include the following:

5.0 L Coyote[edit]

The 5.0 L (4951 cc, 302 cid)[11] "Coyote" V8 is the latest evolution of the Modular engine.[12] Ford engineers needed to design a V8, specifically for the Mustang GT, that would compete with the GM 6.2L LS3 used in the new Chevrolet Camaro, and the new Chrysler 6.4L Hemi ESF in the Charger and Challenger. This engine had to remain close to the same physical size of the outgoing 4.6, and share other specifications with it such as bore spacing, deck height, bell housing bolt pattern, etc. in order for the engine to utilize existing Modular production line tooling. The result was the 5.0 Coyote, which produced roughly the same amount of power as its competitors, but with a much smaller displacement. To strengthen the block enough to handle increased output, webbing was extensively used as reinforcement in the casting, rather than increasing the thickness of the walls. The intake plenum was also situated low between the two cylinder banks to meet the height constraint, thus the alternator traditionally placed low and center was moved to the side of the engine. It shares the 4.6 L's 100 mm (3.937 in) bore spacing and 227 mm (8.937 in) deck height,[13] while bore diameter and stroke have increased to 92.2mm (3.629 in) and 92.7mm (3.649 in), respectively. The engine also retains the 4.6 L's 150.7 mm (5.933 in) connecting rod length, which produces a 1.62:1 rod to stroke ratio.[14] The firing order has been changed from that shared by all previous Modular V8s (1-3-7-2-6-5-4-8) to that of the Ford Flathead V8 (1-5-4-8-6-3-7-2).[14] Compression ratio is 11.0:1, and despite having indirect fuel injection (as opposed to direct injection) the engine can still be run on 87 octane gasoline.

The Coyote features all new 4V DOHC cylinder heads that have shifted the camshafts outboard, which allowed for a compact roller finger follower setup with remote hydraulic valve lash adjusters and improved (raised) intake port geometry. The result is an intake port that outflows the Ford GT intake port by 4 percent and the Yates D3 (NASCAR) intake port up to 0.472" (12 mm) lift, which is the maximum lift of the Coyote's intake cams. Engine redline is 7000 rpm.[14]

The Coyote is Ford's first implementation of its cam-torque-actuated (CTA) Twin Independent Variable Cam Timing (Ti-VCT) in a V8 engine, which allows the power-train control module (PCM) to advance and retard intake and exhaust cam timing independently of each other, providing improved power, fuel economy and reduced emissions. The engine is assembled in Ford's Essex Engine Plant in Windsor, Ontario, using existing Modular tooling.[15]

Boss 302 (Road Runner) Variant[edit]

A higher performance variant of the Coyote, dubbed Road Runner internally by Ford, is produced under the Boss 302 moniker used for the resurrected Boss 302 Mustang for the 2012 model year.[16] The Boss 302 receives CNC ported heads cast in 356 aluminum providing additional airflow and strength, and a higher lift exhaust camshaft profile is used. Valvetrain components were lightened as much as possible, including the use of sodium filled exhaust valves, while strengthened powdered metal rods and forged aluminum pistons were added. Piston-cooling jets were also deleted, which are standard in the 5.0 model.[17] Exterior changes include a high-mount intake plenum (as opposed to the standard engine's low-mounted one) with shorter runners to improve high-rpm power. Power is increased from 412 hp (307 kW) to 444 hp (331 kW), and torque drops from 390 lb·ft (530 N·m) to 380 lb·ft (520 N·m) due to the upgrades. The Boss's redline is increased to 7500 rpm, but has been verified stable up to 8400.[18]

F-150 Variant[edit]

A torque-biased variant of the Coyote is produced as an alternative to the EcoBoost V6 in the new F-150 pickup truck. The F150 5.0L receives a lower compression ratio (10.5:1), intake camshafts with less duration, cast iron exhaust manifolds, and revised cylinder heads and intake manifold intended to promote low-end and mid-range power and torque. The engine retains the Coyote's forged steel crank and piston-cooling jets but benefits from the addition of an external engine oil cooler similar to the Boss 302's. The changes result in the engine's peak horsepower dropping to 360 hp (268 kW; 365 PS) while torque remains the same as the Boss 302 at 380 lb·ft (520 N·m).[19]

Applications[edit]

For the Australian Ford Falcon-based FPV GT range, the engine has been equipped with a Harrop/Eaton supercharger.[20][21]

The Coyote made Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2011.[22]

The Coyote is available as a crate motor from Ford Racing Performance Parts (FRPP) complete with alternator, manifold, and wiring harness in standard 412 bhp (307 kW; 418 PS) configuration. The Boss 302 is also available from FRPP for a premium over the standard 5.0L.

The engine is gradually replacing the 4.6 and 5.4 V8 units in all Ford vehicles. This is the first time Ford has used the 5.0 designation since the original 5.0's discontinuation in the early 1990s, when it was replaced by the 4.6 unit, the unit that the new 5.0 replaces.

Vehicles equipped with the 32-valve DOHC Ti-VCT 5.0 L include the following:

5.4 L[edit]

The 5.4 L (5408 cc, 330 CID)[2] V8 is a member of the Modular engine family first introduced in the redesigned 1997 Ford F-Series as a Triton V8. Bore diameter is 90.2 mm (3.552 in) and stroke is 105.8 mm (4.165 in), the increased stroke necessitated a taller 256 mm (10.079 in) engine block deck height. A 169.1 mm (6.658 in) connecting rod length is used to achieve a 1.60:1 rod to stroke ratio. The 5.4 L 2V was built at the Windsor Engine Plant, while the 5.4 L 3V moved production to the Essex Engine Plant beginning in 2003, then back to Windsor Engine Plant in 2009.[28] The SVT 5.4 L 4-valve engines are built at Romeo Engine Plant, hand assembled on the niche line.[29]

The engine is only currently used in the E-series, Expedition, Lincoln Navigator and a 550 hp version in the Shelby GT500.

2-valve[edit]

Introduced in 1997, the SOHC 2-valve 5.4 L has a cast iron engine block and aluminum cylinder heads. The 5.4 L features multi-port fuel injection, roller finger followers, fracture-split powder metal connecting rods, and in some applications a forged steel crankshaft.

The 2-valve SOHC 5.4 L engine was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 1997–1998 and 2000–2002.

Vehicles equipped with the 16-valve SOHC 5.4 L include the following:

3-valve[edit]

In 2002, Ford introduced a new 3-valve SOHC cylinder head with variable camshaft timing (VCT), improving power and torque over the previous 2-valve SOHC version. The 3-valve cylinder head was first used on the 2002 Ford Fairmont 5.4 L Boss 220 engine in Australia.[30] The 3-valve 5.4 L was introduced to the North American market in the redesigned 2004 Ford F-150.

Vehicles equipped with the 24-valve SOHC VCT 5.4 L include the following:

4-valve[edit]

5.4 L 4-valve DOHC V8 installed in a 2000 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra R

In 1999, Ford introduced the DOHC 4-valve 5.4 L in the Lincoln Navigator under the InTech moniker, making it the second engine to use this name. Ford later used versions of the DOHC 4-valve 5.4 L in the 2000 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra R, the Ford GT supercar, and the Ford Shelby GT500. The DOHC 4-valve 5.4 L was also used in the Ford Falcon line in Australia under the Boss moniker until 2010, when it was replaced by a locally-developed, supercharged version of the 5.0 litre Modular V8.[citation needed]

The SVT Cobra R version of the 5.4 L 4-valve V8 had several key differences from its Lincoln counterpart. While the iron block and forged steel crankshaft were sourced directly from the InTech 5.4 L, the Cobra R powerplant benefited from new, high-flow cylinder heads that were designed with features developed for Ford's "Rough Rider" off-road racing program, application specific camshafts with higher lift and more duration than other 4-valve Modular cams, forged I-beam connecting rods sourced from Carillo, forged pistons that provided a 9.6:1 compression ratio in conjunction with the 52 cc combustion chambers, and a unique high-flow "cross-ram" style aluminum intake manifold. The Cobra R was rated at 385 hp (287 kW) and 385 lb·ft (522 N·m) though chassis dynamometer results have shown these ratings to be conservative with unmodified Cobra Rs often producing nearly 380 hp (280 kW) at the rear wheels.[31]

The Ford GT version of the 5.4 L is a highly specialized version of the Modular engine. It is an all-aluminum, dry-sump 5.4 L 4-valve DOHC with a Lysholm screw-type supercharger and showcases numerous technological features, such as dual fuel injectors per cylinder and oil squirters for the piston skirts, not found in other Ford Modular engines of the time. The GT 5.4 L benefits from an improved version of the high-flow 2000 Cobra R cylinder head and unique high-lift camshafts. The GT is rated at 550 hp (410 kW) and 500 lb·ft (678 N·m).[32]

5.4 L 4-valve DOHC supercharged V8 installed in a 2007 Ford Shelby GT500

The Shelby GT500 uses a 4-valve DOHC 5.4 L with an Eaton M122H Roots type supercharger and air-to-liquid intercooler.[33] The GT500 5.4 L shares its high-flow cylinder head castings with the Ford GT, with only minor machining differences, and shares camshafts with the 2003–2004 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra; which have less lift and duration than the Ford GT camshafts. The 2007–2010 GT500 engine used an iron engine block, while the 2011 GT500 5.4 L receives a new aluminum engine block, with Ford's first production application of their patented Plasma Transferred Wire Arc (PTWA) cylinder coating, eliminating the need for pressed in cylinder liners. The PTWA spray apparatus was co-developed by Ford and Flame-Spray Industries of Long Island, New York, for which they received the 2009 IPO National Inventors of the Year Award.[34] The 2011 GT500 engine weighs 102 lb (46 kg). less than the previous iron-block version, thanks in part to the lack of cast iron cylinder liners.[35] All of the 5.4 L 4-valve engines destined for use in SVT vehicles, such as the Ford GT and Shelby GT500, have been hand-built by technicians at Ford's Romeo, Michigan plant.[8]

Vehicles equipped with the 32-valve DOHC 5.4 L include the following:

5.8 L[edit]

The 5.8L (5808 cc, 354 CID) DOHC 4-valve Modular V8, dubbed Trinity internally by Ford, is introduced with the 2013 Ford Shelby GT500. The 5.8 L's bore and stroke are 93.5 mm (3.68 in) and 105.8 mm (4.165 in) respectively. The Trinity is based on the 5.4L V8 used in the previous model year GT500, utilizing the same block geometry but receiving a 3.3 mm (0.128 in) increase in bore diameter. The PTWA cylinder lining technology first used in the 2011-2012 GT500 5.4 is retained in the 5.8.[36] The 5.8 L benefits from cylinder heads with improved coolant flow, Ford GT camshafts, piston-cooling oil jets similar to those found on the 5.0 Coyote, new 5-layer MLS head gaskets, a red line increased to 7000 rpm (from 6250 rpm), and a compression ratio increased to 9.0:1 (from 8.5:1). Boost is supplied by a 2.3L TVS supercharger.[37]

6.8 L V10[edit]

The 6.8 L (6760 cc, 413 CID) SOHC V10 is another variation of the Modular family created for use in large trucks. Bore size is 90.2 mm (3.552 in) and stroke is 105.8 mm (4.165 in), identical to the 5.4 L V8. Both 2-valve and 3-valve versions have been produced. The 6.8 L uses a split-pin crank with 72° firing intervals and a balance shaft to quell vibrations inherent to a 90° bank angle V10 engine. The engine's firing order is 1-6-5-10-2-7-3-8-4-9. The 2-valve version was first introduced in 1997, with a 3-valve non-VCT version to follow in 2005. The 3-valve engines were built alongside the 2-valve engines at Ford's Windsor, Ontario LVL engine line, but moved production to the larger Windsor Engine Plant in 2009.[citation needed]

Vehicles equipped with the 6.8 L V10 Modular engine include the following:

2-valve[edit]

[39]

3-valve[edit]

Ford of Australia[edit]

5.4 L 3-valve VCT SOHC Boss V8

Ford Australia used 5.4 L Modular V8s in the Ford Falcon and previously on the Ford Fairlane sedan model ranges, as well as in its high performance Ford Performance Vehicles (FPV) division models, until mid-2010, when they were replaced by the new 5.0 litre. The DOHC 5.4 L V8s are coined Boss by Ford Australia while the SOHC versions with VCT were coined Barra, with a number designation referring to power output in kW. The 3V SOHC Barra engines were, and the 4V DOHC Boss short blocks and cylinder heads are built in Windsor, Ontario. The Boss engines include some locally sourced parts such as intake and pistons. All are built with cast-iron blocks.

Ford of Australia 5.4 L engines include:

5.0 L and 5.3 L Cammer[edit]

5.0 L R50 Cammer 4-valve DOHC V8 engine installed in a Grand-Am Cup Mustang FR500C.

In 2005, Ford Racing Performance Parts introduced a 5.0 L (4992 cc, 305 CID) V8 crate engine for use in motor racing and home-made performance cars, officially called M-6007-T50EA, but more widely known as "Cammer". Since then, other higher performance variations of the Cammer have been introduced for KONI Sports Car Challenge and GT4 European Cup. All versions of the Cammer are DOHC 4-valve per cylinder designs with a 94 mm (3.700 in) bore and a 90 mm (3.543 in) stroke. The Cammer achieves its larger 94 mm (3.7 in) bore by resleeving the 4.6 L aluminum block.[41]

The T50 Cammer crate engine, the least expensive and most street oriented version, uses derivatives of the cylinder heads, variable runner-length magnesium intake manifold, and camshafts first used in the 2000 FR500 Mustang concept car. These parts are unique to the T50 Cammer crate engine and are not found in any other production Modular applications. The T50 has an 11.0:1 compression ratio and exceeds 420 horsepower (310 kW) and with the proper exhaust manifolds.[41]

The Cammer that has seen success in Grand Am Cup powering the Mustang FR500C is officially called M-6007-R50 and features a unique dual plenum, fixed runner-length magnesium intake manifold, Ford GT aluminum cylinder heads, unique camshafts of undisclosed specifications, and an 11.0:1 compression ratio. The R50 Cammer produces over 450 hp (336 kW) without restrictor plates. Upon introduction the R50 Cammer-powered Mustang FR500C proved to be dominant in Grand-Am Cup, having achieved five victories and podium appearances in nearly every race in the GS class during the 2005 season, giving David Empringham the championship title with the Multimatic Motorsports team, and Ford the manufacturer's title.[citation needed]

Robert Yates publicly expressed interest in using a similar 5.0 L 4-valve DOHC Modular V8 to compete in the NASCAR Winston Cup Series (now Sprint Cup Series).[42][43][44] Roush-Yates supplies a naturally aspirated [45] 550 hp (410 kW) 5.0 L Cammer for use in the Mustang FR500GT3 and Matech-Ford GT3 which participate in the FIA GT3 European Championship,[46][47] and a naturally aspirated 665 hp (496 kW) 5.3L Cammer for use in the 2010 Matech-Ford GT1 that competes in FIA GT1 World Championship.[48] The 5.3L Cammer's extra displacement is achieved via a 95.3 mm (3.750 in) stroke.

5.8 L V10 Prototype[edit]

A prototype variant of the Ford 4.6L V8 is a 10 cylinder V10 that shares the same bore and stroke as the 4.6L. Project lead Kevin Byrd describes it, "The 6.8 truck crank is a split-pin crank, like you'd find in a 60-degree V-6. [For the 5.8 V-10], we went to a common-pin design based off the Cobra crank, only instead of four pins, we have five. The crank is set at a 72-degree pin offset, but when you put that in a 90-degree block, it doesn't line up to a 72-degree firing. It ends up to be a 90/54, so you get that odd-fire sound, but it blends together beautifully." [49]

World record[edit]

The Koenigsegg CCR used a modified, Rotrex supercharged Ford Modular 4-valve DOHC 4.6L V8, which produced 806 hp (601 kW), to achieve a top speed of 241 mph (388 km/h). This certified top speed was recorded on February 28, 2005 in Nardo, Italy and broke the McLaren F1's world record for fastest production car.[50] The accomplishment was recognized by Guinness World Records in 2005, who gave the Koenigsegg CCR the official title of World's Fastest Production Car. The Koenigsegg record was broken several months later by the Bugatti Veyron. This engine is the basis for Koenigsegg's twin-supercharged flexible fuel V8 seen in the CCX.

Intake manifold defect[edit]

Starting in 1996, Ford began installing a DuPont Zytel nylon-composite intake manifold onto the 2-valve SOHC engines. Plaintiffs in class action lawsuits alleged that the coolant crossover passage of these intake manifolds may crack, resulting in coolant leakage. A US class-action suit was filed on behalf of owners, resulting in a settlement announced on December 17, 2005.[citation needed]

Starting with the 2002 model year, and implemented halfway through the 2001 lineup, Ford began using a revised DuPont Zytel nylon-composite intake manifold with an aluminum front coolant crossover that corrected the issue. Replacement intakes were also made available for 1996–2001 engines.[51] To be eligible for reimbursement, owners needed to contact a Ford, Lincoln or Mercury dealer within 90 days of December 16, 2005. Further, Ford offered an extended warranty for this part, for seven years from the start date (which means the initial vehicle sale date) without a mileage limitation.

The following vehicles were included in this class-action suit settlement:

Spark plug issues[edit]

2-valve 4.6 L, 5.4 L, and 6.8 L engines found in many 1997–2008 Ford, Lincoln, and Mercury vehicles have an issue with stripped or missing spark plug threads in the cylinder heads. Ford acknowledges this issue in TSB 07-21-2 as well as earlier TSBs. Ford's TSB does not state that this issue is caused by owner neglect. Ford's only authorized repair procedure for out-of-warranty vehicles is to use the LOCK-N-STITCH aluminum insert and tool kit. For vehicles under the New Vehicle Limited Warranty, Ford will only cover the replacement of the entire cylinder head; however, the Ford recommended spark plug service interval extends beyond the duration of the New Vehicle Limited Warranty.[52]

3-valve 5.4 L and 6.8 L engines built before 10/9/07 and 3-valve 4.6 Ls built before 11/30/07 found in many 2004–2008 Ford, Lincoln, and Mercury vehicles have an issue with difficult to remove spark plugs which can cause part of the spark plug to become seized in the cylinder head. The source of the problem is a unique plug design that is made with a 2-piece shell, which often separates, leaving the lower portion of the spark plug stuck deep in the engine. Ford acknowledges this issue in TSB 08-7-6 as well as earlier TSBs. Ford's TSB does not state that this issue is caused by owner neglect. The TSB provides a special procedure for spark plug removal on these engines. For situations where the spark plug has broken in the head, Ford distributes multiple special tools for removing the seized portion of the plug. The multiple procedures required for the different cases/situations of plugs seized in these engines are explained in the TSB. This repair is covered for vehicles under warranty; however, the Ford recommended spark plug service interval extends beyond the duration of the New Vehicle Limited Warranty.[53]

Federal-Mogul, parent company of Champion Spark Plug, and Brisk Silver Racing have introduced a 1-piece machined shell 3-valve spark plugs that addresses the OEM 2-piece spark plug's separation issues.[54][55]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1] "Ford readies its mod squad - 32-valve 4.6 L Modular V-8 engine to be introduced late this year in the Lincoln Mark VIII automobile".
  2. ^ a b "Ford Vehicles: Get Specifications F-150". Ford Motor Company. Retrieved 2008-04-25. "Engine type: 5.4L Triton SOHC 24-valve V8... Displacement (cu. in.): 330 CID" 
  3. ^ "FORD'S ROMEO ENGINE PLANT TO BUILD NEW 4.6-LITER 3-VALVE V-8 ENGINE". Media.ford.com. Retrieved 2013-03-11. 
  4. ^ a b "Ford Modular V-8 Engines Explained Part 2 Get Familiar With Ford's Next-Generation Overhead Cam V-8 Powerhouse With A Closer Look At Cylinder Heads". Modified Mustangs & Fords. September 2005. Retrieved 2013-03-01. 
  5. ^ High Performance Ford Engine Parts Interchange, George Reid, SA Publications, 56
  6. ^ Modular Motor Build Up - Part 2 - Engine Block Preparation, Nick Spinelli, ModularFords.com
  7. ^ Ford Motor Company. 1993 Lincoln Mark VIII, pages 5–6,18. 1993. MarkVIII.org. http://www.markviii.org/LOD2/1993brochure/FrameSet.htm
  8. ^ a b When Factory Automation Just Isn't Appropriate : Industrial Market Trends
  9. ^ "Panoz Auto Development Company". Panozauto.com. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  10. ^ http://www.mach1registry.com/images/2004mustangs.pdf
  11. ^ http://media.ford.com/images/10031/2011_Mustang_GT_Specs.pdf
  12. ^ "2011 Ford Mustang GT: First Look". Insideline.com. 2009-12-28. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  13. ^ "Mustang GT 5.0 Returns in 2011 After 10-Year Hiatus". Popularmechanics.com. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
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  39. ^ LINCOLN 4.6 TIMING
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  42. ^ [2] Robert Yates on Modulars in Winston Cup.
  43. ^ [3] Robert Yates saw the light.
  44. ^ [4] "While we know Robert Yates is personally interested in promoting the Modular engine for Winston Cup..."
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  46. ^ News: Ford FR500GT Mustang To Go After European FIA Racing With Some Serious Man-Boy Action
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  50. ^ Koenigsegg World Record Press Release
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  53. ^ Ford TSB 08-7-6
  54. ^ http://www.aftermarketnews.com/Item/25952/federalmoguls_champion_brand_introduces_new_one_piece_premium_replacement_spark_plug.aspx Ford 3-Valve Plug By Champion
  55. ^ http://www.briskracing.com/product.php?productid=57

See also[edit]