Forage

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Forage (disambiguation).

Amongst land animals, forage is plant material (mainly plant leaves and stems) eaten by grazing livestock.[1] Historically, the term forage has meant only plants eaten by the animals directly as pasture, crop residue, or immature cereal crops, but it is also used more loosely to include similar plants cut for fodder and carried to the animals, especially as hay or silage.[2] Amongst aquatic animals, the term forage fish refers to small schooling fish that are preyed on by larger aquatic animals.[3]

While the term forage has a broad definition, the term forage crop is used to define crops, annual or biennal, which are grown to be utilized by grazing or harvesting as a whole crop.[4]

Common forages[edit]

Bull feeding on grass
Horse-drawn transport of fodder in Romania
Meadow of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)

Grasses[edit]

Grass forages include:[5][6]

Herbaceous legumes[edit]

Herbaceous legume forages include:[7]

White clover (Trifolium repens)

Tree legumes[edit]

Tree legume forages include:

Sheep with silage

Silage[edit]

Silage may be composed by the following:[8]

Crop residue[edit]

Crop residues used as forage include:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fageria, N.K. (1997). Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Field Crops. NY,NY: Marcel Dekker. p. 595. 
  2. ^ Fageria, N.K. (1997). Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Field Crops. NY,NY: Marcel Dekker. p. 583. 
  3. ^ Karpouzi V, R Watson and D Pauly (2006) "Forage fish consumption by marine mammals and seabirds" Fisheries Centre Research Reports, 14 (3): 33–46.
  4. ^ Givens, D. Ian (2000). Forage evaluation in ruminant nutrition. CABI. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-85199-344-7. 
  5. ^ Murphy, B. (1998). Greener Pastures On Your Side of the Fence. Colchester, Vermont: Arriba Publishing. pp. 19–20. 
  6. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Pasture". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 
  7. ^ Murphy, B. (1998). Greener Pastures On Your Side of the Fence. Colchester, Vermont: Arriba Publishing. p. 20. 
  8. ^ George, J. R. (1994). Extension Publications: Forage and Grain Crops. Dubuque,Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. p. 152.