Adobe Flash Player
|Developer(s)||Adobe Systems (formerly by Macromedia)|
11.6.602.168  (12 February 2013)[±]
11.5.502.146 (8 January 2013)[±]
|Operating system||Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Solaris, BlackBerry Tablet OS, Android, and Pocket PC|
|Platform||Web browsers and ActiveX-based software|
|Available in||Chinese Simplified, Chinese Traditional, English, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Polish, Russian, Spanish, Korean, and Turkish.|
|Type||Run-time environment, Media player, and Browser extension|
The Adobe Flash Player is freeware software for viewing multimedia, executing Rich Internet Applications, and streaming video and audio, content created on the Adobe Flash platform. Flash Player can run from a web browser (as a browser plug-in) or on supported mobile devices, but there also exist versions running directly on an operating system intended both for regular users and content developers, denoted with the Projector (or Standalone) and Debugger name suffixes, respectively. Flash Player runs SWF files that can be created by the Adobe Flash Professional authoring tool, by Adobe Flex or by a number of other Macromedia and third party tools. Flash Player was created by Macromedia and now developed and distributed by Adobe Systems after its acquisition.
Flash Player can be downloaded for free and its plug-in version is available for recent versions of web browsers (such as Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Opera and Safari) on selected platforms. Google Chrome distribution comes bundled with the sandboxed Adobe Flash plug-in and will continue to support the plug-in in Windows 8 Metro mode. Each version of Adobe Flash Player is backwards-compatible.
Adobe Flash Player is a runtime that executes and displays content from a provided SWF file, although it has no in-built features to modify the SWF file at runtime. It can execute software written in the ActionScript programming language which enables the runtime manipulation of text, data, vector graphics, raster graphics, sound and video. The player can also access certain connected hardware devices, including web cameras and microphones, after permission for the same has been granted by the user.
Flash Player is used internally by the Adobe Integrated Runtime (Adobe AIR), in order to provide a cross-platform runtime environment for desktop applications and mobile applications. Adobe AIR supports installable applications on Windows, Linux, Mac OS, and some mobile operating systems such as iOS and Android. Flash applications must specifically be built for the Adobe AIR runtime in order to utilize additional features provided, such as file system integration, native client extensions, native window/screen integration, taskbar/dock integration, and hardware integration with connected Accelerometer and GPS devices.
Flash Player includes native support for many different data formats, some of which can only be accessed through the ActionScript scripting interface.
- XML: Flash Player has included native support for XML parsing and generation since version 8. XML data is held in memory as an XML Document Object Model, and can be manipulated using ActionScript. ActionScript 3 also supports ECMAScript for XML (E4X), which allows XML data to be manipulated easier.
- AMF: Flash Player allows cookies to be stored on users computers, in the form of Local Shared Objects, the Flash equivalent to browser cookies. Flash Player can also natively read and write files in the Action Message Format, the default data format for Local Shared Objects. Since the AMF format specification is published, data can be transferred to and from Flash applications using AMF datasets instead of JSON or XML, reducing the need for parsing and validating such data.
- SWF: The specification for the SWF file format was published by Adobe, enabling the development of the SWX Format project, which utilized the SWF file format and AMF as a means for Flash applications to exchange data with server side applications. The SWX system stores data as standard SWF bytecode which is automatically interpreted by Flash Player. Another open-source project, SWXml allows Flash applications to load XML files as native ActionScript objects without any client-side XML parsing, by converting XML files to SWF/AMF on the server.
Adobe Flash Player supports socket communication using stream sockets which can be utilized using ActionScript to transfer plain text, XML or binary data between servers. ActionScript 2.0 only supported XML data transfer, while ActionScript 3.0 supports binary and XML data transfer.
Flash Player is primarily a graphics and multimedia platform, and has supported raster graphics and vector graphics since its earliest version. It supports the following different multimedia formats which it can natively decode and playback.
- MP3: Support for decoding and playback of streaming MPEG-2 Audio Layer III (MP3) audio was introduced in Flash Player 4. MP3 files can be accessed and played back from a server via HTTP, or embedded inside an SWF file, which is also a streaming format.
- PNG: Support for decoding and rendering Portable Network Graphics (PNG) images, in both its 24-bit (opaque) and 32-bit (semi-transparent) variants. Flash Player 11 can also encode a PNG bitmap via ActionScript.
- JPEG: Support for decoding and rendering compressed JPEG images. Flash Player 10 added support for the JPEG-XR advanced image compression standard developed by Microsoft Corporation, which results in better compression and quality than JPEG. JPEG-XR enables lossy and lossless compression with or without alpha channel transparency. Flash Player 11 can also encode a JPEG or JPEG-XR bitmap via ActionScript.
- GIF: Support for decoding and rendering compressed Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) images, in its single-frame variants only. Loading a multi-frame GIF will display only the first image frame.
Current versions of Flash Player are optimized to use hardware acceleration for video playback and 3D graphics rendering on many devices, including desktop computers. Performance is similar to HTML5 video playback. Also, Flash Player has been used on multiple mobile devices as a primary user interface renderer.
Although ActionScript 3 executes code up to 10 times faster than the previous ActionScript 2, the Adobe ActionScript 3 compiler is a non-optimizing compiler, and produces inefficient code. Adobe Alchemy, a toolkit that targets C++ code to run within the Flash Player, uses the LLVM compiler to produce bytecode that runs up to 10 times faster than code the ActionScript 3 compiler produces, only because the LLVM compiler uses more aggressive optimization.
As of 2012, the Haxe multiplatform language can build programs for Flash Player that perform faster than the same application built with the Adobe Flex SDK compiler.
Adobe has provided a free SDK in order to build Flash applications, now known as the Apache Flex SDK. The Flex SDK allows developers to use any text editor such as Notepad++ or FlashDevelop (an IDE) to edit ActionScript source code (.as files), and then build a corresponding Flash application application (.swf) or AIR application application and installer (.air file) from the same.
Adobe AIR applications can be built either with the Apache Flex Framework, or without. The framework is an integrated collection of stylable Graphical User Interface, data manipulation and networking components, and applications built upon it are known as "Flex" applications. Applications built without the framework depend entirely on the developer's own skills and artistic abilities, and are commonly known as "pure ActionScript" projects.
In both methods, developers can access the full Flash Player set of functionalities, including text, vector graphics, bitmap graphics, video, audio, camera and microphone support, among others. Adobe AIR also includes additional features such as file system integration, native extensions, native desktop integration, and hardware integration with connected devices.
Adobe provides two ways of developing applications:
Third-party development environments are also available:
- FlashDevelop, an open-source Flash ActionScript IDE, which includes a debugger for AIR applications
- FDT by PowerFlasher Solutions, a commercial ActionScript IDE
- CodeDrive, an extension to Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 for ActionScript 3 development and debugging
Adobe developed the Flash Runtime C++ Compiler (also known as "FlasCC"), that cross-compiles C/C++ code to run within the Flash Player, using LLVM and GCC as compiler backends, and high-performance memory-access opcodes in the Flash Player (known as "Domain Memory") to work with in-memory data quickly. FlasCC is targeted toward the game development industry, and includes tools for building, testing, and debugging C/C++ projects in Flash Player.
FlasCC also uses the GPU-based 3D rendering acceleration present in Flash Player 11 (known as "Stage3D"), and when used in combination with Domain Memory, form the Premium Features for Flash Player (also known as "XC APIs"). The Premium Features must be licensed for use and publishers must pay royalties to Adobe for use of the same. Adobe also ported OpenGL for use within Flash Player Stage3D and released it as an open-source project in 2012.
The documentation for the SWF file format is provided by Adobe free of cost on their website,. after they relaxed the requirement of accepting a non-disclosure agreement to view the same in 2008.
Adobe has not been willing to make complete source code of the Flash Player available for free software development. Free and open source alternatives to the Adobe Flash Player such as Gnash have been built, but are still incomplete and therefore not a viable alternative. The Lightspark Player is another such project, and has made more progress.
The source code for ActionScript Virtual Machine 2 (AVM2) which implements ActionScript 3 was donated as open-source to Mozilla Foundation on November 7, 2006, to begin work on the Tamarin virtual machine that will finally implement the ECMAScript 4 language standard with the help of the Mozilla community. It was released under the terms of a MPL/GPL/LGPL tri-license and includes the specification for the ActionScript bytecode format. Tamarin Project is jointly managed by Mozilla and Adobe Systems.
The Adobe Flex SDK which compiles SWF files from source code was released as an open-source project and was donated to the Apache Software Foundation in 2011, and rebranded as Apache Flex.
Adobe created the Open Screen Project which removes licensing fees and opens data protocols for Flash.
The Flash community has created many open-source projects that target Flash Player, such as FlashDevelop (an alternative IDE to Flash Builder), MTASC (compiler), and Haxe (multiplatform language).
Some CPU emulators have been created for Flash Player, including Chip8, Commodore 64, ZX Spectrum and the Nintendo Entertainment System.
The latest version of Flash Player, is available for many major desktop platforms including Windows (XP and newer), Solaris, and Mac OS X (10.6 and later). The latest version is also available on Linux but only on Google Chrome as Adobe no longer releases updates for the non-PPAPI plugin on Linux.
Adobe released an alpha version of Flash Player 10 for x86-64 Linux on November 17, 2008. Adobe released a beta version of Flash Player 11 on July 13, 2011, which has 64-bit editions for all supported platforms. Flash Player 11 was released to web on October 3, 2011.
Adobe Flash Player 11 is available in three flavors: "ActiveX", "Plug-in" and "Projector". The "ActiveX" version is an ActiveX control for use in Internet Explorer and any other Windows applications that supports ActiveX technology. The "plug-in" version is available for Netscape-compatible browsers on Microsoft Windows, Macintosh and Linux. The "projector" version is a standalone player that can open SWF files directly.
In February 2012, Adobe announced it would discontinue development of Flash Player on Linux for all browsers except Google Chrome.
In 2011, Flash Player had emerged as the de facto standard for online video publishing on the desktop, with adaptive bitrate video streaming, DRM, and fullscreen support. On mobile devices however, after Apple refused to allow the Flash Player within the inbuilt iOS web browser, Adobe changed strategy enabling Flash content to be delivered as native mobile applications using the Adobe Integrated Runtime.
Up until 2012, Flash Player 11 was available for the Android (ARM Cortex-A8 and above), although in June 2012, Google announced that Android 4.1 (codenamed Jelly Bean) will not support Flash by default. Starting in August 2012, it is not be possible to install Flash Player onto Android devices, and only devices with Flash already installed are updated.
Flash Player is certified to be supported on a select range of mobile and tablet devices, from Acer, Dell, HTC, Lenovo, Logitech, LG, Motorola, Research In Motion, Samsung, Sharp, SoftBank, Sony (and Sony Ericsson), and Toshiba. As of 2012, Adobe has stopped browser-based Flash Player development for mobile browsers in favor of HTML5, however Adobe continues to support Flash content on mobile devices with the Adobe Integrated Runtime, which allows developers to publish content that runs as native applications on certain supported mobile phone platforms.
Version 9 is the most recent version currently available for the Linux/ARM-based Nokia 770/N800/N810 Internet Tablets running Maemo OS2008, classic Mac OS and Windows 95/NT. Version 10 can be run under Windows 98/Me using KernelEx. HP offers Version 6 of the player for HP-UX. Other versions of the player have been available at some point for OS/2, Symbian OS, Palm OS, BeOS and IRIX. The Kodak Easyshare One includes Flash Player.
Adobe said it will optimize Flash for use on ARM architecture (ARMv6 and ARMv7 architectures used in the ARM11 family and the Cortex-A series of processors) and release it in the second half of 2009. The company also stated it wants to enable Flash on NVIDIA Tegra, Texas Instruments OMAP 3 and Samsung ARMs. Beginning 2009, it was announced that Adobe would be bringing Flash to TV sets via Intel Media Processor CE 3100 before mid-2009. Later on, ARM Holdings said it welcomes the move of Flash, because "it will transform mobile applications and it removes the claim that the desktop controls the Internet." However, as of May 2009, the expected ARM/Linux netbook devices had poor support for Web video and fragmented software base.
Among other devices, LeapFrog Enterprises provides Flash Player with their Leapster Multimedia Learning System and extended the Flash Player with touch-screen support. Sony has integrated Flash Player 6 into the PlayStation Portable's web browser via firmware version 2.70 and Flash Player 9 into the PlayStation 3's web browser in firmware version 2.50. Nintendo has integrated Flash Lite 3.1, equivalent to Flash 8, in the Internet Channel on the Wii.
The following table documents Flash Player and Adobe AIR support on mobile operating systems:
In some browsers, previous Flash versions have had to be uninstalled before an updated version could be installed. However, as of version 11.2 for Windows, there are now automatic updater options. Linux is partially supported, as Adobe is cooperating with Google to implement it via Chrome web browser on all Linux platforms.
Flash Player supports persistent local storage of data (also referred to as Local Shared Objects), which can be used similarly to HTTP cookies or Web Storage in web applications. Local storage in Flash Player allows websites to store non-executable data on a user's computer, such as authentication information, game high scores or saved games, server-based session identifiers, site preferences, saved work, or temporary files. Flash Player will only allow content originating from exactly the same website domain to access data saved in local storage.
Because local storage can be used to save information on a computer that is later retrieved by the same site, a site can use it to gather user statistics, similar to how HTTP cookies and Web Storage can be used. With such technologies, the possibility of building a profile based on user statistics is considered by some a potential privacy concern. Users can disable or restrict use of local storage in Flash Player through a "Settings Manager" page. These settings can be accessed from the Adobe website or by right-clicking on Flash-based content and selecting "Global Settings".
Local storage can be disabled entirely or on a site-by-site basis. Disabling local storage will block any content from saving local user information using Flash Player, but this may disable or reduce the functionality of some websites, such as saved preferences or high scores and saved progress in games.
Flash Player 10.1 and upward honor the privacy mode settings in the latest versions of the Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Safari web browsers, such that no local storage data is saved when the browser's privacy mode is in use.
Flash Player 10.3 introduced a Local Settings Manager that can be accessed from the Microsoft Windows Control Panel or the Mac OS X System Preferences panel. This panel superseded the previous Global Online Settings Manager. The Privacy Settings panel allows users to specify whether websites must ask their permission before using the web camera or microphone. This was apparently part of a fix for vulnerabilities that enabled the use of Flash for spying via web camera.
Steve Jobs criticized the security of Flash Player, noting that "Symantec recently highlighted Flash for having one of the worst security records in 2009". Adobe responded by pointing out that "the Symantec Global Internet Threat Report for 2009 found that Flash Player had the second lowest number of vulnerabilities of all Internet technologies listed (which included both web plug-ins and browsers)."
Adobe security bulletins and advisories announce security updates, but Adobe Flash Player release notes do not disclose the security issues addressed when a release closes security holes, making it difficult to evaluate the urgency of a particular update. A version test page allows the user to check if the latest version is installed, and uninstallers may be used to ensure that old-version plugins have been uninstalled from all installed browsers.
In April 2010, Steve Jobs, former CEO of Apple Inc. published an open letter explaining why Apple wouldn't allow Flash on the iPhone, iPod touch and iPad. In the letter he blamed the "openness", the stability, the security and the performance of the Flash Player as reasons for refusing to support it. He also claimed that when one of Apple's Macintosh computers crashes, "more often than not" the cause can be attributed to Flash. Additionally, he described Flash as "buggy". Adobe's CEO Shantanu Narayen responded by saying, "If Flash [is] the number one reason that Macs crash, which I'm not aware of, it has as much to do with the Apple operating system."
Steve Jobs also claimed that a large percentage of the video on the internet is supported on iOS, since many popular video sharing websites such as YouTube have published video content in an HTML5 compatible format, enabling videos to playback in mobile web browsers even without Flash Player.
Various members of the industry have claimed that Steve Jobs rejected Flash on the iPhone for business reasons, rather than the technical reasons he mentions in his letter.
|“||Allowing Flash—which is a development platform of its own—would just be too dangerous for Apple, a company that enjoys exerting total dominance over its hardware and the software that runs on it. Flash has evolved from being a mere animation player into a multimedia platform capable of running applications of its own. That means Flash would open a new door for application developers to get their software onto the iPhone: Just code them in Flash and put them on a web page. In so doing, Flash would divert business from the App Store, as well as enable publishers to distribute music, videos and movies that could compete with the iTunes Store.||”|
—"Why Apple Won’t Allow Adobe Flash on iPhone," Wired Magazine, (2008)
- Macromedia Flash Player 2 (1997)
- Mostly vectors and motion, some bitmaps, limited audio
- Support of stereo sound, enhanced bitmap integration, buttons, the Library, and the capability to tween color changes.
- Macromedia Flash Player 3 (1998)
- Added alpha transparency, licensed MP3 compression
- Brought improvements to animation, playback, and publishing, as well as the introduction of simple script commands for interactivity.
- Macromedia Flash Player 4 (May 1999)
- Saw the introduction of streaming MP3s and the Motion Tween. Initially, the Flash Player plug-in was not bundled with popular web browsers and users had to visit Macromedia website to download it; As of 2000, however, the Flash Player was already being distributed with all AOL, Netscape and Internet Explorer browsers. Two years later it shipped with all releases of Windows XP. The install-base of the Flash Player reached 92 percent of all Internet users.
- Macromedia Flash Player 5 (August 2000)
- A major leap forward in capability, with the evolution of Flash's scripting capabilities as released as ActionScript.
- Saw the ability to customize the authoring environment's interface.
- Macromedia Generator was the first initiative from Macromedia to separate design from content in Flash files. Generator 2.0 was released in April 2001 and featured real-time server-side generation of Flash content in its Enterprise Edition. Generator was discontinued in 2002 in favor of new technologies such as Flash Remoting, which allows for seamless transmission of data between the server and the client, and ColdFusion Server.
- In October 2000, usability guru Jakob Nielsen wrote a polemic article regarding usability of Flash content entitled "Flash: 99% Bad". (Macromedia later hired Nielsen to help them improve Flash usability.)
The old Macromedia Flash Player logo
- Macromedia Flash Player 6 (version 220.127.116.11, codenamed Exorcist) (March 2002)
- Support for the consuming Flash Remoting (AMF) and Web Service (SOAP)
- Supports ondemand/live audio and video streaming (RTMP)
- Support for screenreaders via Microsoft Active Accessibility
- Added Sorenson Spark video codec for Flash Video
- Support for video, application components, shared libraries, and accessibility.
- Macromedia Flash Communication Server MX, also released in 2002, allowed video to be streamed to Flash Player 6 (otherwise the video could be embedded into the Flash movie).
- Macromedia Flash Player 7 (version 18.104.22.168, codenamed Mojo) (September 2003)
- Supports progressive audio and video streaming (HTTP)
- Supports ActionScript 2.0, an Object-Oriented Programming Language for developers
- Ability to create charts, graphs and additional text effects with the new support for extensions (sold separately), high fidelity import of PDF and Adobe Illustrator 10 files, mobile and device development and a forms-based development environment. ActionScript 2.0 was also introduced, giving developers a formal Object-Oriented approach to ActionScript. V2 Components replaced Flash MX's components, being rewritten from the ground up to take advantage of ActionScript 2.0 and Object-Oriented principles.
- In 2004, the "Flash Platform" was introduced. This expanded Flash to more than the Flash authoring tool. Flex 1.0 and Breeze 1.0 were released, both of which utilized the Flash Player as a delivery method but relied on tools other than the Flash authoring program to create Flash applications and presentations. Flash Lite 1.1 was also released, enabling mobile phones to play Flash content.
- Macromedia Flash Player 8 (version 22.214.171.124, codenamed Maelstrom) (August 2005)
- Support for runtime loading of GIF and PNG images
- New video codec (On2 VP6)
- Improved runtime performance and runtime bitmap caching
- Live filters and blendmodes
- File upload and download capabilities
- New text-rendering engine, the Saffron Type System
- ExternalAPI subsystem introduced to replace fscommand
- On December 3, 2005, Adobe Systems acquired Macromedia and its product portfolio (including Flash).
- Adobe Flash Player 9 (version 126.96.36.199, codenamed Zaphod and previously named Flash Player 8.5) (June 2006)
- Adobe Flash Player 9 Update 1 (version 188.8.131.52, codenamed Marvin) (November 2006)
- Support for full-screen mode.
- Adobe Flash Player 9 Update 2 (version Mac/Windows 184.108.40.206 and Linux 220.127.116.11, codenamed Hotblack) (July 2007)
- Adobe Flash Player 9 Update 3 (version 18.104.22.168, codenamed Moviestar or Frogstar) (December 2007)
- Adobe Flash Player 10 (version 10.0.12.36, codenamed Astro) (October 2008)
- New Features
- Enhanced Features
- Larger bitmap support
- Graphics drawing API
- Context menu
- Hardware acceleration
- Anti-aliasing engine (Saffron 3.1)
- Read/write clipboard access
- Adobe Flash Player 10.1 (version 10.1.53.64, codenamed Argo) (June 2010)
- Reuse of Bitmap data copies for better memory management
- Improved garbage collector
- Hardware-based H.264 video decoding
- HTTP Dynamic Streaming
- Peer-assisted networking and Multicast
- Support for browser privacy modes
- Multi-touch APIs
- For Macs/OSX 10.4 ppc or later
- Using Cocoa UI for Macs
- Use of double-buffered OpenGL context for fullscreen
- Use of Core Animation
- Adobe Flash Player 10.2 (version 10.2.152.26, codenamed Spicy) (February 2011)
- Stage Video, a full hardware-accelerated video pipeline
- Internet Explorer 9 hardware-accelerated rendering support
- Custom native mouse cursors
- Multiple monitor full-screen support
- Enhanced sub-pixel rendering for text
- Adobe Flash Player 10.3 (version 10.3.181.14, codenamed Wasabi) (May 2011)
- Media Measurement (video analytics for websites; desktop only)
- Acoustic Echo Cancellation (acoustic echo cancellation, noise suppression, voice activity detection, automatic compensation for microphone input levels; desktop only)
- Integration with browser privacy controls for managing local storage (ClearSiteData NPAPI)
- Native Control Panel
- Auto-Update notification for Mac OS
- Adobe Flash Player 11 (version 22.214.171.124, codenamed Serrano) (October 2011)
- Desktop only
- Stage 3D Accelerated Graphics Rendering
- H.264/AVC Software Encoding for Cameras
- Native 64-bit
- Asynchronous Bitmap Decoding
- TLS Secure Sockets
- Desktop and Mobile
- Stage Video Hardware Acceleration
- Native extension libraries
- Desktop: Windows (.dll), OS X (.framework)
- Mobile: Android (.jar, .so), iOS (.a)
- JPEG XR decoding
- G.711 Audio Compression for Telephony
- Protected HTTP Dynamic Streaming (HDS)
- Unlimited bitmap size
- LZMA SWF compression
- Mobile only
- H.264/AAC Playback
- Front-facing Camera
- Background Audio Playback
- Device Speaker Control
- 16 and 32-bit color depth
- Adobe Flash Player 11.1 (version 126.96.36.199, codenamed Anza) (November 2011)
- Last version of the browser plug-in for mobile devices
- iOS 5 native extensions for AIR
- StageText: Native text input UI for Android
- Security enhancements
- Adobe Flash Player 11.2 (codenamed Brannan) (March 2012)
- The Windows version offers automatic updater options.
- Adobe Flash Player 11.3
- Adobe Flash Player 11.4
- Flash Player only
- ActionScript Workers
- Sandbox Bridge support
- Licensing support: Flash Player Premium Features for Gaming
- Flash Player and AIR
- Stage3D "constrained" profile for increased GPU reach
- LZMA support for ByteArray
- StageVideo attachCamera/Camera improvements
- Compressed texture with alpha support for Stage3D
- DXT Encoding
- AIR only
- Deprecated Carbon APIs for AIR
- Direct AIR deployment using ADT
- Push Notifications for iOS
- Ambient AudioPlaybackMode
- Exception Support in Native Extensions for iOS
References and notes
- ^ "Flash Player Download Center". Get.adobe.com. http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer/. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
- ^ Adobe Flash Player - Downloads, Adobe Systems Incorporated
- ^ Adobe Flash Player Statistics: Penetration by version, Adobe Systems Incorporated
- ^ Flash Player Usage Statistics, StatOwl
- ^ Adobe Flash Player Enterprise Penetration, Adobe Systems Incorporated, study by Forrester Research, based on data from 50,000 corporate clients
- ^ "Adobe Flash Runtimes Statistics". Adobe Systems Incorporated. http://www.adobe.com/cz/products/flashruntimes/statistics.html. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
- ^ Integrated Adobe Flash Player Plug-in, Chrome team blog
- ^ Porting Flash to sandboxed PPAPI platform, Official Chromium Blog
- ^ Google Chrome plug-ins support in Windows 8 Metro mode, Official Chromium Blog
- ^ Adobe AIR 3, Adobe
- ^ "What are local shared objects?". Security and privacy. Adobe Systems. http://www.adobe.com/products/flashplayer/articles/lso/. Retrieved 2007-12-05.
- ^ SWX: SWF Data Format, official website
- ^ swxjava - SWX RPC implementation in Java, Google Code
- ^ swx-format - Data Format, Google Code
- ^ SWX Contest Winners, SWX Format Website
- ^ Introducing SWXml, Aral Balkan
- ^ Socket, Adobe ActionScript 3 API Reference
- ^ Sockets, ActionScript 3.0 Developer’s Guide
- ^ "Flash H.264". MainConcept. http://www.mainconcept.com/products/sdks/video/flash.html. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
- ^ a b Flash and the HTML5 <video> tag, YouTube Blog
- ^ a b Pardon Our Dust, Hulu Blog
- ^ Future Media Standards & Guidelines – AV Addendum v1.5 BBC
- ^ Comparing Flash, HTML5 Performance, OS News
- ^ Battery Performance with Flash Player 10.1 on Nexus One, Flash Mobile Blog
- ^ Reference Designs and Demos, QNX
- ^ ActionScript 3.0 overview, Adobe
- ^ Alchemy:FAQ, Adobe Labs, "ASC performs few optimizations at this time"
- ^ Zotov, Peter (2012-05-06). "Reaching the Limits of Adobe Stupidity - whitespace". Whitequark.org. http://whitequark.org/blog/2012/05/06/reaching-the-limits-of-adobe-stupidity/. Retrieved 2012-10-27.
- ^ Alchemy:FAQ, Adobe Labs
- ^ Optimizing ActionScript Bytecode using LLVM, Adobe
- ^ Adobe Alchemy, is it ActionScript heresy?, Unit Zero One
- ^ AS3 vs haXe performance, SplashDust website
- ^ FlasCC for Flash Player, Adobe Gaming
- ^ a b XC APIs, Adobe Gaming
- ^ OpenGL for Stage3D, GitHub project hosting
- ^ SWF Technology Center | Adobe Developer Connection. Adobe.com (July 14, 2009). Retrieved on March 11, 2011.
- ^ "Adobe Open Screen Project". http://www.zdnet.com/blog/stewart/adobe-open-screen-project/828.
- ^ "Gnash Reference Manual". gnu.org. http://www.gnu.org/software/gnash/manual/gnashref.html#runs-on. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- ^ "Adobe and Mozilla Foundation to Open Source Flash Player Scripting Engine". Mozilla Foundation Press Center. San Francisco: Mozilla Foundation. November 7, 2006. http://www.mozilla.com/en-US/press/mozilla-2006-11-07.html. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- ^ Tamarin Project. Mozilla.org (October 5, 2010). Retrieved on March 11, 2011.
- ^ "Adobe donates Flex to Apache". Techworld. http://www.techworld.com.au/article/407714/adobe_donates_flex_apache. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- ^ Response to “Thoughts on Flash”, True Gryc Blog
- ^ "Flip8 - the World's First Flash Emulator — v0.9". Newsdee.com. http://newsdee.com/flip8/. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- ^ Claus Wahlers. "FC64 - Flash Commodore 64 Emulator — Demo — c么deazur brasil lab". Codeazur.com.br. http://codeazur.com.br/stuff/fc64_final/. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- ^ "FlashZXSpectrum48k, Sinclair ZX Spectrum Emulator written in Flash". Jorin.com. http://www.jorin.com/shed/zx-spectrum-48k-games/?sna=basic. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- ^ "aminnes - Project Hosting on Google Code". www.aminlab.com/. 2010-05-17. http://code.google.com/p/aminnes/.
- ^ a b c iOS features in Adobe AIR 2.6, Adobe Devnet
- ^ , Adobe Official Forums
- ^ "Adobe and Google Partnering for Flash Player on Linux". https://blogs.adobe.com/flashplayer/2012/02/adobe-and-google-partnering-for-flash-player-on-linux.html. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
- ^ "Flash Player | Adobe Flash Player 11 | Overview". Labs.adobe.com. http://labs.adobe.com/downloads/flashplayer11.html. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
- ^ "Downloads". Adobe Flash Player Support Center. http://www.adobe.com/support/flashplayer/downloads.html. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
- ^ Noyes, Katherine (April 6, 2012). "For Flash on Linux, Chrome Will Be Users' Only Choice | PCWorld Business Center". Pcworld.com. http://www.pcworld.com/businesscenter/article/250455/for_flash_on_linux_chrome_will_be_users_only_choice.html. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
- ^ "Adobe Releases Last Linux Version of Flash Player – Slashdot". Linux.slashdot.org. http://linux.slashdot.org/story/12/03/31/1417245/adobe-releases-last-linux-version-of-flash-player. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
- ^ a b "Flash Player 10.1 – Installations and updates". Archived from the original on October 8, 2010. http://www.flashmobileblog.com/2010/03/02/flash-player-10-1-installations-and-updates/. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
- ^ Arthur, Charles (29 June 2012). "Flash Player for Android: Adobe calls time, declares it dead". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/blog/2012/jun/29/flash-android-dies-adobe. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- ^ Flash Platform Certified Devices, Adobe
- ^ Flash Platform Certified Devices: Smartphones, Adobe
- ^ Flash Platform Certified Devices: Tablets, Adobe
- ^ Adobe abandons Flash Player on mobile browsers for HTML5, CBS News
- ^ Adobe abandons Flash for mobile devices, The Telegraph
- ^ Web Players. Adobe. Retrieved on March 11, 2011.
- ^ 
- ^ 
- ^ MACROMEDIA INTRODUCES FREE FLASH PLAYERS FOR LINUX, SOLARIS, IRIX USERS. | Technology > Software Services & Applications from. AllBusiness.com. Retrieved on March 11, 2011.
- ^ Macromedia – Flash Player SDK http://www.adobe.com/products/flashplayer_sdk/ (Taken July 7, 2006).
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