There is a large body of modern fiction set in ancient Rome. The following titles listed include only those that are substantially (more than half) or entirely set in the city of Rome during any period up to the Byzantine empire. It does not include works set partially in Rome, nor does it include all works set in the Roman Republic or the Roman Empire. For works set in the Roman empire but not in the city of Rome, please see Fiction set in the Roman empire for a list of all works set in the ancient Roman world.
Numancia by José Luis Corral (1st century BC, Numantia)
The Wedding Shroud, published September 2010 by Elisabeth Storrs. This book is set on the cusp of the 5th and 4th centuries BC, about a Roman girl married to an Etruscan man in the events leading up to the war between Rome and Veii. The great Roman general Marcus Furius Camillus is featured.
Middle Republic (264 BC - 133 BC)
If you know of works set in the Middle Republic, please expand this section.
Roma, published March 6, 2007, by Steven Saylor. According to the author's website, the book covers part of Rome's Republican history.
Of Merchants & Heroes, published 2008 by Paul Waters. Set at the end of the 3rd century BC, about the life of a fictional Roman called Marcus. In the novel Marcus becomes involved in the war against Philip V of Macedon, which was led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, who later became Consul and is a major character in the story.
"The Shield of Rome", published 2011 by William Kelso. 216 BC. The novel is set during "Rome's finest hour" after the battle of Cannae when Hannibal threatens the very existence of the Republic.
"The Fortune of Carthage", published 2012 by William Kelso. 207 BC. The novel is set during the 2nd Punic War and covers Hasdrubal Barca's attempt to link up with the Carthaginian army of his brother Hannibal.
The Bow of Heaven (2011) by Andrew Levkoff, a novel of events leading up to the battle of Carrhae, and the triumvir responsible for one of the greatest defeats suffered by Republican Rome, Marcus Licinius Crassus
Imperium and Lustrum (novel) by Robert Harris, the first two volumes of a trilogy of fictionalized biography told by his slave, later freedman, Tiro depicting Cicero's rise to the consulship in 63 BC and subsequent role in the final days of the Republic.
A Pillar of Iron (1965) by Taylor Caldwell, a fictionalized biography of Cicero.
A Voice in the Wind (1994) by Francine Rivers; the story of Hadassah, a Christian slave taken from Jerusalem and taken to Rome in the time of Titus and his father Mark of the Lion Trilogy book 1
An Echo in the Darkness (1995) by Francine Rivers; the continuing story of Hadassah and Marcus. Mark of the Lion Trilogy book 2
As Sure as the Dawn (1995) by Francine Rivers; the continuing story of Atretes. Mark of the Lion Trilogy book 3
The Centurion's Wife (2009) by Davis Bunn, Janette Oke life for an early Christian woman and her marriage to a Roman soldier. Acts of Faith book 1
The Hidden Flame (2009) by Davis Bunn, Janette Oke Acts of Faith book 2
The Damascus Way (2010) by Davis Bunn, Janette Oke Acts of Faith book 3
Books about Claudius or set in his reign include:
I, Claudius (1934) and its sequel, Claudius the God (1935), by Robert Graves. The classic and influential dramatised account of the life of the emperor Claudius, made into a popular TV series (see below).
A Song for Nero (2003) by Tom Holt, writing as Thomas Holt.
Letters from the Realms of Nero (2007) by George Kapo; story of British slave girl in household of Seneca
Rubies of the Viper (2010) by Martha Marks; interwoven stories of a Roman woman who inherits a fortune when her brother is murdered and a Greek slave she inherits as part of the estate; set in AD 53-56.
The Caius Trilogy by German author Henry Winterfeld: Caius ist ein Dummkopf (Caius is an Idiot); Caius geht ein Licht auf (Caius has an Inspiration), and Caius in der Klemme (Caius in a Fix). The first part was published in English with the alternate title Detectives in Togas. The second was published in English with the alternate title Mystery of the Roman Ransom.
The Third Princess: A Septimus Severus Quistus Roman Mystery by Philip Boast
Rubies of the Viper (2010) by Martha Marks. A Roman woman sets out to uncover the identity of her brother's murderer.
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Science fiction/time travel novels
Caesar's Bicycle (1997) (Timeline Wars series) by John Barnes
The Green Bronze Mirror (1966) by Lynne Ellison(young adult); set in reign of Nero
The following alternate history novels are set in fictional universes where Rome's struggle with Carthago went differently
The adventures of Alex series by Jacques Martin, of which some titles are set in Rome and the Ancient World. This series has a spin-off, called The travels of Alex, that gives illustrated information on famous places and empires of the Ancient World during the Roman Era.