Fender Stratocaster

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Fender Stratocaster
FiestaRedStrat.jpg
ManufacturerFender
Period1954–present
Construction
Body typeSolid, double cut
Neck jointBolt-on (set-in neck on certain models)
Scale25.5" (24.75" on some models)
Woods
BodyAlder, ash, poplar (limited edition guitars available in a variety of woods including basswood, mahogany and koa (none of which is plywood) with flamed, spalted or quilted maple tops and black, cream or ivory body and neck binding)
NeckMaple
FretboardMaple, rosewood, pau ferro, ebony (many models usually have 21 vintage frets, white or black dots and 7.25" radius; higher-end contemporary versions had 22 jumbo frets, abalone dot inlays and 9.5" radius)
Hardware
BridgeSynchronized tremolo (some models came with a hardtail bridge or a Floyd Rose locking tremolo)
Pickup(s)

3 or 2 single-coils, with the latter having a hot humbucker in the bridge position,[1] with the exception of the Acoustasonic Strat and Stratacoustic models, the only acoustic Stratocasters.[1] Most Stratocasters generally came with a pickguard; on certain high-end versions, the pickguard is absent. There are also select models that come with active electronics and HSH, HHH, HH or H pickup configurations.

Humbucker-equipped Strats are often referred to as "Fat Strats", in reference to the fact that humbucking pickups usually tend to have more bass in the output signal than single coils, thus making the sound "fatter".
Colors available

Standard Series :[1] Brown Sunburst, Black, Arctic White, Lake Placid Blue, Candy Apple Red, Midnight Wine, Copper Metallic Sunburst

American Standard Series (as of 2012):[1] Black, 3-Color Sunburst, Olympic White, Jade Green Pearl, Charcoal Frost Metallic, Candy Cola, Mystic Red, Mystic Blue (alder), Sienna Sunburst (ash)

American Special Series (as of 2010): 3-Color Sunburst, 2-Color Sunburst, Black, Candy Apple Red, Olympic White, Surf Green

Black Top Series (as of 2010): Black, Candy Apple Red, Sonic Blue

American Deluxe Series (as of 2014):[1] Amber, Tungsten, Sunset Metallic, 3-Color Sunburst, Tobacco Sunburst, Midnight Wine Transparent, Aged Cherry Sunburst, Olympic White Pearl, Black, Candy Apple Red, 2-Color Sunburst, Burgundy Mist Metallic, Surf Green, Fiesta Red, White Blonde, Silver Sunburst, Mystic Ice Blue, Mystic 3-Color Sunburst, Mystic Black

Highway One Series[1] Midnight Wine, Flat Black, White Blonde, 3-Color Sunburst, Daphne Blue, Honey Blonde

Road Worn Series: 50s - 2-Color Sunburst, Black 60s - 3-Color Sunburst, Olympic White

Other colors may be available
 
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Fender Stratocaster
FiestaRedStrat.jpg
ManufacturerFender
Period1954–present
Construction
Body typeSolid, double cut
Neck jointBolt-on (set-in neck on certain models)
Scale25.5" (24.75" on some models)
Woods
BodyAlder, ash, poplar (limited edition guitars available in a variety of woods including basswood, mahogany and koa (none of which is plywood) with flamed, spalted or quilted maple tops and black, cream or ivory body and neck binding)
NeckMaple
FretboardMaple, rosewood, pau ferro, ebony (many models usually have 21 vintage frets, white or black dots and 7.25" radius; higher-end contemporary versions had 22 jumbo frets, abalone dot inlays and 9.5" radius)
Hardware
BridgeSynchronized tremolo (some models came with a hardtail bridge or a Floyd Rose locking tremolo)
Pickup(s)

3 or 2 single-coils, with the latter having a hot humbucker in the bridge position,[1] with the exception of the Acoustasonic Strat and Stratacoustic models, the only acoustic Stratocasters.[1] Most Stratocasters generally came with a pickguard; on certain high-end versions, the pickguard is absent. There are also select models that come with active electronics and HSH, HHH, HH or H pickup configurations.

Humbucker-equipped Strats are often referred to as "Fat Strats", in reference to the fact that humbucking pickups usually tend to have more bass in the output signal than single coils, thus making the sound "fatter".
Colors available

Standard Series :[1] Brown Sunburst, Black, Arctic White, Lake Placid Blue, Candy Apple Red, Midnight Wine, Copper Metallic Sunburst

American Standard Series (as of 2012):[1] Black, 3-Color Sunburst, Olympic White, Jade Green Pearl, Charcoal Frost Metallic, Candy Cola, Mystic Red, Mystic Blue (alder), Sienna Sunburst (ash)

American Special Series (as of 2010): 3-Color Sunburst, 2-Color Sunburst, Black, Candy Apple Red, Olympic White, Surf Green

Black Top Series (as of 2010): Black, Candy Apple Red, Sonic Blue

American Deluxe Series (as of 2014):[1] Amber, Tungsten, Sunset Metallic, 3-Color Sunburst, Tobacco Sunburst, Midnight Wine Transparent, Aged Cherry Sunburst, Olympic White Pearl, Black, Candy Apple Red, 2-Color Sunburst, Burgundy Mist Metallic, Surf Green, Fiesta Red, White Blonde, Silver Sunburst, Mystic Ice Blue, Mystic 3-Color Sunburst, Mystic Black

Highway One Series[1] Midnight Wine, Flat Black, White Blonde, 3-Color Sunburst, Daphne Blue, Honey Blonde

Road Worn Series: 50s - 2-Color Sunburst, Black 60s - 3-Color Sunburst, Olympic White

Other colors may be available

The Fender Stratocaster is a model of electric guitar designed in 1954 by Leo Fender, George Fullerton, and Freddie Tavares. The Fender Musical Instruments Corporation has manufactured the Stratocaster continuously from 1954 to the present. It is a double-cutaway guitar, with an extended top "horn" shape for balance. Along with the Gibson Les Paul, it is one of the most often copied electric guitar shapes.[2][3] "Stratocaster" and "Strat" are trademark terms belonging to Fender.

Originally the Stratocaster was offered in a 2-color sunburst finish on a solid, deeply contoured ash body, a 21-fret one-piece maple neck with black dot inlays and Kluson tuning heads. In 1956 Fender began issuing solid Stratocasters with alder bodies.[4] In 1960 the available custom colors were standardized, many of which were automobile lacquer colors from DuPont available at an additional 5% cost. The unique single-ply, 8-screw hole white pickguard held all electronic components except the recessed jack plate—facilitating easy assembly. Despite many subsequent Stratocaster models (including copies and the Superstrat), vintage Fender models are highly valued by collectors for their investment potential and players who prefer the timbre of older models.

Stratocasters have been used in many genres, including country (the genre Fender intended for), rock, pop, soul, rhythm and blues, blues, jazz, and even heavy metal.

Design developments[edit]

The Stratocaster's sleek, contoured body shape (officially referred to by Fender as the "Comfort Contour Body"[5][6] ) differed from the flat, slab-like design of the Telecaster. The Strat's double cutaways allowed players easier access to higher positions on the neck.[7] The body's recessed "beer gut" curve on the upper back, and a gradual chamfer at the front, where the player's right arm rests, aided player's comfort. The one-piece maple neck's wider "dogleg"-style headstock contrasted with the very narrow Fender Telecaster's headstock shape. The strings are anchored on a through-body pivot bridge attached with springs to a 'claw' in the tremolo cavity on the back of the guitar.

Original Stratocasters were shipped with five springs anchoring the bridge flat against the body. Some players removed the backplate covering the bridge to remove two of the springs and adjust the claw screws to allow the bridge to 'float,' with the pull of the strings in one direction countering the pull of the springs in the opposite direction. In this floating position, players could move the bridge-mounted tremolo arm up or down to modulate the pitch of the notes being played. Jeff Beck and Ike Turner used the Strat's floating tremolo extensively in their playing. However, other players, such as Eric Clapton and Ronnie Wood, disliked the floating bridge's propensity to detune guitars and inhibited the bridge's movement with a chunk of wood wedged between the bridge block and the inside cutout of the tremolo cavity and by increasing the tension on the tremolo springs. These procedures lock the bridge in a fixed position. Some Strats have a fixed bridge in place of the tremolo assembly; these are colloquially called "hard-tails." Luthier Galeazzo Frudua has said the floating tremolos can have stable tuning through techniques specific to a floating bridge.[8] The Stratocaster features three single coil pickups, with the output originally selected by a 3-way switch. Guitarists soon discovered that by jamming the switch in between the 1st and 2nd position, both the bridge and middle pickups could be selected, and similarly, the middle and neck pickups could be selected between the 2nd and 3rd position.[9] This trick became widespread and Fender responded with the 5-way pickup selector (a standard feature since 1977), which allowed these tonal combinations and provided better switching stability.

Eric Clapton plays his signature model at the Tsunami Relief concert, January 22, 2005

The "quacky" tone of the middle and bridge pickups, popularized by players such as David Gilmour, Rory Gallagher, Mark Knopfler, Bob Dylan, Scott Thurston, Ronnie Wood, Ed King, Eric Clapton and Robert Cray, can be obtained by using the pickup selector in positions 2 and 4. The neck and middle pickups are each wired to a tone control that incorporates a single, shared tone capacitor, whereas the bridge pickup, which is slanted towards the high strings for a more trebly sound, has no tone control for maximum brightness. On many modern Stratocasters, the first tone affects the neck pickup; the second tone affects the middle and bridge pickups; on some Artist Series models (Eric Clapton and Buddy Guy signature guitars), the first tone is a presence circuit that cuts or boosts treble and bass frequencies, affecting all the pickups; the second tone is an active midrange booster that boosts the midrange frequencies up to 25dB (12dB on certain models) to produce a fatter humbucker-like sound.

The volume level on all three pickups is controlled by a single volume knob. The placement of the knobs allows for relatively easy manipulation of the sound with the right hand while playing.

The three pickups were originally identical in their construction. With the rising popularity of using pickups in combination, Fender introduced a new feature in 1977 coinciding with the standard 5-position switch; a reverse-wound, reverse-polarity middle pickup. As the description implies, the magnetic polarity of this pickup is opposite the other two, as is the direction of the wire winding around the bobbin. This provides a hum-canceling effect (removing hum induced by poorly shielded, medium to high output AC devices) in positions 2 and 4 on the selector switch. This principle had been known for many years beforehand, being applied in the form of Gibson's humbucking pickup and Fender's own split-coil pickup used on the Precision Bass.

Today, virtually all Fender instruments with more than one single-coil pickup (most notably the Stratocaster, Telecaster and Jazz Bass) are wired in such a manner as to provide a hum-canceling combination of pickups.

The plastic parts (pickup covers, arm tip, pick guard) on the Stratocaster in the years 1954-1956 were made from an experimental thermo-plastic that is sometimes incorrectly identified as Bakelite. On many early examples, the pickup covers have worn through from the repeated friction of playing.

At one point, Fender switched to producing guitars with the bridge pickup located farthest from the highest-amplitude portion of the vibrating strings, slightly "over-wound", thus increasing the signal output from that pickup. Even more overwound pickups ("hot-wired" designs) became popular, either for all three pickups (a "hot" configuration), or for the bridge position only (so-called "Texas Hot" due to its popularity among Southern Rock guitarists).

Buddy Holly playing his Stratocaster on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1958

The Stratocaster is noted for its bright, clean and 'twangy' sounds. The neck pickup has a mellower, fuller and louder sound compared to the brighter and sharper tone of the bridge pickup. The middle pickup provides a sound somewhere between the two.

Buddy Holly was one of the pioneers of the Stratocaster and used the instrument on virtually all of his songs with the Crickets. During the recording of "Peggy Sue", rhythm guitarist Niki Sullivan was not needed for the song, and instead stood next to Holly, and flipped the selector switch of Holly's guitar from the neck pickup to the bridge pickup for the guitar solo.

From 1959 to 1967, the Stratocaster was made with a rosewood fretboard as standard, as well as color choices other than sunburst, including a variety of colorful car-like paint jobs that appealed to the nascent surfer and hot-rod culture, pioneered by such bands as the Surfaris, the Ventures and the Beach Boys. Fender would paint any guitar from the DuPont car color range for 5% over purchase price.

Dick Dale is a prominent Stratocaster player, who also collaborated with Leo Fender in developing the Fender Showman amplifier. In the early 1960s, the instrument was also championed by Hank Marvin–guitarist for the Shadows, a band that originally backed Cliff Richard and then produced instrumentals of its own. So distinctive was Hank Marvin's sound that many musicians, including the Beatles, initially deliberately avoided the Stratocaster.[citation needed] However, in 1965, George Harrison and John Lennon acquired Stratocasters and used them for Help!, Rubber Soul and later recording sessions; the double unison guitar solo on "Nowhere Man" is played by Harrison and Lennon on their new Stratocasters.[10][11][12][13]

The one-piece maple neck was discontinued in 1959. From 1959 until summer 1962 the fingerboard was a piece of rosewood milled flat on the underside and glued to the maple. This has become known as a "slab fingerboard". The slab fingerboard was approx 4.8 mm at its thickest point in the center of the neck under strings 3 and 4. From mid-1964–1979 the rosewood and maple were pre radiused and the fingerboard became known as curved, round laminate or "veneer", having an even thickness across the neck unlike the previous slab type. This design change was made because Fender encountered problems with some of the necks twisting with the slab design and this new method of construction reduced this problem significantly. Maple fingerboards were available as a special order only. The following year the pickguard design changed to a 3-ply (4-ply on some colors) "multi-layer" with 11 screw holes. After purchasing Fender in 1965, CBS began to offer both a maple neck with a separate glued-on laminated maple fretboard in 1967 (known as a "maple cap" neck) and the rosewood fretboard over maple neck remaining the other neck option. Three years later, the CBS-owned Fender companies re-introduced the 1-piece maple neck after a 10-year absence. The primary reason for the switch to rosewood in 1959 was that Gibson guitars had rosewood fingerboards and customers wanted this. Also, the maple fingerboards discolored very quickly because the old nitro cellulose lacquer was not very durable and wore through on the fretboard very quickly.

After the introduction of the Fender Stratocaster Ultra series in 1989, ebony was officially selected as a fretboard material on some models (although several Elite Series Stratocasters manufactured in 1983/84 such as the Gold and Walnut were available with a stained ebony fretboard). In December 1965 the Stratocaster was given a broader headstock with altered decals to match the size of the Jazzmaster and the Jaguar.

CBS buys Fender and player modifications[edit]

Many artists discovered that the 3-way pickup selector could be lodged in between settings (often using objects such as matchsticks or toothpicks to wedge it in position) for further tonal variety, resulting in a unique sound when two pickups are combined. Jimi Hendrix would also move the switch across the settings while sustaining a note, creating a characteristic 'wobbly' sound, similar to that created by the wah-wah pedal. This effect can be heard in the Woodstock recording of Star Spangled Banner. Hendrix can also be heard utilizing the switch flipping between pickups on many different live versions of the song Red House from 1967's Are You Experienced? as well as the song Once I Had A Woman from the Jimi Hendrix: Blues compilation album. Since 1977, the Stratocaster has been fitted with a 5-way switch to make such switching more stable. This switch is the same electrically as the original 3-way, but with extra detents for the in-between settings. Other subtle changes were also made to the guitars over the years, but the basic shape and features of the Strat have remained unchanged. In the 1970s and 1980s, some guitarists began modifying their Stratocasters with humbucking pickups, especially in the bridge position, to create what became known as a Fat Strat. This was intended to provide a thicker tone preferred in the heavier styles of hard rock and heavy metal. The popularity of this modification grew and eventually Fender began manufacturing models with a bridge humbucker option (HSS), denoted and separated from the original triple single coil by the title of "Fat Strat", as a reference to the humbucker's distinct sound, as well as models with dual humbuckers (HH), better known as "Double Fat Strats". Fender also started making Stratocaster pickguards specially designed for guitar bodies routed for HSH (humbucker-single-humbucker) and HHH (humbucker-humbucker-humbucker) pickup configurations.

Since 1998, many high-end US-made Fender Stratocasters such as the American Deluxe, American, Hot Rodded American, American Special and American Standard series came with an HSH pickup rout instead of a "swimming pool" (or "bath tub") cavity to increase the total amount of wood that actually can resonate, producing a more complex tone. The HSH rout allows players to modify their pickups to the most often seen after-market configurations without re-routing or cutting into their guitar's body, while maintaining more wood than a "swimming pool" rout.

Players perceived a loss of the initial high quality of Fender guitars after the company was taken over by CBS in 1965. As a result, the late-1960s Stratocasters with the large "CBS" headstock and (from the mid-1970s) the 3-bolt necked models (instead of the conventional 4 bolts) with the "Bullet" truss-rod and the MicroTilt adjustment system fell out of fashion. However, many blues-influenced artists of the late 1960s soon adopted the Stratocaster as their main instrument, reviving the guitar's popularity. Also, so-called 'pre-CBS' Stratocasters are, accordingly, quite sought-after and expensive due to the perceived difference in quality even compared with contemporary post-CBS models. In recent times, some Stratocasters manufactured from 1954 to 1958 have sold for more than US$175,000.

After a peak in the 1970s, driven by the use of several high profile players, another lull occurred in the early 1980s. During that time, CBS-Fender cut costs by deleting features from the standard Stratocaster line, despite a blues revival that featured Strat players such as Eric Clapton, Stevie Ray Vaughan, Robert Cray and Buddy Guy in their choice of the Stratocaster as a primary blues-rock guitar.[citation needed] Yngwie Malmsteen is known for playing a Stratocaster in the Neo-Classical genre.

1982/83 Dan Smith Fender Stratocaster[edit]

In 1981 Fender-CBS hired William Schultz, John McLaren, and Dan Smith away from the U.S. division of Yamaha. Schultz became the president of Fender-CBS, McLaren the managing director while Smith was appointed the director of marketing for Fender electric guitars. In a drive to rejuvenate the quality control and Fender's market position, Dan Smith oversaw an upgrading of the basic production model Stratocaster and by late 1981 the new production model was unveiled as the 1982 Stratocaster. It featured a pre-CBS smaller headstock (compared to the 1980 "Strat"), a four bolt neck plate, an overwound X-1 pickup (introduced on the 1980 "Strat" model) in the bridge position and a body end truss-rod adjustment without the Bullet nut. These are known today as "Dan Smith" Stratocasters and prized by collectors for the attempted, albeit brief, return to pre-CBS stylings.

The following year the Standard model received a short-lived redesign seeking to reduce production costs and price on American Stratocasters. This revised version lacked a second tone control and featured a newly designed Freeflyte vibrato system and a bare-bones output jack. A reshaped ‘Comfort Contour’ body with deeper forearm and waist contours similar to an early 1960s model was introduced. What it did retain was the 1970s-style headstock decal. The 1982/83 version of the Standard Stratocaster has little in common with the Dan Smith guitar, apart from the period when they were sold, but is sometimes informally (and controversially) presented as a "Dan Smith-era" or "redesign" guitar. After the Standard Stratocaster was discontinued in 1984, Fender Japan produced a 22-fret version with a flat 9.5" radius and medium-jumbo fretwire until 1986.[14]

Squier models (1982–today)[edit]

After Fender's decision in 1982 to switch Squier's production from strings to guitars, the Stratocaster was one of the first models put under the Squier production line in Japan. It was the most commercially successful guitar Fender had produced. Originally in 1982, the headstock had a "Fender" name written in large script, followed by "Squier series" in smaller script. In 1983, this was later changed to the current 1970s large headstock featuring "Squier" in larger script, followed by "by Fender" in smaller script. Since then, there have been several variations of headstock size and Squier logos, typically based on what series the guitar is.

From 1986-1989, "Made in China" Squier Stratocasters carry the "Affinity" decal on the smaller ball of the headstock and have serial numbers as NCXXXX with the first number the year of manufacture, e.g. NC6XXX (Made in China 1986). NCXXXX is also used for Squier Strat Bullets of the same vintage. The Affinities are practically the same as the Japanese-made Squier Bullets of the mid-'80s; the same alder bodies, same rosewood-type fretboard and maple necks. Tuners and electronics are also very similar - not the best but distinctive in sound. Common modifications are more stable tuners, larger potentiometers, better capacitors, and pickups. They had single-ply 8-hole pickguards like the '50s Fender Strats giving them a classic look. Colors were typically black, white and red.

In 2000, for the anniversary of the Squier line of Stratocaster guitars, that year's model was offered in a limited-edition green finish. The "Crafted in China" Squier Affinity Strats are different from their immediate predecessors; most have plywood bodies, larger headstock shapes, and somewhat inferior small parts. The pickguards generally now have 11 holes and screws, departing from the original '50s style. Many people attribute the Affinity's decline in quality to the introduction of the changes in 2000. The next major change for the Affinity line was a reduction in body thickness from 1.75" to 1.5", noticeable in size and weight.

In 2008 Squier released its Classic Vibe series, a series of electric guitars and basses mirroring classic Fender designs of the 1950s and 1960s—each roughly reflecting the hardware, woods, color variations, finishes, body contours, and tonal characteristics of their respective era; Squier states that they did not intend the series as completely era correct, but wanted to impart the 'vibe' of a classic Fender design—the vintage-quality feel, look, and sound of their first series of guitars in 1982.

Fender 1985–1998[edit]

When the Fender company was bought from CBS by a group of investors and employees headed by Bill Schultz in 1985, manufacturing resumed its former high quality and Fender was able to regain market share and brand reputation. This sparked a rise in mainstream popularity for vintage (and vintage-style) instruments. Dan Smith, with the help of John Page, proceeded to work on a reissue of the most popular guitars of Leo Fender's era. They decided to manufacture two Vintage reissue Stratocaster models, the one-piece maple neck 1957 and a rosewood-fretboard 1962 along with the maple-neck 1952 Telecaster, the maple-neck 1957 and rosewood-fretboard 1962 Precision Basses, as well as the rosewood-fretboard "stacked knob" 1962 Jazz Bass. This project was very important and critical to the company's survival. These first few years (1982–1984) of reissues, known as American Vintage Reissues, are now high-priced collector's items and considered as some of the finest to ever leave Fender's Fullerton plant, which closed its doors in late 1984.

In 1985, Fender's US production of the Vintage reissues resumed into a new factory at Corona, located about 20 miles away from Fullerton. Some early reissues from 1986 were crafted with leftover parts from the Fullerton factory. These three guitars formed an important part of the American Vintage Series line since July 10, 1998.

Signature models[edit]

Fender also supply a variety of signature models, each with specifications similar to those used by a well-known performer. Custom Artist guitars are the Custom Shop versions of the Artist Series line, which significantly differ from the standard production models in terms of quality and construction, making these instruments much more expensive. As well as the other Custom Shop instruments, the Custom Artist guitars are available either as Team Built or Master Built items, some being exact replicas of the specific artist's original instrument, better known as "Tribute" series (featuring various degrees of "relicing", such as Closet Classic, New Old Stock, Relic and Super Relic treatments, depending on the model). Artists with models available in the signature range include:

David Gilmour performing with Fender Stratocaster in Munich as part of his On an Island tour.
Yngwie J. Malmsteen in Barcelona in 2008
Stevie Ray Vaughan performing on Austin City Limits in 1989
A modified Fender Squier Stratocaster

Squier Stratocaster[edit]

The Squier Stratocaster is manufactured and sold by Squier, a marque of Fender.[20]

A standard Squier Stratocaster is mass-produced in factories located in Indonesia or China. For its construction, Squier usually uses woods readily available in those countries, such as agathis and basswood. They also use stamped metal hardware and multiple pieces of wood in construction to reduce waste and to lower costs. In some cases, the body is laminated, much like a plywood, rather than consisting of two or three solid pieces glued together.

In popular culture[edit]

Fender has licensed the appearance of the Squier Stratocaster to Electronic Arts for a replica guitar controller for EA and Harmonix's Rock Band rhythm video game. A real Squier Stratocaster, retrofitted with controller electronics, was available as a "Pro Guitar" controller for Rock Band 3, but is now discontinued.

A larger-than-life replica of the Fender Stratocaster appears outside the Rock 'n' Roller Coaster attraction at Disney's Hollywood Studios in Walt Disney World.[21]

Notable Stratocaster players[edit]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Stratocaster, Fender.com. Retrieved August 2011
  2. ^ D'arcy, David (November 12, 2000). "ART/ARCHITECTURE; Strummed by One Hand, Sculptured by Another". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2010. 
  3. ^ Ed Mitchell (Total Guitar) (2011-12-28). "IN PRAISE OF: The Fender Stratocaster | IN PRAISE OF: The Fender Stratocaster". MusicRadar. Retrieved 2013-12-14. 
  4. ^ Balmer 21.
  5. ^ "1954 Limited Edition Stratocaster Owner's Manual (Catalog Copy)". FMIC. Retrieved 14 July 2012. 
  6. ^ Duchossoir, A. R. (1994). Hal Leonard: The Fender Stratocaster. Hal Leonard; Special 40th Anniversary Edition (1994). pp. 8, 9, 51. ISBN 0-7935-4735-0. 
  7. ^ Balmer 20.
  8. ^ "FruduaTv". YouTube. Retrieved 2013-12-14. 
  9. ^ Balmer 23.
  10. ^ Balmer 154.
  11. ^ Babiuk, Andy (2002). Beatles gear. Hal Leonard. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-87930-731-8. 
  12. ^ Bacon 84.
  13. ^ Riley, Tim (2002). Tell me why: a Beatles commentary. Basic Books. p. 413. ISBN 978-0-306-81120-3. 
  14. ^ Duchossoir, A. R., The Fender Stratocaster, January 2008, Hal Leonard Corporation, ISBN 978-0-7935-4735-7
  15. ^ "Fender Products: Ritchie Blackmore Stratocaster". Fender.com. 2010-01-22. Retrieved 2010-07-29. 
  16. ^ "The David Gilmour Signature Series Stratocaster : By The Fender Custom Shop". Fender.com. Retrieved 2010-07-29. 
  17. ^ "Fender Products: Mark Knopfler Stratocaster". Fender.com. 2010-01-22. Retrieved 2010-07-29. 
  18. ^ "Fender Products: Jim Root Stratocaster". Fender.com. 2010-01-22. Retrieved 2010-07-29. 
  19. ^ "Fender Products: Stevie Ray Vaughan Stratocaster". Fender.com. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  20. ^ Balmer, Paul (2007). The Fender Stratocaster Handbook: How to Buy, Maintain, Set Up, Troubleshoot, and Modify Your Strat. MBI. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7603-2983-2. 
  21. ^ by 365 Days of Magic (2013-09-03). "365DaysOfMagic.com. Retrieved August 2013". 365daysofmagic.com. Retrieved 2013-12-14. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]