Female bodybuilding

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Extravaganza Strength Contest, 2001
A bodybuilder poses at the London Classic and Stars of Tomorrow, November 2007
Pro bodybuilder Nikki Fuller performs a side chest pose.

Female bodybuilding is the female component of competitive bodybuilding. It began in the late 1970s when women began to take part in bodybuilding competitions.

Contents

History[edit]

Beginnings[edit]

Physique contests for women date back to at least the 1960s with contests like Miss Physique, Miss Body Beautiful U.S.A., W.B.B.G. and Miss Americana, I.F.B.B.. Maria Elena Alberici, as listed in the Almanac of Women's Bodybuilding, won two national titles in one year: Miss Body Beautiful U.S.A. in 1972, promoted by Dan Lourie and Miss Americana in 1972, promoted by Joe Weider. Mr. Olympia, Arnold Schwarzenegger was a judge at the Brooklyn Academy of Music in New York when Maria Elena Alberici (aka) Maria Lauren won Miss Americana. [1][2] The first U.S. Women's National Physique Championship, promoted by Henry McGhee and held in Canton, Ohio in 1978, is generally regarded as the first true female bodybuilding contest - that is, the first contest where the entrants were judged solely on muscularity (Todd, 1999).

More contests started to appear in 1979. Some of these were the following:

Although these early events were regarded as bodybuilding contests, the women wore high-heeled shoes, and did not clench their fists while posing. Additionally, they were not allowed to use the three so-called "men's poses" — the double biceps, crab, and lat spread. The contests were generally held by promoters acting independently; the sport still lacked a governing body. That would change in 1980.

1980 - the start of the modern era[edit]

The National Physique Committee (NPC) held the first women's Nationals in 1980. Since its inception, this has been the top amateur level competition for women in the US. Laura Combes won the inaugural contest.

The first World Couples Championship was held in Atlantic City on April 8. The winning couple was Stacey Bentley and Chris Dickerson, with April Nicotra and Robby Robinson in second. Bentley picked up her third consecutive victory in the Frank Zane Invitational on June 28, ahead of Rachel McLish, Lynn Conkwright, Suzy Green, Patsy Chapman, and Georgia Miller Fudge.

1980 was also the year of the first Ms. Olympia (initially known as the "Miss" Olympia), the most prestigious contest for professionals. Initially, the contest was promoted by George Snyder. The contestants had to send in resumes and pictures, and were hand-picked by Snyder based on their potential to be fitness role models for the average American woman. The first winner was Rachel McLish who had also won the NPC's USA Championship earlier in the year. The contest was a major turning point for the sport of women's bodybuilding. McLish turned out to be very promotable, and inspired many future competitors to start training and competing. Stacey Bentley finished in fifth place, in what turned out to be her final competition.

The 1980s[edit]

Rachel McLish became the most successful competitor of the early 1980s. She lost her Ms. Olympia crown by finishing second to Kike Elomaa in 1981, but regained the title in 1982. A new major pro contest, the Women's Pro World Championship, was held for the first time in 1981 (won by Lynn Conkwright). Held annually through 1989, this was the second most prestigious contest of the time. McLish added this title to her collection in 1982. George Snyder lost the rights to the Ms. Olympia in 1982, and after this the contestants were no longer hand-picked, but instead qualified for the Ms. Olympia through placings in lesser contests. Women's bodybuilding was officially recognized as a sport disciplines by the 1982 IFBB Congress in Brugge, Belgium.[3]

As the sport grew, the competitors' level of training gradually increased (most of the competitors in the earliest shows had very little weight training experience), and the sport slowly evolved towards more muscular physiques. This trend started to emerge in 1983. With McLish not competing in the big shows, Carla Dunlap took both the Pro World and Ms. Olympia titles. Dunlap possessed a much more muscular physique than either McLish or Elomaa, and though she never repeated her successes of 1983, she would remain competitive for the rest of the decade.

In 1984, a new force emerged in women's bodybuilding. Cory Everson won the NPC Nationals, then defeated McLish to win the Ms. Olympia. At 5'9" and 150 pounds, Everson's physique set a new standard. She would go on to win six consecutive Ms. Olympia titles before retiring undefeated as a professional, the only woman ever to accomplish this.

The Ms. International contest was introduced in 1986, first won by Erika Geisen. In 1987 the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU), who were sanctioning amateur bodybuilding at the time, positioned the International as a premiere amateur event. It was held in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The AAU brought Serge Nubret (a former Mr. World, Mr. Universe and Mr. Europe) from France to be the featured guest poser. Since 1988, the competition has been sanctioned by the I.F.B.B. Since the demise of the Pro World Championship after 1989, the Ms. International has been second in prestige only to the Ms. Olympia. The 1989 Ms. International was noteworthy for the fact that the original winner, Tonya Knight, was later disqualified for using a surrogate for her drug test at the 1988 Ms. Olympia contest. Consequently, runner-up Jackie Paisley received the 1989 title. Knight was suspended from IFBB competition through the end of 1990, and was forced to return her prize money from the 1988 Ms. Olympia and 1989 Ms. International, a total of $12,000 (Merritt, 2006).

The American Federation of Women Bodybuilders was also founded during this time period, representing a growing awareness of women bodybuilders in America. Winning competitors such as Laurie Stark (Ms. Southern States, 1988) helped to popularize the federation.

Mainstream exposure in the 1980s[edit]

During this period, women's bodybuilding was starting to achieve some mainstream exposure. Pro competitor Anita Gandol created a stir by posing for Playboy in 1984, earning a one-year suspension from the IFBB.[citation needed] Erika Mes, a Dutch competitor, posed nude for the Belgian issue of Playboy in September 1987, also earning a one-year suspension.[citation needed]

Lori Bowen, winner of the 1984 Pro World Championship, appeared in a widely broadcast commercial for Miller Lite beer with Rodney Dangerfield. Additionally, competitors Lynn Conkwright (1982) and Carla Dunlap (1984) were included in ABC's Superstars competition.

In 1985, a movie called Pumping Iron II: The Women was released. This film documented the preparation of several women for the 1983 Caesars Palace World Cup Championship. Competitors prominently featured in the film were Kris Alexander, Lori Bowen, Lydia Cheng, Carla Dunlap, Bev Francis, and Rachel McLish. At the time, Francis was actually a powerlifter, though she soon made a successful transition to bodybuilding, becoming one of the leading competitors of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

For several years in the mid-1980s, NBC broadcast coverage of the Ms. Olympia contest on their Sportsworld program. The taped footage was telecast months after the contest, and was usually used as secondary material to fill out programs featuring events such as boxing. Typically, the broadcasts included only the top several women. Nevertheless, Cory Everson and some of her leading competitors were receiving national TV coverage.

In 1985 The National Women's and Mixed Pairs Bodybuilding Championships, held in Detroit, Michigan by promoter/bodybuilder Gema Wheeler (Now Gema Long) was the first amateur bodybuilding event televised internationally by ESPN Sports.

1990 - a fresh start in the new decade[edit]

Sharon Bruneau, a Canadian bodybuilder whose background in fashion modelling brought a new dimension in posing and style to the sport.

Normally, competitors must qualify for the Ms. Olympia by achieving certain placings in lesser pro contests. However, the cancellation of the Women's Pro World contest in 1990 left only the Ms. International as a Ms. Olympia qualifier. Consequently, the IFBB decided to open the Ms. Olympia to all women with pro cards, and a field of thirty competitors entered. Lenda Murray, a new pro from Michigan, earned a decisive victory and emerged as the successor to Cory Everson. Murray became the next dominant figure in the sport.

A new professional contest, the Jan Tana Classic, was introduced in 1991. The contest was named for its promoter, a marketer of tanning products, and ran annually until 2003 with the departure of Wayne Demilia (it was later revived in 2007). The inaugural event was won by Sue Gafner. The Jan Tana filled the void left by the Women's Pro World contest, and occupied the number three slot on the pro circuit throughout its lifetime. 1991 also saw Tonya Knight return to competition, winning the Ms. International.

Early 1990s controversies[edit]

The 1991 Ms. Olympia contest was the first to be televised live. Lenda Murray faced a serious challenge from the 1990 runner-up, Bev Francis. Francis had started bodybuilding in the mid-1980s, converting over from powerlifting. Over the years, she had gradually refined her physique to be more in line with judging standards. However, she came to the 1991 contest noticeably larger than in previous years. Francis was leading going into the night show, with Murray needing all of the first place votes to retain her title. Murray managed to do just that, winning a somewhat controversial decision by one point.

1992 saw more controversy, this time at the Ms. International contest. In response to the increased size displayed by Murray and Francis at the previous Ms. Olympia, the IFBB made an attempt to "feminize" the sport. The IFBB, led by Ben Weider, had created a series of "femininity" rules; one line in the judging rules said that competitors should not be "too big". The judges’ guide to the competitors stated that they were looking for a feminine, but not emaciated physique. The contest winner was Germany's Anja Schreiner, a blue-eyed blonde with a symmetrical physique, but who weighed only 130 pounds at 5'7". The announcement of her victory met with so much booing that Arnold Schwarzenegger had to step on stage to address the audience, saying "the hell with the judges". Many observers felt that the IFBB had instructed the judges to select the most marketable contestant, not the best physique.

The 1992 Ms. International is also famous for an incident involving British competitor Paula Bircumshaw. Bircumshaw was the same height as Schreiner and possessed a similar level of symmetry and definition, but carried significantly more muscle, weighing in at 162 pounds. She was the clear audience favorite, but was relegated to eighth place. Normally, the top ten contestants are called out at the end of the show when the winners are announced, but the judges only called back the top six, hoping to keep Bircumshaw back stage. This resulted in an uproar from the crowd. With the audience chanting her name, Bircumshaw returned to the stage along with the top six competitors.

Advertising in Muscle & Fitness for the 1992 Ms. Olympia featured Schreiner prominently, relegating two-time defending champion Murray to a small "also competing" notice. Nevertheless, Murray apparently met the "femininity" requirements, and managed to retain her title; Schreiner finished sixth, and promptly retired from competition.

Lenda's reign continues[edit]

Following the 1992 debacles, the judging rules were rewritten. The new rules retained provisions for aesthetics, but allowed the contests to be judged as physique contests. Lenda Murray continued to dominate the sport through 1995, matching Cory Everson's record of six consecutive Ms. Olympia titles. Murray's closest rival was probably Laura Creavalle, who won the Ms. International title three times, and twice was runner-up to Murray at the Olympia. During this time, some additional professional shows were held, in addition to the three mainstays. The 1994 schedule included the Canada Pro Cup, won by Laura Binetti, and the first of three annual Grand Prix events in Prague, won by Drorit Kernes. 1996 saw an additional Grand Prix in Slovakia. Besides providing the competitors with extra opportunities to win prize money, these contests also served as additional Ms. Olympia qualifiers.

A new Ms. Olympia[edit]

1996 was notable for another reason - after six consecutive victories, Lenda Murray was dethroned as Ms. Olympia by Kim Chizevsky. Chizevsky had been the runner-up in 1995 and had two Ms. International titles (1993 and 1996) to her credit, but her victory came as something of a surprise, since many had regarded Murray as virtually unbeatable. After an unsuccessful attempt to wrest the title from Chizevsky in 1997, Murray retired from competition. Chizevsky successfully defended her title again at the 1998 Ms. Olympia. The 1998 contest was held in Prague, the first time the competition had been held outside the United States.

1999 Ms. Olympia controversy[edit]

The 1999 Ms. Olympia was originally scheduled to be held on 9 October in Santa Monica, California. However, one month before the scheduled date, the IFBB announced that the contest had been cancelled.[4] The main cause was the withdrawal of promoter Jarka Kastnerova (who promoted the 1998 contest in Prague) for financial reasons, including a low number of advance ticket sales for the 1999 event.[5] The backlash following the announcement led to a flurry of activity, with the contest being rescheduled as part of the Women's Extravaganza (promoted by Kenny Kassel and Bob Bonham) in Secaucus, New Jersey on 2 October. Last minute sponsorship came from several sources, most significantly in the form of $50,000 from Flex magazine. Amid all the turmoil, Kim Chizevsky won her fourth consecutive title.

Changes in 2000[edit]

The IFBB introduced several changes to Ms. Olympia in 2000. The first change was that Ms. Olympia contest would no longer be held as a separate contest, instead became part of the "Olympia Weekend" in Las Vegas and held the day before the men’s show. The second change was when heavyweight and lightweight classes where added. The third change was the new judging guidelines for presentations were introduced. A letter to the competitors from Jim Manion (chairman of the Professional Judges Committee) stated that women would be judged on healthy appearance, face, makeup, and skin tone. The criteria given in Manion's letter included the statement "symmetry, presentation, separations, and muscularity BUT NOT TO THE EXTREME!"[6] The 2000 Ms. Olympia is the only Ms. Olympia with no overall winner, with Andrulla Blanchette winning lightweight class and Valentina Chepiga winning heavyweight class.

Of the three pro contests held in 2000, only the Ms. International named an overall winner - Vickie Gates, who had won the contest in 1999. The Jan Tana Classic and the Ms. Olympia simply had weight class winners. With Kim Chizevsky retiring from bodybuilding to pursue fitness competition, the Ms. Olympia title was shared by class winners Andrulla Blanchette and Valentina Chepiga.

Two legends return[edit]

The 2001 pro schedule opened routinely enough, with Vickie Gates winning the Ms. International title for the third consecutive year. However, the Ms. Olympia featured a "surprise" winner, as Juliette Bergmann returned to competition at age 42. Bergmann, the 1986 Pro World champion, had not competed since 1989. Entering the Olympia as a lightweight, she defeated heavyweight winner Iris Kyle for the overall title. In the five years that the Ms. Olympia was contested in multiple weight classes, this was the only time that the lightweight winner took the overall title.

In 2002, six-time Olympia winner Lenda Murray returned after a five-year absence. Bergmann (lightweight) and Murray (heavyweight) won the two weight classes in both 2002 and 2003. Murray won the overall title both years, setting a new standard of eight Ms. Olympia titles. Another noteworthy event in 2003 was the thirteenth and final Jan Tana Classic, won by newcomer Helle Nielsen from Denmark.

Two titles for Iris Kyle[edit]

Murray was unseated as Ms. Olympia for the second time in 2004. Iris Kyle, a top pro competitor since 1999, defeated Murray in a close battle in the heavyweight class, and bested lightweight winner Dayana Cadeau for the overall title. Kyle became only the second woman to win both the Ms. International and Ms. Olympia titles in the same year, matching Kim Chizevsky's feat of 1996.

2005 rule changes[edit]

In a memo dated December 6, 2004, IFBB Chairman Jim Manion introduced the so-called '20 percent rule', requesting "that female athletes in Bodybuilding, Fitness and Figure decrease the amount of muscularity by a factor of 20%". The memo stated that the request "applies to those female athletes whose physiques require the decrease".[7] A further change was introduced in a memo from Manion dated April 26, 2005, which announced that starting with the 2005 Ms. Olympia, the IFBB was abolishing the weight class system adopted in 2000.[8]

The 2005 contest season saw another double winner, as Yaxeni Oriquen won her third Ms. International title, then edged out defending champion Iris Kyle to win the Ms. Olympia. Also notable in 2005 was the return of Jitka Harazimova, who had last competed in 1999. Harazimova won the Charlotte Pro contest in her return to competition, qualifying her for the Ms. Olympia where she finished fourth.

Iris Kyle's reign[edit]

Dayana Cadeau at the 2007 Ms. Olympia

In 2006, Iris Kyle won both the Ms. International and the Ms. Olympia, repeating her accomplishment of 2004. Kyle won the Ms. International and Ms. Olympia for a third time in 2007, tying the Ms. International record for most wins shared by Laura Creavalle, Vickie Gates, and Yaxeni Oriquen. 2007 also saw the revival of the Jan Tana Classic, which featured two weight classes for the female competitors (and also included a figure contest). The class titles were won by Stephanie Kessler (heavyweight) and Sarah Dunlap (lightweight), with Dunlap named the overall winner.

There was a bit of a controversy in the 2008 Ms. International. Iris was placed 7th due to "bumps" on her gluts which according to head IFBB judge, Sandy Ranalli, “distortions in her physique.”[9] Yaxeni Oriqen went on to win the 2008 Ms. Olympia. Iris Kyle made up for this by winning the 2008 Ms. Olympia. She continued her success by winning both the Ms International and the Ms. Olympia in 2009, 2010, and 2011. She is currently titleholder of Ms. Olympia and has won seven Ms. Olympia and six Ms. International competitions. In 2012, Kyle, suffered an injury to her leg and thus couldn't attend the 2012 Ms. International.[10] Yaxeni Oriquen won the 2012 Ms. International. Iris Kyle went on to win the 2012 Ms. Olympia, thus becoming the most successful bodybuilder ever, with nine Ms. Olympia wins.(8 overall and 1 heavyweight) She went on to retake the 2013 Ms. International after not being able to attend the 2012 Ms. International due to leg injury.

IFBB Hall of Fame[edit]

The IFBB established a Hall of Fame in 1999. The following women have been inducted:[11]

Competitions[edit]

International Federation of BodyBuilding (IFBB) Competitions[edit]

Qualifications for IFBB Pro Status[edit]

In order to become an "IFBB Pro" you must first earn your IFBB Pro Card. In order to win a bodybuilder looking to do this must first win a regional contest weight class. When a bodybuilder wins or places highly they earn an invite to compete at their country's National Championships contest for that year. The winners of each weight class at the National Championships will then go head to head in a separate contest to see who is the overall Champion for the year. Depending on the federation, the overall Champion will be offered a pro card. Some federations offer Pro Cards to winners of individual weight class champions. This can mean that each year more than one bodybuilder may earn a Pro Card.

In the United States, the NPC (National Physique Committee) is affiliated with the IFBB and awards IFBB Pro Cards. The following competitions award IFBB Pro Cards:

Ms. Olympia[edit]
Qualification for Ms. Olympia[edit]

The IFBB holds six professional female bodybuilder competitions a year. In order to qualify for the Olympia, the IFBB Pro Olympia Qualification Series, set up an award point system for competitors placing in the top 2 to 5 of all Pro League events. At the end of the Olympia qualifying season, the five competitors with the highest points totals in the IFBB Pro Olympia Qualification Series will qualify to compete at Olympia Weekend. In the event of a tie, the competitor with the best top five contest placings will be awarded the qualification. No points will be awarded for first place, since the winner qualifies automatically. Also competitors placing in the top 5 at the Olympia automatically qualify for the following year.[12]

Points and qualifications in the IFBB Pro Olympia Qualification Series will be awarded as follows:

Tier 1 – Ms. International

Tier 4 – All other IFBB Pro League Competitions

National Physique Committee (NPC) Competitions[edit]

Qualifications for national level competitions[edit]

In order to qualify for national level competitions a competitor must place in one of the following:

Qualifications for Junior USA, Teen and Masters Nationals

To qualify for Junior USA, Teen or Masters Nationals a competitor must place in one of the following:

Qualifications for USA and Junior Nationals

In order to qualify for USA and Junior Nationals a competitor must place in one of the following:

Qualifications for Nationals and North American Championships

In order to qualify for Nationals or North American Championships a competitor must place in one of the following:

National Amateur Bodybuilders Association (NABBA) Competitions[edit]

Fitness and figure competition[edit]

There are two other categories of competition that are closely related to bodybuilding, and are frequently held as part of the same event. Fitness competition has a swimsuit round, and a round that is judged on the performance of a routine including aerobics, dance, or gymnastics. Figure competition is a newer format, judged solely on symmetry and muscle tone, with much less emphasis on muscle size than in bodybuilding.

Sexism and Discrimination[edit]

Since the sport of female bodybuilding was organized, gender discrimination has been an issue. People recognize that part of the feminine identity is sculpting their physical appearances and they usually associate the common feminine identity with slenderness and a trim figure.[14] In Studies in Popular Culture A.J. Randall and colleagues describes this as the result of the patriarchal society which emphasizes that femininity is created by altering the body for society's gendered expectations [15] When women venture away from the gender expectations, society's view of their femininity begins to slip. Female bodybuilders experience this criticism of their body, as they build bodies which are commonly associated with the masculine identity.[16] Despite this there is a very dedicated female bodybuilding fan base.

The International Federation of Bodybuilding & Fitness has made several rules changes on the sport of female bodybuilding that relate to expected feminine identity. In 1992, the IFBB, attempted to "feminize" the sport by making the judges deduct points from competitors who were “too big,” meaning too muscular.[17] The IFBB then made a rule change in 2000 that emphasized a need for the women to decrease muscularity once again.[18] Before Ms. International in 2005 the IFBB created another rule that required the women competing to decrease their own muscle mass by 20 percent to compete.[18] Yet the men's bodybuilding rules have not changed in the same time period. In Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise Chris Shilling and Tanya Bunsell state that all of these rule changes reflect the IFBB’s attempts to make women more closely fit gender expectations, as they all emphasize the need for the female bodybuilders to become less massive.[19] Bunsell and Shilling further state that male bodybuilding hasn’t changed because their bodies are seen as masculine in identity, while female bodybuilding rules inhibit females from reaching the same muscularity.

Female bodybuilders are rewarded far less prize money for their competitions than their male counterparts. For example the 2012 Mr. Olympia winner will receive $250,000 in prize money while Ms. Olympia winner will only win $28,000 in prize money.[20] This leads many female bodybuilders to find alternative access to money, including secessions and pornography.[citation needed]

Government bans[edit]

Performance-enhancing drugs[edit]

According to Dan Duchaine, author of the book Underground Steroid Handbook and worked with countless world-class female bodybuilders, and Greg Zulak, listed the following performance-enhancing drugs for female bodybuilders:

Side effects[edit]

All anabolic steroids have some amount of androgens that cause massive increase in muscle size and muscularity. Most common side effects experienced by women using androgen steroids are:

Studies on side effects[edit]

A 1985 interview of ten weight-trained women athletes who consistently used anabolic steroids were interviewed about their patterns of drug use and the perceived effects. Anabolic steroids were used in a cyclical manner, often with several drugs taken simultaneously. All participants believed that muscle size and strength were increased in association with anabolic steroid use. Most also noted a deepening of the voice, increased facial hair, increased aggressiveness, clitoral enlargement, and menstrual irregularities. The participants were willing to tolerate these side effects but thought that such changes might be unacceptable to many women.[27]

A 1989 study of competitive female bodybuilders from Kansas and Missouri found that 10% use steroids on a regular basis. The female bodybuilders reported that they had used an average of two different steroids including Deca Durabolin, Anavar, Testosterone, Dianabol, Equipoise, and Winstrol.[28]

A 1991 study of nine female weight-lifters using steroids and seven not using these agents has found that it appears that the self-administration of testosterone and anabolic steroids is increasingly practiced by women in sports where strength and endurance are important. Of the nine anabolic steroid users, seven took multiple anabolic steroids simultaneously. Thirty-fold elevations of serum testosterone were noted in the women injecting testosterone. In three of these women serum testosterone levels exceeded the upper limits for normal male testosterone concentrations. A significant compensatory decrease in sex hormone-binding globulin and a decrease in thyroid-binding proteins were noted in the women steroid users. Also, a 39% decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was noted in the steroid-using weight lifters. Most of the subjects in this study used anabolic steroids continuously, which raises concern about premature atherosclerosis and other disease processes developing in these women.[29]

A 1998 interview with a Canadian female bodybuilder nicknamed "Beach Ball" who talked about her time bodybuilding and her use of steroids. She had been a Canadian National Champion in the lightweight class, and she won some shows in the US. She qualified for the World championships by testing negative at the Nationals, but she tested positive for Winstrol on a surprise random test taken a few weeks before the Worlds. She first got into steroids when she meet her boyfriend who was a steroid dealer at her gym. Her pre-contest stack of steroids was oxandrolone, Primo tabs, clenbuterol, Winstrol V, Cytomel, Proviron, and Nolvadex. When she became a successful bodybuilder her boyfriend got her the best stuff he got from Europe, like the Italian oxandrolone, the German Primobolan, and the French bootleg Equipoise. When she first started using anabolics she was about 5 feet tall and weighed 114 lbs and after taking steroids she weighed 152 lbs. During her first cycle she gained eight pounds of muscle, even while dieting, and was doing 20 to 25 sets per body part at the time. The side effects she received while on steroids was deeper voice, mood changes, skin changes, anatomy growth, hair loss, clitoral growth, and heightened sex drive. She said "While on anabolics, I have an uncontrollable sex drive. Of course, that's almost universal. Female bodybuilders are the horniest females alive. If you're alone with one of them, you have a definite chance. Most get into group sex, too." In order to finance her bodybuilding career and steroids after leaving her steroid dealer boyfriend, she became a stripper. Other sources of money include doing wrestling, such as getting payed to arm wrestle a rabbi, and doing wrestling and porn movies. Outside her former steroid dealing boyfriend, her sources for steroids came from co-competitors, other female wrestlers, and schmoes. She said the benefits of steroids outweigh the side effects and said she "wouldn't trade it for anything."[30]

A 2000 survey found that one-third of the female bodybuilders reported past or current steroid use and almost half of those who were non-steroid users admitted use of performance-enhancing drugs such as ephedrine. The study investigators found that women who used steroids were more muscular than their non-steroid-using counterparts and were also more likely to use other performance-enhancing substances.[31] Despite its popularity among female bodybuilding, usage of steroids among female bodybuilders, unlike male bodybuilding, is a taboo subject and rarely admitted use among female bodybuilders. Although the IFBB officially bans the usage of performance-enhancing drugs, it does not test athletes rigorously.[32]

A 'Muscular Development' magazine article, by John Romano, where he talked about his girlfriend, a female bodybuilder who took steroids. After meeting her at gym, he would spent two and a half years with her. Six months after their first date, her girlfriend began her first steroid cycle. She started steroids because she wanted to win the Nationals and felt that steroids was the only way. He argued she didn't have the genetics to win the Nationals. His comments only encouraged her to gear up and stay oiled than on. Some of the side effects he noticed in his girlfriend include dry skin, deeper voice, rampant hair growth, aggression, stomach distention, nose growth, jaw widen, strengthen body oder, virginal discharge, lose of period, clitoral enlargement, and heightened sex drive. He said about the sex that "If that's the kind of girl that lights your wick, remember to keep the bedroom windows shut. Getting ridden into oblivion while she boisterously extols her pleasure in a voice that sounds like Ed down at the gas station, will have your neighbors think you're having sex with another man. For months after she moved in, until he finally met her, my downstairs neighbor thought I was gay. Then he thought I was weird." He went on to say his wife, Shelley Beattie, never used drugs in her pro career. Although she did use steroids to win the USA she went on, drug free, to win 3rd place at the Ms. Olympia. An IFBB official that if she expected to do better she needed to take "something." The following year she didn't take the IFBB officials advice and placed 7th at Ms. Olympia. She never competed again afterwords. He also talked about how professional female competitors earned a living from guest posing, seminars, endorsement contract, or other regular jobs, personal training, stripping, prostitution, phone sex, and catering to the whims of the schmoes.[33]

A 2009 survey of both men and women found that while men overall use anabolic–androgenic steroids, more women than men who use anabolic–androgenic steroids where competitive bodybuilders or weightlifters, with only 33.3% describing themselves as "recreational lifters" with no interest in competition. The survey found that 75% of experienced clitoral enlargement, half had irregular periods and showed changes in their voices. Despite this 90% said they would continue to use steroids.[34]

Breast augmentation[edit]

Increased lean body mass and decreased body fat lead to breast tissue reduction in female athletes[35] whereas the current trend regarding the judges' search for feminine physique at competitions makes compensative breast augmentation with breast implants an increasingly popular procedure among female bodybuilders.[36]

Cultural references[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Strength and Health magazine, August, 1972, page 43 by Ralph Pepino
  2. ^ Muscle Builder, Vol 14, Num 2, Page 24, May 1973 by Ben Weider
  3. ^ a b "IFBBrulebook". ifbb.com. Retrieved February 11, 2013. 
  4. ^ http://www.billdobbins.com/PUBLIC/art/freecoolart/Olyfax02.jpg
  5. ^ http://www.billdobbins.com/PUBLIC/art/freecoolart/Olyfax01.jpg
  6. ^ http://www.billdobbins.com/PUBLIC/art/miscart/criteria.jpg
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  8. ^ [2][dead link]
  9. ^ "Iris Kyle Discusses Ms International Results with Pro Bodybuilding Weekly". MESO-Rx. 
  10. ^ "Muscle Gossip #49- Iris Kyle Injured". RX Muscle. 2012. Retrieved 2012. 
  11. ^ "IFBB Pro Hall of Fame". Ifbbpro.com. Retrieved 2012-10-03. 
  12. ^ "Olympia Qualification Series Announced!". NPC News Online. Retrieved 2012-10-03. 
  13. ^ "NPC News Online". NPC News Online. Retrieved 2012-10-03. 
  14. ^ Forbes, Gordan B., Rade Brooke, and Adams-Curtis Leah. "Body Dissatisfaction in Women and Men: The Role of Gender-Typing and Self-Esteem." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 44.7 (2001): 461-84. Print.
  15. ^ Randall A., Hall S.,& Rogers, M. "Masculinity on stage: Competitive male bodybuilders." Studies in Popular Culture 14 (1992): 57-69.
  16. ^ Jennifer, Wesely. "Negotiating Gender, Bodybuilding, and the Natural/Unnatural Continuum." Sociology of Sport Journal 18.2 (2001): 162-80. Print.
  17. ^ Jennifer, Hargreaves. Sporting Females: Critical Issues in the History and Sociology of Women's Sports. London: Routledge, 1994. Print
  18. ^ a b Racanelli, Tony. "The Evolution: From Women's Bodybuilding to Women's Physique", RX Muscle, 3 February 2012. http://rxmuscle.com/rx-girl-articles/female-bodybuilding/4958-the-evolution-from-women-s-bodybuilding-to-women-s-physique.html
  19. ^ Shilling, Chris, and Tanya Bunsell. "The Female Bodybuilder as a Gender Outlaw." Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise 1.2 (2009): 141-59. Print
  20. ^ "2012 Olympia prize money reaches $900,000!". Getbig.com. 2012-07-16. Retrieved 2012-10-03. 
  21. ^ Name *. "Afghan Women's Strength on Display in Gyms". Washington Times. Retrieved 2012-11-12. 
  22. ^ Cheryl Poo. "Brawn of a new day". http://allmalaysia.info. Retrieved 2012-11-12. 
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Further reading[edit]

  • "Rewind: review of February issues from five, 10 and 15 years ago", Flex, February 2003
  • Levin, Dan, "Here She Is, Miss, Well, What?", Sports Illustrated, March 17, 1980
  • Merritt, Greg, "15 Biggest Controversies and Shocking Moments in Bodybuilding History", Flex, February 2006
  • Roark, Joe, "Featuring 2005 Hall of Fame Inductee: Stacey Bentley", Flex, August 2005
  • Todd, Jan, "Bodybuilding", St. James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture, Gale Group, 1999
  • Women's Physique Publication, published from December 1976 through 1991 (also appeared under the names WASP and WSP)
  • Women's Physique World, published two to six times per year since 1984

External links[edit]