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The federal districts (Russian: федера́льные округа́, federalnyye okruga) are president's groupings of federal subjects of Russia for the convenience of operation and governing by a Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. The institution of Plenipotentiary Representatives and federal districts was created in 2000 by presidential decree "in order to ensure implementation of the President of the Russian Federation of its constitutional powers". Plenipotentiary Representatives are appointed by the President and are employees of the Presidential Administration.
Federal districts are not created by the Russian constitution or any law and are not the constituent units of Russia. Each district includes several federal subjects and each federal district has a presidential envoy (whose official title is Plenipotentiary Representative).
|Name of district||Area|
(2010 Russian Census)
|Central Federal District||652,800||38,438,600||18||Moscow|
|Southern Federal District||418,500||13,856,700||6||Rostov-on-Don|
|Northwestern Federal District||1,677,900||13,583,800||11||Saint Petersburg|
|Far Eastern Federal District||6,215,900||6,291,900||9||Khabarovsk|
|Siberian Federal District||5,114,800||19,254,300||12||Novosibirsk|
|Ural Federal District||1,788,900||12,082,700||6||Yekaterinburg|
|Volga Federal District||1,038,000||29,900,400||14||Nizhny Novgorod|
|North Caucasian Federal District||170,700||9,496,800||7||Pyatigorsk|
On January 19, 2010 the new North Caucasian Federal District split from the Southern Federal District.
In June 2011, the President of Russia, Dmitry Medvedev, mentioned that a plan exists to create the Capital Federal District which would include the territories of the federal city of Moscow and of Moscow Oblast.
The Plenipotentiary Representatives and their staff ascertain the extent of a subjects' violation of federal laws and norms.
The federal districts coincide closely with the Interior Ministry forces' military regions and with the Defense Ministry regions.